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INDEX  TO  VOLUME  11 

OF   THE 

JOUBNAL 

OF  THE 

COUNTY  KILDAKE  AUCHJiOLOGlGAL  SOCIETY. 


4 

I 


i 


S 


V 
I 

k 


JOURNAL 


CO.  KILDARE  ARCHilOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


SUBBOUNDING  DISTBICTS. 


JOUENAL 


CO.  KILDARE  ARCHilOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


AN1> 


SURROUNDING  DISTRICTS. 


The  Council  of  the  County  Kildabe  Arghaolooical 
Society  do  not  liuld  themselves  answerable  for  statements 
put  forward  in  this  Journal  ;  the  responsibility  rests  entirely 
with  the  writers  of  the  papers. 


THE  NEW  TORt 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


{^FrontUpieee  . 


]M  KMOT    U.    W.    BOURRE,    SEVENTH    EaRL   OF   MaYO, 

.._  ,  ;,i^..«.  ,.♦  *\.i^  n«n«tir  Kildaro  ArchaoloL'ical  Society. 


JOUEN  AL 


CO.  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


SURROUNDING    DISTRICTS. 


VOL.   II. 
1896-1899. 


DUBLIN  : 

EDWARD   PONSONBY,   116   GRAFTON    STREET. 

1899. 


y  p]  b  ^'  t  '.V  ^  '■'•['^\ 

M  WO  I  L 


OUBLIir: 

PBIHTID   BT  C.  W.   OIBBd  AVD  80If, 

WIOKLOW   STBXn. 


*    *»t 


CONTENTS. 


VOLUME  II.  1896-1899  (Jaxoabt  Numbbe). 


Pbocxbdinos,  and  Bepobts  or  Counciu 68,  219,  331 

List  of  Honobart  Officbbs  and  MBmiBRs,  and  Bulbs,     .                 75,  227,  341 
Excursion  Mrbtimgs: — 

1895.  Great  Connell  and  Kildare 71 

1896.  Celbridge,  Leizlip,  and  Castletown, 223 

1897.  Killeen  Cormac,  Timolin,  Moone,  and  Orange  Con,  .  336 
The  Hon.  Trrasurrr's  Account: — 

Up  to  31st  December,  1895, 74 

1896, 226 

1897, 340 

Bbtxbw  or  Books: — 

"  Pagan  Ireland,"  by  Col.  W.  O.  Wood-Martin 66 

•*  The  High  Crosses  of  Ireland,*'  by  Miss  Stokes 454 

Obitqabt  !— 

The  Most  Bev.  Michael  Comerford,  d.d.,  Coadjutor  Bishop  of 

Kildare  and  Leighlin,  Vice-President, 1 

The  Bev.  Denis  Morphy,  s.j.,  Vice-President,        ....  81 

BbPORT  or  TBB  COKMITTBE  APPOINTBO  TO  00N8IDBR  THB  rUTUBB  PRINTING 

or  TBB  Journal, 838 

Pafbbs:^ 

Kilkea  Castle.    By  Lord  Walter  FitzOerald 3 

Notes  on  the  Family  of  Sherlock.    By  the  Bev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench,  .  33 

The  Pale.    By  the  Bev.  Denis  Murphy,  b.j.,          ....  48 
Notes  on  the  Southern  Boundary  of  the  Ancient  Kingdom  of 

Meath,  where  it  passed  through  North  Kildare.    By  the  Bev. 

E.  0*LefU7,  p.p., 59 

Carbury  and  the  Berminghams*  Country.  By  the  Bev.  M.  Devitt,  h.j.,  85 

Bathmore.    By  the  Earl  of  Mayo 112 

Incidents  ia  the  Life  of  Garrett  More,  8th  Earl  of  Kildare.     By 

Lord  Walter  FitzOerald, 117 


Vlll  CONTENTS. 

Papbbs — continued  :  pj^^^^ 

John  Lye  of  Glonaugh  (Part  i.).    By  the  Rev.  E.  O'Leary,  p.p.,  133 

(Partn.).         „            „            „                   .  354 

Irish  Place  Names  and  Looal  Folk-lore.    By  M.  Darby,  m.d.,        .  151 

St.  Laurence  OToole.     By  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  8.j.,       .        .  159 

Castle  Bheban.     By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,        ....  167 
Early  Land-holders  in   Kill,  Co.  Kildare.     By  the  Rev.  Canon 

Sherlock, 179 

The  Moat  of  Ardscull.     By  *»  Omurethi," 186 

Celbridge:  some  Notes  on  its  past  History.    By  the  Rev  Charles  L 

Graham,  b.d., 198 

St.  Brigid  and  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Kildare.     By  the  Dean  of 

Kildare, 235 

The  High  Sheriffs  of  the  Co.  Kildare.    By  J.  R.  Garstin,  m.b.la..  .  253 

Donacomper  Church.    By  W.  T.  Kirkpatrick 277 

St.  Wolstan's  Abbey.     By  W.  T.  Kirkpatrick 283 

Kildare:  its  History  and  Antiquities.  By  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,   289 

Great  Council  Abbey.     By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,       ...  304 

Ancient  Naas :  Outposts  and  Longstones.     By  T.  .J.  De  Burgh,    .  315 

An  Account  of  the  Arrest  of  Lord  Edward  FitzGerald.   .  349 

Castletown  and  its  Owners.     By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,      .  361 

Leixlip  Castle.     By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,         ....  393 

The  O'Connor-Henchy  Family.     By  V.  Hussey- Walsh,  407 

Timolin.    By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald, 413 

Notes  on  a  Book  of  Hours  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary.     By  the 

Hon.  Mrs.  Swinton, 426 

Old  Kilcullen.     By  Miss  Margaret  Stokes, 431 

MlBCBLLANEA  AKD   NOTKB  :— 

The  Baltinglass  Title 64 

St,  Dermott  of  Castledermot, 65 

The  Hills  Eire  and  Alba, 155 

Lord  Edward  FitzGerald's  Bag-pipes 155 

The  Churchyard  of  Donoughmore  (Grange  William),     ...  156 

The  Knight's  Effigy  in  the  Abbey  of  Clane 157 

Monecronock  near  Sherlockstown, 157 

Pagan  Sepulchral  Monuments,  Moats, 157 

Killelan  Church  and  Inch  Castle, 158 

Pipers'  Stones, 158 

Sunday's  WeUs 158                    . 

The  Lost  Ogham  Stone  at  Killeen  Cormac, 206                    U 

Trades  Tokens  of  the  County  Kildare 208 

Cawlcannon 214 

The  Ancient  Bridges  at  Kilcullen  and  St.  Wolstan's,      ...  214 

Calverstown, 214 

The  Tipper  Monumental  Cross 215 

Pictures  of  the  Salmonleap  and  Leixlip  Castle,      .  '     .        .  216 


CONTENTS.  ix 

BfiBCELLAMBA  AND  NoTEs — cotUimied :  P^OX. 

The  FitzGeralds  and  MacKenzies, 268 

Sir  Thomas  Eustace,  let  Viscount  Baltinglass,       ....  268 

The  Celtic  Brooch  of  Castledermot, 269 

Iron  Implements  dug  up  at  Athy, 270 

The  Lattin  Alms-house  Stones  at  Naas, 270 

The  Deer-park  of  Maynooth  Castle, 270 

Tea-lane,  Celbridge, 272 

ArehsBological  Jottings, 272 

St.  Mo-chua  of  Celbridge, 324 

Knockpatrick,  near  Castledermot, 324 

The  two  Cloncurrys  in  the  County  Kildare, 325 

Gilltown, 325 

Kilshanroe, 325 

The  Burial  Urn  and  Bronze  Skillet  at  Kilkea  Castle      ...  327 

Notes  on  an  Archiepiscopal  Cross,  and  on  a  Beliquary,                  .  829 

A  Sheelah-na-gig, 330 

The  Skeleton  Tomb  in  the  Franciscan  Abbey  at  Castledermot,      .  379 

Portraits  of  Lord  and  Lady  Bdward  FitzGerald,    ....  382 

The  Race  of  the  Black  Pig,  a  Curragh  road, 383 

The  Hovenden  Coat-of-Arms  Stone  in  the  Rosetown  Churchyard, .  385 

Taylor's  Map  of  the  County  Kildare,  1783, 386 

The  Building  of  Jigginstown,  the  Wells  of  Tipper,  and  the  Bells  of 

Blessington, 387 

Ndtes  on  a  Hornbook, 388 

Poul-gyleen, 389 

Athgoe  Castle  Mural  Tablet, 390 

The  Conflict  between  the  English  and  Irish  Peers  as  to  supreme 

jurisdiction, 447 

The  O'Kelly  Slab  in  the  Cadamstown  Churchyard,         ...  448 

On  a  Stained-glass  Window  in  Fumess  House 452 

Camalway  and  its  objects  of  antiquarian  interest,                  .  453 

QVKBIES  AND   ANSWERS  TO  QUERIES  : — 

As  to  the  meaning  of  "  Bochfalyaght,"  "  Fealyghe,*'  **  Herbidas," 

and  '*  Meirgeach,*" 65 

Sunday's  Well  and  Piper's  Stones, 158 

The  Bace  of  the  Black  Pig  on  the  Curragh,     ....       158,  383 

Cawlcahnon,    .    ' 214, 272 

The  Leap  of  Allen 216,  273 

O'Connor's  Map  of  Ireland 218 

Journal  of  the  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  Ireland  ;  and  Church  Plate  218 

Tee-lane  or  Tea- lane? 272 

St.  Boyiana  of  Gilltown,  .        .        .   '     .  '     .  .        .325 

Kilshanchoe;  or  Kilshanroe  ? 325 

COBRIOSNPA  AND  InDEX, ....  457 

•    •    •    ^ 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


PAGX. 


Portrait  of  the  Earl  of  Mayo,  President  (from  a  block  lent  by  the  Editor 

of  The  Irish  Tourist) {Frontispiece). 

Portrait  of  the  Most  Bev.  Michael  Comerford,  d.d.,  Coadjutor  Bishop 

of  Eildare  and  Leighlin,  Vice-President, 1 

Kllkea  Castle,  from  an  oil-painting  by  Ashford,  1784 3 

n              „      Drawing  by  Austin  Cooper,  1782,     ....  8 

„          Coat-of-Arms  Stones  in  the  chimney-piece  at,     .        .       .  18 
„          Drawings  of,  before  and  after  the  Restoration  in  1849,          16, 17 

„          From  an  unfinished  water-colour  drawing,  circa  1830,        .  24 

The  Evil  Eye  Stone  at, 26 

„          The  Main  Entrance  of, 27 

„  Sketch  of  the  Monkey  carved  on  the  chimney  of  the 

Haunted  Wing, 28 

„          From  the  Bawn, 30 

„          Ground-plan  of, 31 

„          Demesne,  Map  of, 32 

Butlerstown  Castle,  Co.  Wexford, 33 

Scurlogstown  Castle,  Co.  Meath, 34 

Sherlock  Coats-of-Arms, 47 

Portion  of  the  Pale  between  Clane  and  Clongowes  Wood  College,     .        .  52 

Map  of  the  ancient  southern  boundary  of  the  County  Meath  in  Kildare,  .  69 

Portrait  of  the  Bev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  Vice-President,  ....  81 

Trinity  Well,  the  source  of  the  Boyne, 85 

Castle  Carbury  (three  plates), 84,  86,  87 

The  Boyne  as  it  emerges  from  Trinity  Well, 88 

Castle  Carbury  and  the  Mortuary  Chapel  of  the  CoUey  Family,  .  Ill 
The  Moat  at  Bathmore,  drawn  by  the  Hon.  Gerald  Ponsonby,  .112 
The  8th  Earl  of  Eildare's  Coat-of-Arms  on  his  tomb — formerly  at  Christ 

Church  Cathedral, 116 

A  Groat  of  Edward  IV,  bearing  on  the  obverse  the  FitzGterald  Coat-of-Arms,  118 

The  15th-century  Chapter-house  Door  of  St.  Patrick's  Cathedral,  Dublin,  122 

Pavement  Tile  from  Bective  Abbey,  bearing  the  FitzGerald  Coat-of-Arms,  124 
Drawings  of  the  8th  Earl  of  Eiidare's  Tomb— formerly  in  Christ  Church 

Cathedral,  Dublin 130, 131 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Clonaugh,  County  Kildare, 133 

John  Lye's  Coat-of-Arms  on  a  Stone— formerly  in  Clonaugh  Castle  .  136 
Site  of  the  Sculptured  Stones  from  Clonaugh  Castle,  in  Johnstown-bridge 

ViUage ,...,...  137 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS.  XI 

PAOI. 

A  Wayside  Cross  at  the  village  of  Johnstown-bridge,                .               .  188 
The  Earl  of  Kildace*s  Coat-of-Ainns  on  a  Stone  from  Cionaagh  Castle, 

at  Johnstown-bridge 189 

John  Lye's  Tomb  Slab  at  Kildare  Cathedral 144 

Sir  Henry  Sidney's  Goat-of-Arms  on  a  Stone  from  Clonaugh  Castle,  at 

Johnstown-bridge, 148 

A  Tracing  of  Sir  Henry  Sidney's  Coat-of-Arms, 149 

Castle  Rheban,  interior  view  of, 167 

„            exterior  view  of , 178 

„            from  an  old  Engraving, 169 

„            An  iron  fack  dag  np  at, 176 

Inscription  on  a  16th-centary  Slab  in  the  charoh  rains  of  Charchtown 

(Rheban), 177 

Sketch  of  the  rained  castle  at  Onghterard, 179 

The  Moat  of  Ardscall  from  an  old  engraving,  ......  189 

„               „       Plan  of  the  interior  of, 190 

„  „       Map  of  the  .surroanding  country  at,       .        .        .197 

Ogham  Inscription  at  Killeen  Cormac, 207 

Trade  Tokens  of  the  Goanty  KUdare, 210,218 

The  Tipper  Churchyard  Gross, 216 

St  Brigid's  Cathedral  at  Kildare,  from  a  water-coloar  by  O'Neill,    .        .  284 
„         from  a  drawing  by  Petrie,            .  285 
„         from  the  north-east  (after  its  restora- 
tion),        289 

„         from  the  north-west  (after  its  restora- 
tion)   240 

„         from  an  old.  water-colour  drawing,       .  244 
„         The  Fire-house  at,  from  a  drawing  by 

Austin  Cooper,       ....  245 

„         The  ancient  granite  Cross  at,      .       .  246 

„         Before  the  restoration,         .        .        .  252 

A  Celtic  Bronae  Brooch  found  near  Castledermot, 269 

Iron  Implements  dug  up  near  Athy, 271 

Donaghoomper  Church,  interior  of,  drawn  by  Miss  Margaret  Stokes,  276 

„                   »       plan  of 278 

Sketchesof  St.  Wolstan's  Abbey  in  1782,  by  Austia  Cooper,     ...  284 

View  of  the  New  Bridge  at  St.  Wolstan's, 288 

The  Ruins  of  the  Carmelite  Friary  at  Kildare  in  1790,  from  a  drawing 

by  Austin  Cooper, 298 

The  Ruins  of  the  Franciscan  Abbey  at  Kildare  in  1784,  from  a  drawing 

by  Austin  Cooper, 800 

Bishop  Wellesley's  Effigy  at  Great  Gonnell  Abbey,            ....  803 
The  Ruins  of  Great  Connell  Abbey  in  1781,  from  a  drawing  by  Austin 

Cooper, 304 

Portion  of  a  Bishop's  Effigy  in  the  Relioeen  Churchyard  near  Great 

Connell  Abbey, 306 

fi  cross-inncribed  Sli^b  in  ^he  Reliceen  Churchyard, 307 


Xn  LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS. 


fAGK. 


The  nnfinished  date  on  Bishop  Wellesley's  Tomb,  Great  Connell  Abbey, .  310 

A  Stone  bearing  Bishop  Weliesley's  Coat-of -Arms,    .        .        »       .        .  314 

Map  showing  the  Long  Stones,  Baths,  and  Castles  in  the  Naas  District,  .  316 

The  Sepulchral  Urn  and  ancient  Bronze  Skillet  at  Kilkea  Castle,    .        .  326 
An  Archie^scopal  Cross  and  an  ancient  Reliquary,  from  drawings  by 

Col.  Vigors, 328 

Lord  Edward  FitzGerald*s  Portrait,  from  a  water-colour  by  Hone,  .  348 

„  „  Signature 349 

Lady  Edward  JPitzOerald's  Signature, 353 

Castletown  House, 361 

The  Conoliy  Monument. in  the  Tea-lane  Churchyard,  Celbridge,  .  372 

A  Portrait  of  the  Bight  Hon.  Thomas  Conoliy,  p.c,  from  a  crayon  by 

Hamilton,        .       ..        .       .. 374 

"  The  Wonderful  Bam  '*.  near  Castletown, 376 

The  Obelisk  near  Carton, 377 

The  Skeleton  Tomb  in  the  Fcanciaoan  Abbey  at  Castledermot,  .  381 

A  Sculptnred  Stone  bearing  the  Hovenden  Coat-of-Arms,        .        .        .  385 

Leixlip  Castle  and  Church,  from  Fisher^s  *'  Views  of  Ireland,'*        .        .  392  ' 

„  from  the  front,. 393 

„  from  the  river,. 404 

Inscription  oa  the  Whyte  Monument  in  Leixlip  Church,  .        .  398 

The  Salmonleap 402 

The  Whyte  and  Moore  Arms  on  the  Whyte  Monument  in  Leixlip  Church,  406 

The  Kighow  (or  Kehoe)  Slab  in  the  Timolin  Churchyard,        .  .  423 

The  Archbold  Mural  Tablet  in  the  village  of  Timolin,     ....  424 
Old  EilcuUen. Church  and  Bound. Tower,  from  Grose's  "Antiquities  of 

Ireland," 430 

„  „        from  a  drawing  by  Petrie,  .  .431 

The  Sculptured  and  Unsculptured  Cross-shafts  at  Old  Kilcullen,     .        .  441 

The  Sculptured  Cross-shaft  at  Old  Kilcullen,  from  a  drawing  by  Petrie,  .  442 

Bubbinga  of  six  of  the  panels  on:  the  Old  Kilcullen  Cross-shaft,       .  444 
The  first  three  lines  of  inscription  on  the  O'Kelly  Slab,  in  the  Cadams- 

town  Churchyard, 448 

The  O'Kelly  Coat-of-Arms  on  a  Slab  in  the  Cadamstown  Churchyard,     .  450 
A  Stained-glass  Window  in  Fumess  House,  from  a  drawing  by  the  Hon. 

Gerald  Ponsonby,     . 452 


\  y\ 


}         ■  > 


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'^^p.  4-   v^ 


iSBKHT  1896. 


f 


VOLUKE  n.,  Ho.  1 


v^^- 


JOURNAL 


OF  THE 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHMOBICAL  SOCIETY. 


CONTENTS. 


ObltuazT. 


PACB 
1 


■^jM^ma  Castle.  By  Lord  Walter 
FitzGbjl4IJ>, S 

Notes  on  the  Family  of  Sherlock :  Chiefly 
gathered  from  the  State  Papen  and 
other  Official  Documents.  By  the  Rev. 
J .  P.  M.  FVRBitCH,  of  Clonegal,  m.r.iji.,      83 


Papre    coniinued :—  page 

The  Pale.    By  the  Rev.  Dknis  Mdrpht, 

S.J.,  M.R.I.A 48 

Notes  on  the  Southern  Boundary  of  the 
Ancient  Kingdom  of  Meath  where  it 
passed  through  North  Kildare.  (With 
Map.)    By  the  Rev.  E.  O'Lbary,  p.p.,  .      69 

Notes  and  Queriee 64 

Beviow 68 


♦♦♦♦♦««««♦««««««««««♦♦♦««••••«« 

E.  PONSONBY,  116,  GRAFTON  STREET. 

1896. 


aa.^^^     fmmm,^   fiti»aiii. 


•>»«■      filfw«mAM« 


THE  CODNCa  OF  THE  CODNTT  KUDARE  ARCHAOLOGICU'  SOCIETY. 


THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 
Wc«-Jf  resident: 

Thomas  Cooks  Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a. 

The  RfeV.  DEN»5-,M^RBtH¥,  S.J.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A. 

The  Rev.  Edward  .0'LEARY,iPiP. 
Thomas  J.  De  Burgh,  d.l. 

Jjitm.  Treaetrrer : 
Hans  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Esq.,   Kerdiffstown,  Naas. 

fjitxtt.  Sdcretariet: 
Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  m.r.i. a.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney. 
Arthur  Vicars,  Esq.,  f.s.a.,  Ulster,  Clyde-road,  Dublin. 

i^iro.  Editor : 

The   Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  ll.d..  University  College, 
St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin. 


THE  NEW  YORK 
PUBLIC  LIBRAKY 


ASTOn,  CBN«Z  AV9 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r^      '  ^^^^^^^T^^^^^^^^^^^^l 

^^■^ ' '                              ^4  ^H^^^E^    '^^^H ' 

Most  Rev.  Michael  Cumkkkoicd,  D.D 


JOURNAL 


OF  THR 


jBCrcJ^objinil  jSffnetg  d  %  Owtirtg  Kilbaw 


AND 


jSMrr0ii«irin0    X>hinth< 


OBITTTARY. 

ON  tlie  l^th  of  August  our  Society  lost  its  Vice-President 
by  the  death  of  tlie  Coadjutor-Bishop  of  Kildare  and 
Leighlin,  the  Most  llev.  Dr.  Comekford.  Beside  the 
higher  qualities  which  fitted  him  for  his  ecclesiastical  dignity, 
and  of  which  this  is  not  the  place  to  speak,  he  was  a  man  of 
refined  tastes  and  most  amiable  and  charitable  disposition.- 
While  still  a  young  curate  he  showed  his  devotion  to  literature 
by  translating  from  the  Latin  "  The  Three  Tabernacles  " — a 
devout  treatise  attributed  to  Thomas  k  Kempis — and  several 
other  works  of  devotion.  But  the  most  important  work,  and 
the  one  which  has  the  best  right  to  be  named  here,  was  his 
**  Collections  relating  to  the  Dioceses  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin." 
These  three  large  volumes,  the  last  of  which  was  published  ten 
years  ago  by  James  Duffy  &  Co.,  contain  the  results  of  most 
laborious  researches  cigrried  on  tlirough  many  years,  and  in  the 
midst  of  great  difficulties  and  distractions,  chiefiy  during  the 

TOL.  II.,  FT.  1.  B 


2       OBITUARY  OF  THE  LATE  MOST  REV.  DR.  COMERFORD. 

lime  that  lie  was  Parish  Priest  of  Monasterevan,  where  one  of 
his  curates  was  the  Bev.  Joseph  Farrell,  the  gifted  author  of 
"  Tlie  Lectures  of  a  Certain  Professor." 

The  Members  of  the  County  Kildare  Archceological  Society 
can  hear  witness  to  the  great  interest  which  he  took  in  its  work. 
He  was  one  of  its  founders;  he  contributed  several  vahiahle 
Papers  to  our  Journal,  and  he  attended  at  our  Meefiiigs  and 
Excursions  wlienever  the  duties  of  his  office  allowed  him, 
sliowing  on  every  occasion  the  greatest  readiness  to  impart 
to  others  the  benefit  of  his  extensive  and  accurate  knowledge 
of  the  antiquities  of  our  county. 

Dk.  Comerkord  also  has  been  taken  from  us  at  a  com- 
paratively early  age,  before  the  venerable  Prelate  whom  he 
had  been  appointed  to  relieve  of  some  of  tlie  burden  of  the 
episcopacy.  Uis  aoi^ewjbars^diteh  and  unexpected  death  took 
place  at  Braganaf^  Hfl^sep^CarrQw,     ' 


THE  NEW  YORIt 
PUBUC  LIBRARY 


I 

4 


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ll^r*Hii  a  ^keub  drawn  by  Au^iid  Cuuimt  in  i^flj*) 


f  I 


KILKE^i    CASTLE.' 

1^Y  LORD  WALTER   FIT2GERALD. 
[K^ttd  at  lUe  September  M<>'tiiijf  of  1801,  by  iho  Risir-  C,  Gam.y,  Uoc*rw  - 

a'^Hift  castle  la  situated  at  tLe  foot  of  the  ratli-capped  Hill  of 
.  ^^  Mul!achreelans  ou  tlio  Wtik  of  (lie  river  Greeae,  aud  five 
luilaafrom  At  by  in  tlie  Custledermot  directiou  ;  its  situation  is 
peuuliar  as  it  was  Wilt  just  botwecu  a  pigud  tuumlus  (or  burial 
tooat)  and  the  CbrisUau  Ijurial-gnniudj  tlie  farmer  being  a  few 
perches  away  to  the  noitb-west,  and  tliti  iiiUer  somewhat  closer 
oa  the  eouth-east  side  of  llie  eustle. 

The  ancient  di.strict  in  which  tbuctislleslaiuls  was,  iu  the  I'ith 
C€tilurj,  known  m  Omnrethi,  aud  belonged  to  iht*  0' Toole  sept, 
to  which  the  famous  Wt.  Ljiwrence  0'lunli.r  hehuiged  j  tliie  terri- 
tory has  already  been  desenhni  ou  p.  1  (>l,  voh  i,,of  tljis  JontVAi., 

'  lo  1  W?t>the  fourth  Dukt?  of  LHnster  hnd  jirisatfly  ininted  a  smull  work 
hf  liini  eallrd  **  llasidejiaes  uiid  Cu^ttka  of  the  Duke  i^f  l.nra.sttT^* ;  onu  st^t-tiuu 
vf  thiJs  inHik  is^  devoted  to  the  lii&tory  uf  Kilkini  Cnstlt-,  auii  has  bceti  re- 
|*n)dm^d  ht'tt'  in  a  much  fuller  form.' 

3  lib  d lentil  t^jok  idttoe  on  tht?  Hth  ot  No\i^nibi'i,  \\m,  nt  tlie  moniistt^ry 
Qf  K[t|  in  Ifommudy. 

B2 


v^ 


4  KILKEA   CASTLE. 

Kilkea  Ciintle  is  so  called  from  tlie  cliurcbyAr«l  lying  beside 
if,  and  from  it  the  liarony  takes  its  name.  In  old  histories  and 
«l(»oiiments  the  spelling  of  the  name  varies  greatly,  the  following 
being  the  most  usnal  forms  :— Kilca,  Kylka,  and  Kilkaa,  &c., 
all  of  which  are  a  corruption  of  the  Irish  name  "  Gill  Caoide," 
meaning  St.  (^aoide's  (or  Kay's)  Church. 

This  saint  is  venerated  on  the  12th  of  December;  he  has 
been  identified  by  the  late  Father  Shearman,'  formerly  parish 

1  driest  of  Moone,  with  a  St.  Mokatoo,  or  Kat^in,  who  is  said  to 
lave  been  buried  at  the  famous  *'  Oghamed  "  burial-ground  of 
Killeen-Cormuc,  near  Colbinstown,  in  this  county.  Though 
the  names  Kay  and  Mokatoo  or  Katan  appear  at  first  sight  to 
have  no  connection  with  one  another,  yet  the  tmnsformation  is 
easily  explained.  In  the  early  Christian  times  it  was  a  common 
practice  by  way  of  endearment  to  use  certain  prefixes  and  affixes 
to  a  saint's  name,  such  as  -awn  or  -an,  i.e.  little ;  -oge  or  -oo, 
i.e,  young;  Mo-,  t,f.  my.  Thus  "Kay"  became  "Katan"  or 
"  Katoc,"  and  so  to  Mokatoc.  Another  instance  of  this  kind 
of  transformation  in  a  saint's  name  is  that  of  St.  Mogue, 
also  known  as  St.  Aidan,  the  patron  saint  of  Co.  Wexford ; 
liis  original  name  was  Aedh  (pronounced  Ay),  this  became 
"endeared"  to  "Ai-dan,"  and  "Mo-ay-oge"  or  Mogue.  St. 
Kay  was  the  son  of  Matan,  son  of  Braccau,  son  of  Caelbuidh, 
who  was  for  fifteen  years  king  of  Ulster,  and  for  one  year, 
A.D.  (^7,  king  of  Ireland,  lie  was  one  of  the  seven  disciples 
whom  St.  PotYick  left  with  St.  Fiach  at  Sleaty,  which  is  situated 
on  the  Barrotv^  in  the  Queen's  County,  about  seven  miles  to  the 
south  of  Kilkea.  The  chief  scene  olf  St.  Kay's  nn'ssion  was  at 
Inishbeg  in  the  Wext'onl  llaven,  but  lie  wuh  in  all  probability 
the  founder  as  well  as  patron  of  the  original  churcii  of  Donadea, 
in  the  barony  oF  Ikeathy,  in  the  north  of  the  county  Kildare« 
the  old  foriji  of  the  name  of  which  was  "Domhnach  Caoide," 
also  nieaniirgSt.  Kay's  Church ;  his  death  took  place  so<m  after 
the  close  of  the  oih  century. 

After  the  Anglo-Noiman  invasion  of  Ireland  in  1169,  this 
southern  end  of  the  Co.  Kildare  was  granted  by  Strougbow 
10  Walter  de  Itidillesford,  Baron  of  Bray,  Co.  Wicklow,  as  is 
nieulioned  in  a  ccmtemporary  French  poem  on  the  Conquest  of 
Ireland,  wherein  it  is  stated  that — 

Twenty  liefs  in  Omurethy, 

The  noble  earl  (i.e.  Strongbow)  in  the  same  way 

Olive  to  the  warrior 

WalterdeRiddlesford.s 

»  lufie  ••  Loca  Piitriciana,"  p.  223,  and  tlie  **  Martyrology  of  Donegal." 
'  Vide  Orpeu  s  translation  of  an  old  French  poem  amon^  the  Carew  Mss. 


KILKEA  CASTLE.  5 

De  Uiddlesfdrd  and  his  followers  now  evicts  the  owners  of 
tlie  soil,  i.e.  the  sept  O'Toole,  who  retired  into  tiie  mountains  of 
Wioklow,  and  in  course  of  time  dispossessed  tlie  O'Teige  sept  of 
t)ieir  territory  in  and  round  the  Glen  of  Imiiile,  whicli  they 
appropriated  to  themselves. 

For  the  above-mentioned  Walter  de  Xlid^iesfonl  a  oastle  was 
built  at  Kilkea,  in  1180,  hy  Hugh  de  Laay,lheii  cliief  governor 
of  Ireland.  De  lliddlesford  dii^d  aliout  I24l«  leaving  two 
daughters,  Etnelina  and  Eia.  The  former  married  f«)r  ht^r 
fleoond  huslmnd  Stephen  de  Longespee,  and  ha<I  an  only 
flaughter  also  named  Emelina,  heiress  through  her  mother  nf 
the  Omurethi  district;  her  liusbaiid  was  Miiurie^  Fit^Qenild, 
third  Baron  of  Offaly,  and  thuH  the  manors  of  Kilkea  and 
Castledemiot  came  into,  and  still  remain,  the  posHesaion  of  the 
Geraldines.     Emelina,  Bai-onens  of  Offaly,  died  in  1291. 

Emelina  had  a  niece,  Christiana  de  Marisco,  like  herself  a 
grand-daughter  of  Walter  de  Uiddlesford,  who  had  miirrie<l 
Ebulo  de  Geneve  by  the  King's  command.  Tliis  Lady  Christiana 
]iad  inherited  lands  in  Kerry,  called  **  Surrys,"  which  she  soM 
to  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald,  Emelina's  husband,  for  1000  marks 
in  exchange  for  the  moiety  of  Tri^teIdermot,  Garneiiagh,  and 
Kilkea,  to  hold  to  her  for  life,  with  reversion  in  fee  to  Sir 
Maurice,  Emelina  his  wife,  and  their  heirs.  These  moieties, 
top;ether  with  her  possessions  in  the  vule  olf  Dublin,  in  the  Co. 
"\Yexford,  and  in  Connaught,  Lady  Christiana  granted  in  fee 
to  King  Edward  1.  and  Alienor,  the  Queen  Consort,  in  con- 
sideration of  nn  animity  to  be  granted  to  her  out  of  the  King's 
lands  in  England,  in  the  year  1280.  In  the  following  year  the 
.  Justiciary  of  Ireland,  Itobert  de  Ufford,  received  the  King's 
order  to  take  an  inquisition  relative  to  these  lands,  when,  as 
regards  the  moieties  of  the  manors  of  Kilkea,  Garnenagli,  and 
Tristelderniot,  th>d  jurors  said  that*  :  — 

There  are  in  dtfmeHne  .  .  .  and  pasture,  worth  £18  a-year ;  value  of 
<^eli  acre  12//.  .  .  .  Moor,  Worth  17«.  a-year.  The  herbage* and  pasture  in 
the  wood  there  .  .  .  iss  worth  3x.  a-year.  There  are  theretif  rents  of  assize 
£7  9«.  tW/.  .  .  .  of  THsteldennod,  Iiiid  26if.  9^.  in  a  moiety  of  burgage  of 
Kilkea  .  .  .  7«.  a-year.  Pleas  and  profits  of  courts  und  of  Uie  hundred  in 
the  said  moiety  are' worth  20ff.  ii-voHr. — Total,  £'M  oh.  5//. 

The  above 'lands  are  held  of  t)ie  heirs  of  the  Eurl  Marshall,  namely  Sir 
Koger  de  Mortimer,  by  the  service  of  four  knights'  fees  when  the  kin^^^s 
fiervice  is  priN-hiiiiied,  which  often  happens  in  ire  hind  ;  and  owe  two  suits  at 
the  County  Court  of  Kildure  extended  at  4  marks  a-year. 

in  Lambeth  Palaoe,  wliich  he  has  styled  '*  the  Song  of  Dermot  and  the  Eurl.** 
Oxford,  1892. 

1  ynie  pp.  :i69iind379of  Sweetman's  <'  Calendar  of  Documents,**  Ireland 
(1252-1284). 


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KILKEA  CASTLE.  7 

Three  years  later  another  inquisition  was  taken  to  ascertain 
Ihe  King'H  rents  and  tenements  which  belonged  to  Lady  Chris- 
tiana; the  entry,  as  far  as  this  district  is  concerned,  is  as  fol- 
lows* : — 

Tristeldermot,  Kylka,  and  Gavenanc  (Oomennj^h  ?).  From  the  burj^ages 
of  TriAteldermot,  £4  12«.  4c/. ;  stallage  there  1  mark.  The  hurgli  of  Kylka 
27«.  9|«/.  and  2  g«^se ;  autumnal  service  there,  7«. ;  2  lishing  pools,  3«, ; 
foreign  service  of  the  barony,  £1  9«.  Sd»  There  are  there  in  demesne 
3eo  acres  of  aruhle  land  let  to  divers  tenants,  to  wit,  each  acre  for  16</.~ 
Total,  £24. 

Pannage  of  the  park,  3«. ;  herbage  and  pasture  of  the  park,  40<.,  by 
extent ;  16  acres  of  moor  and  pasture   16«. ;  20  acres  of  meadows,  40«. 

From  William  of  Spain  for  the  tenement  held  by  William  de  8ully  in 
Kylka,  namely  32  acres  of  arable  land  and  2^  acres  of  moor,  49<.  lOc/., 
which  wax  not  entered  in  the  extent.  Mem.  oi  a  moor  lying  between 
W*yteston  and  the  Grange  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  John  of  Tristeldermot, 
wlii«h  Philip  Coilan  took,  rendering  yearly  40«.  from  Michaelmas.— Total, 
£46  2s.  7R 

In  the  year  1291  the  King  commanded  William  de  Yescy, 
Justiciary  of  Ireland,  to  cause  to  be  delivered  to  Lady  Christiana 
the  manor  of  Kilka  and  a  moiety  of  the  vill  of  Tristehlermot 
leased  hy  her  for  life  to  Alienor,  formerly  Queen  Consort,  and 
since  deceased.' 

A  few  years  later  Kilkea  appears  to  liave  changed  hands 
again,  as  in  1317  it  was  in  the  possession  of  tlie  Wogan  family. 
This  we  learn  from  a  Patent  lioll  dated  the  11th  year  of  Edward 
ll/s  reign,  wherein  it  is  stated  that:— Rex  concessit  Johauni 
Wogan  omnes  Terras  in  Kylka,  Tristeldermot,  Berton,  Meon, 
Carbry,  Alwyne  (Allen  Pj,  Combre  and  Ockethy  (Ikeathy), 
habendum  sibi  et  heredibus  una  cum  feodis  militum,  advoca- 
cionibus  eoclesiarnm,  etc.,  per  servicia  antiqua,  etc.  Apud 
Westminster,  4**  NoverabriH.' 

The  next  entry,  from  the  same  source,  under  the  date  the 
24fh  of  August,  1390,  records  a  poimission  from  the  Eling,  for 
a  fine,  to  Sir  David  Wogan  to  enfeoff  the  above-named  manors 
to  '*  Walter  Touler,  vicar  of  Balyrothery,  Itichard  Bonevyll, 
vicar  of  Slane,  John  Tanner,  vicar  of  Kylka,  William  Taillour, 
vicar  of  Perestown-Laundey,  and  David  Walshe,  priest,"  for 
himself  and  his  heirs  for  ever.^  Sir  David  Wogan  died  some- 
where about  the  year  1417,  as  in  that  year  his  widow  Anastacia 
was  assigned  her  dowry ;  that  portion  connected  with  Kilkeu 

1  Vide  p.  561  of  Sweetman*8  '*  Calendar  of  DocumenU/'  Ireland  (1252- 
1284). 

2  IhuL,  p.  407. 

'  Vide  p.  24,  **  Kotulorum  Cuncellarie  Hibeniin  Calendarium." 
♦  Ibid.,  p.  143. 


8  KILKEA   CASTLE. 

is  here  translated  from  the  Latin  as  given  on  p.  222  of  the 
"  Rot.  Cane.  Hih.  Calendarium ;"  it  deals  first  with  Rathcoffy 
and  its  neighbourhood,  and  then  refers  to  Kilkea  Castle  as 
follows : — 

'*Al8o  in  the  Mnnor-honse  of  Eylka  one  room  called  the  Knight'f* 
Charaher,  the  larder  fie  botery),  with  two  small  rooms  in  the  White  Tower ; 
a  third  part  of  the  cellar  there  on  the  west  side ;  the  new  Orchard  there  ;  a 
third  part  of  the  slated  bam  on  the  north  side  there ;  the  kitchen  •'coquina\ 
chapel,  prison,  the  kiln  (kyll),  thebnkery  (bakhous)  with  a  bakery  (pistrina) 
there ;  and  the  gates  (zatys)  of  Kylka  in  ooinmon  there  ;  also  the  Priest's 
room  there ;  the  Cow-house  with  a  small  room  near  the  long  stable  there ; 
the  third  part  of  one  empty  mexsua^e  lately  called  the  long  stable  on  the 
south  side  of  that  messuage  there,"  etc. 

The  last  entry  that  will  be  referred  to  from  the  same  source 
a^  tlie  above,  is  on  p.  256,  wh^re  it  is  stated  that  for  a  fine  of 
fi3».  4{L  the  King  pardons  Thomas  Power,  vicar  of  Kilkeii, 
llioliard  Avell,  prient,  and  John  Ashe,  priest,  for  Iiaving, 
without  the  royal  licence,  acquired  for  themselves  and  their 
heirs  two  parts  of  the  manors  of  Kilkn,  Tristehlermot,  Berton, 
Moon,  etc.,  from  Sir  Thonms,  son  and  heir  of  Sir  David 
Woffan,  knt.,^  the  above  manors  being  Iield  from  tlio  Kinc;  in 
Capite;  this  was  in  the  year  14'34.  At  wliat  period  tliey 
evacuated  Kilkea  I  am  unable  to  say. 

In  July,  1356,  Sir  Tiiomas  de  Rokeby,  Lord  Justice  of 
Ireland,  died  in  this  castle  ;*  of  liini  Holinshed  writes  that  he 
was  "ja  Knight  sincere  and  upright  of  conscience,  who  being 
controlled  for  sufiPering  liimselle  to  be  served  in  treene  (/.<?. 
wooden)  cups,  answered:  'Those  homelic  cu|>s  and  dishes  paie 
trulie  for  that  they  conteine,  I  had  mther  drinke  out  of  treene 
cups  &  paie  gold  &  silver,  than  drinke  out  of  gold  &  make 
woodden  paiment.' " 

In  1414  the  O'Mores  and  O'Dempseys  made  an  inroad  into 
Hhe  Pale,  devastating  the  country  with  fire  and  swoid,  until 
Thomas  Cranly,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  who  had  lately  been 
elected  to  the  office  of  Lord  Deputy,  assumed  in  person  the 
command  of  the  troops  and  marched  agaiust  them.  Being 
informed,  however,  that  the  Irish  were  at  Kilkea,  the  prelate 
remained  at  Castledermot,  while  his  troops  advanced  against 
the  enemy.  Holinslied's  account  of  the  conflict  is  as  follows  : — 
''The  Englishmen  fought  with  the  Irish  neere  to  Kilka,  &  slue 
au  hundred  of  the  enemies,  whilest  the  Archbishop,  being  Lord 

^  See  an  account  of  the  Wogon  family  by  Bev.  Denis  Murphv,  s.j.,  in  the 
Jfpurnal  of  the  R.S.A.I.  for  1891 . 

»  TtV*  p.  211  of  Gilbert's  **  Viceroys,"  and  Cox's  **  Hiberniu  Anglicana/' 
published  1689. 


KILKEA  CASTLK.  Q 

Justice,  went  in  prooession  witli  bis  cleargie  in  Tristeldermot, 
praieing  for  the  good  speed  of  his  men  &  other  of  the  oountrie 
that  were  gone  foorth  to  fight  with  the  adversaries."  Tlie  field 
just  to  the  south  of  tlie  castle  may  have  been  the  scene  of  tliis 
battle,  as  many  human  bones  have  been  turned  up  by  tlie 
plough  there. 

In  1421  the  Irish  under  O'Dempwy  and  O'Diinne  again 
invaded  the  Pale,  but  were  defeated  at  Kilkea  by  John 
Fitz  Oerald,  6th  Earl  of  Kildare,  nicknamed  "  Sliaun  Cam,"  or 
Hump-bai;ked  John. 

In  14*26  the  lastle,  which  had  probably  been  sacked  by  the 
Irish*  was  restored  and  enlarged  by  this  Earl.  Its  situation 
made  it  a  place  of  gr^at  importance,  as  it  was  built  in  the 
Marches,  that  is,  the  ground  intervening  between  tlie  temtoiies 
of  the  native  Irish,  and  the  Pale  or  English  land,  and  so 
exposed,  no  doubt,  to  repeated  attacks  which  are  not  mentioned 
in  our  Annals. 

In  August,  1513,  Gerald  (Garrett  More)  Fitz  Gerald,  8th 
Earl  of  Kildare,  and  Lord  Deputy  of  Ireland,  started  on  a 
hostile  expedition  against  I^nniy  vannan  {i.e.  O'Bannan  Leap',  a 
rastle  belonging  to  the  O'CiirrolIs,  near  Itoscrea,  in  the  King's 
County,  and  now  known  as  Leap  Castle ;  but  as  he  was  watering 
his  horse  in  the  Greese  near  this  castle  he  wtis  fired  at  and 
^woundetl  by  one  of  the  O'Mores  of  Leix,  though  he  was 
attended  by  the  Mayor  of  Dublin  and  a  large  force.  In  con- 
sequence of  his  wound  he  moved  slowly  by  Athy  to  Eildare, 
where,  after  lingering  for  a  few  days,  he  died  on  the  3rd  of 
September.  His  body  was  carried  to  Dublin,  and  buried  on 
the  16th  of  October,  before  the  high  altar  in  his  own  chapel  at 
Christ  Church  ;  where  his  arms  within  the  garter,  and  those  of 
his  wife,  with  the  arms  of  many  of  his  predecessors  and 
successors,  were  placed,  until  they  were  defaped  by  William 
Moreton,  Bishop  of  Kildare,  and  Dean  of  Christ  Church,  when 
lie  repaired  the  church  between  1677  and  1705.  The  site  of  St. 
Mary's  Chapel  is  now  occupied  by  buildings  connected  with 
the  Cathedral.* 

In  1532,  among  other  accusations  brought  against  Gerald 
(Garrett  Oge)  Fitz  Gerald,  9lh  Earl  of  Kildare,  by  Piers 
liiitler.  Earl  of  Ossory,  was  one  to  the  effect  that  his  friend  Sir 
Jioland  Fitz  Gerald,  Baron  of  Burnt  Church,'  in  the  county 
Kilkenny,  when  proceeding  to  the  King's  Parliament  in  Dublin, 
was  set  upon  and  made  prisoner  of  by  the  Earl  of  Kildarc^'s 


»  VidH  p.  68  of  **  The  Earls  of  Kildare." 
2  Anciently  culled  Kiltrany. 


lO  KILKEA  CASTLE. 

fosterbrotlier  named  Cahir  M'Eiieorosse  Mao  Murroiigli,  close 
to  the  gates  of  Castlederiuot.  Cahir  then  ro<le  to  the  Earl  and 
consulted  ivitli  him,  alter  which  "the  Baron  was  conveyed 
further  into  tlie  heart  of  tlie  county  of  Kildare  to  a  castle 
called  Beerdy^  Castle,  aiid  irons  were  brought  out  of  the 
Earl's  own  mauor  of  Kylkaa  to  make  fast  the  Barou,  where  he 
was  kept  a  long  season,  notwithstanding  suudry  requests  and 
injunctions  of  the  Deputy  to  the  said  Earl ;  and  fiually  the 
Baron  lost  his  horse,  his  money,  and  his  apparel  without  restitu- 
tion, which  is  a  good  encouraging  to  nudefactors  to  commit 
spoils,  liaviiig  the  advantage  thereof  without  punishment."^ 

In  a  "  Query  "  on  p.  148  of  the  Journal,  information  was 
osked  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  *'  Beerd  his  Custle,"  mentioned 
above.  I  have  since  identified  it  with  Bert,  which  lies  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Barrow,  three  miles  above  Athy,  for  the  following 
reasons : — 

(1)  It  does  lie  further  into  the  heart  of  the  county  Kildare  from  Castle- 
dermot. 

(2)  A  castle  formerly  stood  at  Bert,  which  was  captured  in  1642  by  a 
detachment  of  Sir  Charles  Coote's  force,  and  eight  rebels  found  in  it  were 
hanged.     Vide  Cox's  **  Hibernia  Anghcana." 

CS)  Beafforte,  tilias  Beardth,  alitts  Bearte,  is  mentioned  in  the  county 
Kildare  Chancery  Inquisitions  as  passing  during  the  sixteenth  century  into 
the  hands  of  Humphrey  Macworth,  who  was  shiin  in  Irehind  about  15N2,  and 
who  had  purchased  it  from  Thomas  Wolfe ;  these  lauds  beiugheld  from  the 
Karl  of  Kildare. 

In  1535,  during  the  Rebellion  of  the  •*  Silken  Thomas," 
tenth  Earl  of  Kildare,  tlie  Earl  of  Ossory  invaded  Kildare,  but 
"  then  Mc  Morrowe,  O'Moore,  O'Connor,  and  O'Byrne  in 
September  with  the  greatest  parte  of  the  gentilmen  of  the 
Countie  of  Kildare  were  reteyued  and  set  at  Catherlaglie, 
Castelldennot,  Athye,  Kilkaa,  and  thereabouts,  with  victailles 
during  three  wikkes,  to  resist  the  Erie  of  Ossorie  from  envading 
the  county  of  Kildare.  Soo  that  during  that  same  tyme  the 
traitor  (/.  e.  the  Silken  Thomas)  beseidged  Dublin."  The  Earl  of 
Ossory  however  for  "  three  days  contynually  burnyd,  spoyled,  & 
destroyed  that  cuntrey,  so  that  thereby  the- traicturs  were  put 
from  abode  in  that  Marches,  lacking  both  liousing  and  victaille 
there  ....  Whereuppon  the  Capy  taynes  and  I,  the  said  Erie, 
directid  sundry  letters  to  the  Deputie  to  mete  us  in  the  countie 
of  Kildare  at  Kylkaa,  bringing  with  him  ordynance  accordingly, 
where  the  Deputie  (Sir  William  Skeffington)  appoynted  with- 
out faill  to  mete,  bringing  with  him  the  aimie  at  which  day  and 
place  the  said  Erie  with  theannie  lately  arrived  at  Waterforde 

>  Vide  the  ♦*^tate  Papers  of  Henry  Vlll."  (Ireland),  vol.  ii.,  p.  157. 


KlLKEA  CASTLE.  IT 

failed  not  to  be,  and  there  did  abide  a  three  days  oontynually  for 
the  deputie ;  where  he  nor  any  of  the  arroye  oame  not,  nor  any 
It'tter  nor  worde  was  had  from  him  but  oonly  that  Sir  James 
Fitz  Geralde*  told  that  he  herd  say  he  was  seke."* 

On  the  21st  of  March,  1536,  Sir  Francis  Harbart  wrote  from 
Dublin,  to  the  Chief  Secretary^  Tliomas  Cromwell : — 

**  My  Lord  Deputtey  haythe  spoken  this  last  wyke  with  O'More  &  with 
M*Morro,  at  a  house  of  the  Kynj^es,  nnmyt  Kylka,  and  I  was  one  that  was 
with  his  Lotdsep  (I^rd  I..eunard  Grey)  ther,  and  I  could  not  parsew  hy  them 
but  that  they  be  dessyrous  to  have  pes.  Also  ther  came  and  met  my  Lord, 
at  the  same  house,  my  Lord  Tressurer  (Lord  Butler)  and  my  Lord  his  father, 
and  they  teylt  my  Lord  Deputtey  and  the  Counsaylle  that  O'Bren  entendis 
to  move  ware  ogaynce  my  Lord  of  Osre  and  his  oontre."' 

Lord  Leonard  Grey  then  went  to  Kilkenny,  and,  on  his 
return  towards  Dublin,  "  soujourned  at  Leglilyn  {i.e.  I^ighliu 
in  the  county  Carlow)  &om  where  he  sente  Stephen  ap  Harry  to 
Kilkaa,  to  prepare  his  footemen,  ordenaunce,  and  victuall,  and 
with  all  celeritie  to  repair  to  the  Castell  of  Femes."* 

On  the  1st  of  May,  1536,  the  Act  of  Attainder  against  the 
tenth  Earl  of  Kildare  was  passed,  which  declared  all  his  estates 
forfeited  to  the  Crown  ;  and  it  was  not  until  the  year  1552,  that 
the  Castle  and  estate  were  restored  by  Edward  the  VI.  to  Qerald, 
Silken  Thomas's  half-brother,  who  became  the  eleventh  Earl  of 
Kildare. 

In  15'i7,  Lord  (James)  Butler,  eldest  son  of  the  Earl  of 
Ossory,  wrote  as  follows  to  the  Lord  Privy  seal : — "And  whereas 
upon  tlie  exile  of  the  traditore  Thomas  Fitz  Geralde,  I  tooke 
the  charge  of  defence  and  garding  of *Cetharlaghe  (Carlow)  and 
Kilkaa,  standing  on  the  Marches  next  to  the  McMorroes, 
Moores,  and  others  of  the  L'ishrie,  wherein  I  had  some  charges  as 
the  Kinges  Counsail  knoweth"^ — asking  for  some  compensation. 
On  the  4th  of  October  he  was  allowed  his  expenses  in  guarding 
the  Castles,  and  was  appointed  Constable  of  the  Castles  of  Carlow 
and  Kilkea.  At  this  same  time  the  Deputy,  Lord  Leonard 
Grey,  wrote  also  to  Cromwell,  the  Lord  Privy  Seal,  warning 
him  that  though  Lord  Ossory  and  his  son  had  done  good 
service  to  the  King,  yet  an  eye  should  be  kept  on  them  so  as  to 
prevent  their  becoming  too  powerful;  "  the  like  whereof  in 
other  noble  men  here,  in  tymes  past,  had  so  elevated  their 
myndes  that  they  had  forgotten  their  duties  of  allegiaunce," 
and  he  suggested  that "  they  shall  dely  ver  to  the  Kinges  Officers 
His  Grace's  Manors  of  Carlagh,  Kylca,  and  Casteldermont,  fop 

>  An  uncle  of  the  Silken  Thomas. 

'  *«State  Papers  of  Henry  VIII.,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  251. 

»  lb.,  p.  307.  *  //a,  p.  346.  *  /&.,  p.  476. 


12  KILKEA  CASTLE. 

if  they  have  those  pofssessioiis  they  will  have  the  rule  and  obedi- 
ence of  those  quarters,  and  not  the  King." 

About  this  time  mention  is  made  in  the  documents  of  the 
period  of  a  Walter  Peppard  of  Kylca,  who  appears  to  have 
been  granted  the  place  previous  to  154o.  He  is  described  nn 
one  of  tlie  gentlemen  ushers  of  tlie  King's  chamber ;  his  wife 
was  Elizabeth  Stukely,  by  whom  he  had  several  children,  the 
eldest  son  being  Anthon v.  His  possessions,  which  he  held  on 
lease,  were  8t.  Mary's  Abbey  beside  Dublin,  "  the  two  Dallardi« 
townes  and  the  rectory  of  Tyniolingbegge  in  the  oouiitie  of 
Kildare,"'the  farms  of  SlieveMargy,  i3allyroun,and  Kilmokidn 
(Ballyadams)  in  the  Queen's  County,  and  the  Priory  of  Glasi"- 
carrick,  in  the  County  Wexford.  During  Queen  Mary's  re\gu 
Walter  Peppiml  leased  from  the  crown  the  "  ore  and  lead  minen 
at  Clonmines,  Boss,  and  other  jnts"  in  the  county  Wexford. 
]n  1562  John  Eustnce  and  Patrick  Sai-sfield  went  security  for 
him  that  he  would  offer  to  her  Majesty  the  pre-emption  of  tho 
gold  at  two  shillings  per  ounce,  and  of  the  silver  at  fourpence 
per  ounce,  lower  than  the  market  prices.  The  lease  of  these 
mines,  which  was  for  21  years,  appears  to  have  expired  abont 
1663.     In  1565,  Walter  Peppard  died.* 

On  the  26th  of  February,  1545,  the  Lord  Deputy,  Sir 
Anthony  St.  Leger,  wrote  to  the  Lord  Clianeellor  of  England 
(Wrothesley)  that  the  Earl  of  Ossory  had  oflPered  to  give  up  tc> 
the  King  his  Castles  on  the  borders  of  the  Kavanaq^h's  country 
in  exchange  for  land  in  England,  but  '*  his  Lordship  is  now 
fulli  resolved  that  he  will  not  depart  with  the  principalles  of  them, 
unless  he  may  havelandes  here  ;  yea  and  such  hindes  as  it  were 
not  mete  for  the  Kinge's  Majestic  to  depart  with  in  no  case ;  for 
lie  desireth  a  lordshipp  oallid  Kilkey,  which  is  the  propercKt 
house  and  the  goodliest  lordshipp  the  King  hath  in  all  this 
realme.  And  when  he  moved  thn  same  in  the  Couusaill  here, 
it  seemed  by  their  speech  that  they  would  have  been  glad  that 
he  should  have  had  it,  till  1  said  openly  that  I  would  assone 
condiscende  my  hande  be  cutt  of,  as  to  give  couusaill  His 
Majestic  should  depart  with  that  Ijordshipp."* 

Shaun  O'Neill,  chief  of  his  natirni,  shortly  before  his  death 
in  1567,  visited  the  Earl  of  Kildare  secretly  at  Kilkea.  At  this 
time  the  Earl  was  suspected  of  being  implicated  with  him  and 
the  Earl  of  Desmond  in  a  conspiracy  against  Queen  Elizabeth. 

In  the  month  of  June,  1572,  the  Earls  of  Kildare  and 
Oiinond,  with  th«ir  respective  forces,  wi^re  acting  against  liory 

*  For  the  above,  vitle  Morrin'q  "Calendar  of  Patent  and  Close  lUils,'* 
Ireland,  and  H»milton*A  **  Calendar  of  State  Papers,*'  Ireland. 
-  **  State  Pai»ers  of  Henry  VIII.,"  Ireliind,  vol.  iii.,  p.  ^ns. 


KILKEA  CASTLE. 


J3 


Oge  O'More,  chief  of  Leix,  then  proving  troublesome  ;  shortly 
afterwards  they  were  ordered  to  treat  with  him,  and  to  do  so, 
**  we  sent  our  protection  for  lilm,  but  he  refused  to  come  over 
the  Berrowe ;  till  my  Lord  of  Eildare  went  to  meet  him  there, 
with  whom  he  came  to  Kylca,"  when  he  submitted  himself. 


TMB  CABVKO  STONBS  IN  TUB  CMIHNBY-PIBCB  OF  TUB  **  PUCKAWN  "  ROOM. 

About  the  year  1573  the  eleventh  Earl  repaired  the  castle, 
and  placed  in  the  diuing-hall  a  limestone  chimney-piece  of  which 
thn^e  sculptured  stones  remain.  This  chimney-piece  was  re- 
moved in  1797  by  the  then  tenant  of  the  castle,  Thomas 
Beynolds,  who  replaced  it  by  a  handsome  Italian  one  in  white 


1 6  KILKEA  CASTLE. 

shoulders  and  sent  as  a  present  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  wlio  in  re- 
turn granted  tlie  Earl  allO'Kelly^slandsasa  reward  forthedeed." 

Such  is  the  tradition,  but  it  is  entirely  false  as  far  as  Kilkea 
and  the  Earl  of  Kildare  are  oonoerned  ;  for  the  real  murderer 
of  O'Kelly  was  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald  of  Morett  Castle,  in  the 
Queen's  County,  who  was  slain  and  his  oastle  burned  hy  the 
O'Mores  in  revenge  for  O'Kelly's  mui-der.  This  Gerald  was 
an  illegitimate  son  of  Gerald,  the  eleventh  Earl  of  Kildare,  and 
was  ancestor  of  the  Fitz  Geralds  of  Morett  and  Timoge ;  to  him 
the  Earl  demised  the  lands  of  Timoge,  Ballyteskin,  Morett, 
Shanganaghmore,  and  others  in  the  Queen's  County,  for  a  term 
of  101  yean?,  commencing  20th  of  February,  1584.  These  lands 
were  granted  to  the  Earl  by  Queen  Elizabeth  previous  to  the 
year  1565,  as  is  proved  by  a  Queen's  County  Chancery  Inqui- 
sition; and  as  *Hhere  is  no  smoke  without  a  fire,"  so  the 
tradition  given  above  (though  inaccurate  as  to  persons  and 
place)  contains  a  fair  amount  of  truth. 

In  1609  thp-tord-t^ttrieellQ^^^  Irehmd  wrote  from  Dublin 
to  King  Janj^s  tlW-'^ifJtV^oBMplfiining  of  Christopher  St. 
liawrence,  the]2^)|f4i>@^'^^^^^^^'^''Bf  ungovernable  temper 
and  outrageou^  conduct  towards  him.  He  apologises,  to  com- 
mence with,  fcf  his  style  9Jf.I^ijy[u^coni  posit  ion,  which  he  had 
disused   for  a  fcpa€A^^^r*^lfeatl^^^  One  instance  he 

gives  of  the  lV^^''^^tfe*4tiVhent;  of  him  is  as  follows:— One 
Walter  Weldoif,  of^the  3£i3.nor  ot-Woodstook,  near  Athy,  a 
tenant  of  Sir  Ebbert  Digby's,  presented  him  with  a  petition 
at  Tallaght,  complaining  that  two  of  the  Earl  of  Kildare's 
retainers,  Wogan  Caddell  and  one  Farrell,  had  in  a  forcible 
manner  taken  away  some  part  of  his  corn  at  Woodstock,  and 
that  Caddell  had  assaulted  his  wife  as  she  was  helping  her 
husband  to  rescue  his  corn.  Whereupon  the  Chancellor  ad* 
dressed  to  the  Earl,  at  his  manor  of  "  Kilkay,"  by  a  messenger 
of  sufficiently  honourable  condition,  a  letter  requiring  him  to 
restrain  and  correct  his  servants.  When  the  messenger  pre* 
sented  himself  at  Kilkea,  where  the  Baron  of  Howth  was  at  the 
time,  access  was  denied  to  him ;  and  when  he,  having  intima- 
tion of  the  Eurl's  coming  forth,  awaited  him  upon  the  way  and 
respectfully  tendered  the  letter.  Lord  Howth  rode  violently  up, 
seized  and  made  away  with  the  letter  written  in  the  King's 
name,  while  the  messenger  was  warned  by  the  leader  of  the 
Baron's  men  to  take  himself  away  before  worse  befell  him. 

The  wife  of  Gerald,  the  I4th  Earl  of  Kildare,  was  Elizabeth 
Nugent,  daughter  of  Christopher,  9th  Lord  Delvin,  whom  he 
manied  by  dispensation  of  the  Pope,  as  she  was  a  Roman 
Catholic.  On  his  death,  in  1612,  she,  having  no  jointure, 
petitioned  the  King  to  grant  her  assistance,  and  she  was  assigned 


THE  NEW  YORK 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


ASTOF,  t,E2tOX  AN» 
TILOSN  7&UH»ATIONa 


TuRBE  Views  op  Kilkea  Ca8tle, 
Just  before  its  restoration  in  1849, 


^LfC^:. 


i 


ffU.^ 

i 

; 

} 

'T 

1       " 

3 

^ 

!•'] 

■l-J 

i 

b^'= 


Three  Views  of  Kilkba  Gastlb, 
Immediately  after  the  restoration. 


KILKEA  CAIsTLE.  17 

during  the  minority  of  George,  tlie  .16th  Earl,  known  :aar"tlie 
Fairy  Earl ''  (his  cousin  Gerald,  the  15th  Earl,  son*  of  the 
Countess,  having  died  when  nine  years  of  age  in  1620),  the 
manors  of  Kilkea  and  Grauey.  This  Countess  is  the  one  referred 
to  in  the  following  extract  taken  from  aMS.  Latin  history  of  the 
Jesuits,  now  in  the  library  of  Clongowes  College:— '^In  the  reign 
of  Charles  I.,  16*34,  the  good  and  ever  to  be  honoured  Countess 
of  Kildare  ^ave  the  Castle  of  Kilkea  and  all  its  furniture  to 
Fatlier  Eooert  Nugent,  Superior  of  the  Jesuits  of  Kilkea. 
Father  Nugent  was  a  near  relative  of  the  Earl  of  Inchiquin  of 
the  noble  house  of  Tliomoud.  In  the  year  1646  Father  Nugent 
entertained  for  twenty  days,  sumptuously  and  magnificently, 
the  celebrated  liinuecini,  the  Pope's  Nunciio,  and  several  com* 
panies  of  soldiers  on  their  way  to  besiege  Dublin.  The  Nuncio 
wanting  pecuniary  means,  Father  Nugent  lent  him  four  thousand 
pieces  of  gold,  which  the  Nuncio  never  repaid,  and  consequently 
the  Jesuit  mission  was  much  neglected  as  they  had  not  sufficient 
means  to  support  it.  pAtlieC^f"©®*^  lived  to  the  age  of  70 ; 
he  wrote  the  history  of  HiB^own  orde^  and  times;  but  through 
fear  of  the  P(iritans,'he  Uici€^.dd^l!l^.'M^." 

The  Jesuits  retained  possession' 0^  the  Castle  till  1646.  Th'e 
Countess  was  concerned.ip,  the  llebe|lion  of  1641,  and  was,  the 
year  after,  outlawed  £Qr;rii^'*trAi80|i.  Her  death  took  place 
in  1664.  Archbishop  PaiinSiWa  Iwrote  in  1859  that  he  had 
met  with  an  old  MS.  in>Bame,,in  wldoh  it  is  stated  that  on  the 
Itith  of  December,  1664,  two  striugS  of  pearls — one  containing 
106  and  the  other  110  pearls— were  presente<l  to  the  churbh  of 
Ijoretto  by  Elizabetli  Nugent,  Countess  of  Kildare.  They  were 
brought  to  Italy  by  llichurd  Archdekin,  the  author  of  a  famous 
treatise  on  theology,  and  sent  by  him  to  Loretto,  where  they 
were  presented  by  liobert  Buckley,  the  English  Penitentiary  in 
that  town. 

The  civil  war  broke  out  in  1641,  between  the  Irish  and  the 
Catholic  Anglo-Norman  families  on  one  side,  and  the  Puritans 
on  the  other ;  later  on  it  became  a  three-sided  contest  between 
the  native  Iiish,  the  Catholic  Boyalists,  and  the  Puritans. 
Though  this  castle  itself  does  not  seem  to  have  taken  much  part 
in  the  btruggle,  yet  the  neighbourhood  all  round  it  was  the 
scene  of  conflicts  and  suflei*ed  greatly  from  the  miseries  atten- 
dant on  civil  war. 

In  a  letter  dated  the  16th  June,  1643,  occurs  the  following 
passage : — 

"Lost  Satniday,  Sir  Michael  Ernely  returned  to  Dublin  with  that  army 
which  was  0mt  foorili  under  his  command.  Some  fewe  ciutles  they  tooke, 
but  got  little  pillage  or  come ;  the  best  was  at  Balle-Brittas,  the  I^rd  of 
Clanmalerye'tt  nouae  (Lewis  O'Dempsy]  in  the  Dempsies  Country,  Uallesfuioa 

VOL.  II.,  FT.  I.  C 


,8  KILKEA  CASTLE. 

(t.#?.  Ballyshaniion,  near  Calverstown),  Ciibtledermot,  and  Kilkey,  the  oW 
Countisse  of  Kildare'»  Castle,  being  the  three  places  that  most  annoyed  our 
convovs  and  garrisons  ot  Athy,  &c.,  they  were  not  to  engage  the  army  upon 
till  tliey  were  better  stored  with  powder,  and  Ballisaiioii  by  s|>ecial  worde» 
th^y  were  inhibited  to  meddle  with.  But  when  they  were  uf>on  their  way 
homeward,  having  not  two  days  bread  left,  the  souldiers  surbated  (foota^ire) 
and  tvred  out  with  long  lyeing  out  upon  the  gn»und  in  the  onen  aire,  then 
thev  liad  a  newe  commission  sent  them  to  goe  where  they  pleased.  That 
Commission  was  signed  on  Thursdav,  but  matters  were  soe  ordered  thnt  it 
came  not  to  Sir  Michael's  hands  till  ne  was  within  a  day's  march  of  Dublin, 
on  his  retume.* 

In  1646  "  My  Lord  Nunciq,  Scararapo,  and  Supreame 
Couiioell  came  to  Kilka  in  tlie  ooHptie  of  Kihlare,  wlio  next 
moniingo  adjorned  to  Athy  to  »a\iite  his  proper  Generall 
(Owen  Itoe  O'Neill^  who  was  very  busy  in  biiildinge  ovens 
and  t'oriiaoes  there,  and  conferred  on  oertaine  affaires  couducible 
to  the  conion  good."  ' 

In  October  of  this  year,  the  Marquis  of  Ormond,  the  I^)rd 
Lientonant,  corresponded  with  tl»e  two  generals  of  the  Catholic 
unny,  Owen  lioe  O'Neill  and  Tiiomas  Preston,  brother  of  the 
fifth  Viscount  Gornianston,  who  were  then  with  the  Nuncio  at 
"Kilka."" 

in  1649,  Sir  Robert  Talbot  and  Sir  John  Dungan  are 
mentioned  as  oustoiliaus  "  of  Kilkae,  a  manor  house  of  tlie 
Earl  of  Kildare,  in  the  same  couutie,  an  invincible  place  which 
was  soone  after  yeldeil  to  the  euemie  "  ;  they  were  so  ai»pointed 
by  the  Mai-quis  of  Ormond/ 

In  a  diary  kept  by  an  officer  of  the  Parliamentary  forces  in 
1650,  he  says: — 

Saturday,  July  20th,  I  left  D.iblin  with  a  convoy  of  horse  and  foote,  and 
quartered  neare  kill,  about  two  miles  from  the  NaaK. 

Sunday,  'luly  21st,  we  oame  to  Kilka,  sideloii);  of  Castlederraott :  we 
were  wiivlayd  l»v  Sir  Walter  Dun^^an,  Scurlock,  and  others,  who  were  neare 
Kolton  llill,  drawiie  up  m  5  divisions  of  horse.  But  it  pleased  God  to  give 
us  the  better  of  the  engagement ;  we  killed  one  Cuptain  Shartall,  and  others, 
and  tooke  some  pristmers,  pursuing  the  rest  some  miles. 

Monday,  22ud,  we  ciime  to  the  army  before  Catherlogh  (Carlow),  where 
Sir  Hardresse  Waller,  Maj«»r-Oenerall  of  the  Foote,  commanded,  Ac* 

The  castles  of  Kilkea,  Castledermot,  an<1  Athy,  in  1650, 
were  retaken  from  the  Catliolics  under  Lord  Dillon,  by  Colonel 
llewson.  The  Karl  of  Kihlare,  George—"  the  Fairy  Earl  "— 
now  resided  at  Kilkea  and  in  Dublin  till  his  death  in  1650.    His 

>  Vide  p.  61  of  the  Preface  to  Gilbert's  '*  History  of  the  Confederation." 
»  ride  p.  130,  vol.  i.,  of  Gilbert's  **  History  of  Affairs  in  Ireland." 
a  Vide  Cox's  '*Hib.  Angl.,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  171. 
♦  Gilbert's  **  History  of  Affairs  in  Ireland,  1641-1632,"  ii.  65. 
*/6.,iii.,  218. 


KILKEA  CASTLE. 


19 


son  Weutwortk  (so  christened  after  the  Earl  of  Strafford),  the 
17th  Earl,  also  made  this  oastle  his  priuoipal  residence,  not 
being  able,  in  consequence  of  losses  suffered  during  the  late 
rebellion,  to  restore  Maynooth  Castle,  which  had  been  seized 
and  pillaged  by  the  Catholics  in  1642,  and  finally  dismantled 
by  General  Preston  in  1646.  On  the  death  of  the  17th  Earl 
in  1664,  his  widow,  Elisabeth,  2nd  daughter  of  John  Holies, 
2nd  Earl  of  Clare,  resided  in  the  castle  till  her  death  in  1666. 
From  this  period  the  castle  does  not  seem  to  have  been  lived  in 
by  any  members  of  the  family  for  close  on  200  years. 

In  1668,  the  castle  with  1200  acres  was  let  for  ten  years  to 
William  JiOrd  Brabazon,  son  of  the  2nd  Earl  of  Meath,  at  a 
rent  of  £160  for  the  first  two  years,  £180  for  the  next  four 
years,  and  £200  for  the  last  four  years.  The  original  lease  is 
uow  preserved  in  the  volume  of  M8S.  at  Carton. 

About  the  year  1680,  John  Browne,  Esq.,  eldest  son  of 
Bobert  Browne  (who  went  over  to  Ireland  in  the  Parliamentary 
army  attached  to  Colonel  Henry  Prittie's  regiment  during  the 
civil  war  in  1650,  and  settled  soon  after  at  Carlo w),  married 
Mary,  daughter  of  llobert  Jennings,^  Esq.,  of  Kilkea  Castle, 

'  In  the  churchyard  of  Castlederioot,  louuiug  againht  the  enclosing  wall 
on  the  north  side,  is  a  massive  limestone  slah  which  was  some  years  ago 
removed  from  the  interior  of  tlie  building ;  judging  by  the  inscription  on  it, 
which  was  lightly  incised  and' is  now  almost  iUegihle,  it  was  erected  to  tlie 
memory  of  this  kobert  Jennings ;  the  wording  on  it  is  as  follows : — 

HEHR  LIETn  THE 
BODY    OP  KOBRKT  I  KIT 
INOS  WHO  DECKA8KD 
THIS  LIFE  IAN    17 
ANNO  DOM    1670 

He,  too,  may  be  the  one  referred  to  in  this  extract  from  a  volume  called 
*'  A  List  of  the  Claims  as  they  are  Entered  with  the  Trustees  at  Chichester 
House,"  published  in  1701,  Dublin:— 


1 

The  Estate  or    ' 

By  what  deed  or 

On   what 

Late  Pro- 

.          Claimant. 

interest  claimed.  ; 

writing. 

lands. 

prietor. 

Florence  George, 

Residue  of  31 

lly  lease  dated  the 

Uallyhubbert, 

Private 

widow,  Exec'u- 

years,    tom- 
meneing    the 

28th    of     March, 

Hallyvass, 

Estate. 

trix  of   Kobert 

1671,  to  Sir  Hugh 

etc.    (near 

I     Jennings,     her 

lut  of   May, 

Middieton,  liiirt.. 

Kilkea). 

late  husband. 

i 

1670. 

who,  by  deed  dated 
25ih     NoveiiibtT, 
167-2,  assigned  to 
Rolieit  Jennings, 
the  claimant' 8  ti  US- 
band  and  tesutor. 

0  2 


20  KILKEA   CASTLE. 

of  the  family  of  Jennings  of  Selden,  in  Yorkshire.  He  was 
niicesior  of  the  Browne -Clayton  family,  of  Browne's  Hill,  near 
Carlow.* 

In  1683,  a  lease  of  the  castle,  town,  mill,  and  900  acres  was 
granted  to  William,  George,  and  John  Brown  for  their  lives,  at 
a  rent  of  £135. 

In  1706,  Robert  Dixon,  who  then  held  the  castle,  sur- 
rendered his  lense,  and  Henry  Dixon  took  it  at  £60  4«.  0<L 
rent  for  three  years. 

In  1741,  a  lease  of  the  castle  and  350  acres  of  land  was 
prranted  to  Henry  Dixon,  Esq.,  who  died  in  1747.  His  son 
Henry  then  became  tenant  of  the  castle,  and  after  leading  a 
wild  and  dissipated  life,  he  died  unmarried  in  1797.  The 
Dixon  family,  according  to  the  Gastledermot  parish  register, 
now  kept  in  the  llecord  Office,  Four  Courts,  Dublin,  were  all 
buiiod  in  the  Kilkea  churchyard,  though  only  a  single  head- 
stone, lying  flat,  in  the  east  end  of  tlie  chancel,  dated  1712, 
marks  the  grave  of  one  member  of  this  family. 

In  1797,  the  notorious  '98  informer,  as  in  after  years  he 
proved  to  be,  Thomas  Reynolds,  obtained  a  lease  of  the  castle 
and  lands  through  the  interest  of  Lord  Edward  FitzGerald, 
when  the  castle  appears  to  have  been  partially  repaii'ed  and 
furnished.  Reynolds  having  joined  the  United  Irislimen  in 
the  beginning  of  '98  was  elected  delegate  to  the  county  meet- 
ing and  treasurer  for  the  barony  of  Kilkea  and  Moone ;  soon 
afterwards,  on  the  resignation  of  Loi'd  Etlward,  he  was  appointed 
colonel  of  the  regiment  of  that  barony  in  the  rebel  army.  He 
then  cut  down  several  young  trees  at  Kilkea  and  employed 
tmrpentors  to  make  pike-handles  out  of  them,  and  smiths  to 
form  pike-heads,  in  order  to  induce  the  peasants  to  believe  in 
his  sincerity,  while  he  orgpanized  meetings  at  night  for  drilling 
the  people  in  secluded  fields  close  by. 

A  life  of  Reynolds  was  published  by  his  son  Thomas,  in 
1838,  in  which  he  attempts  to  vindicate  his  father's  character; 
t  he  following  incidents  in  connection  with  the  castle  are  extracted 
from  it : — 

His  father  Thomas  Reynolds,  he  says,  was  born  on  the 
12th  of  March,  1771,  in  Dublin ;  he  was  descended  from  Connor 
Reynolds,  of  Rhynn  Castle  in  the  Co.  Roscommon  ;  his  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  Thomas  FitzGerald  of  Kilmeed,  near  Fonts- 
town  ;  his  wife  was  a  Miss  Harriet  Witherington,  whom  he 


Vitle  Burke*s  '*  Landed  Gentry/* 


KILKEA  CASTLE.  21 

married  in   1794,  at  which  time  lie  had  (to  oontinue  in  the 
biographer's  worcte)  — 

•*  a  promise  of  the  lense  of  Kilkea  Castle  and  lands  from  the  Duke  of 
L^tnster.  It  had  been  let  on  lease  with  about  350  acres  of  land  to  a  family 
named  Dixon  for  three  lives,  one  only  of  which  now  existed,  an  old  bed- 
ridden man,  whose  death  was  daily  ex|>eoted.  William,  Duke  of  I^einster, 
owed  a  considerable  sum  of  mouey  to  my  great-grandfather  Fitz  Gerald, 
and  on  his  application  the  Duke  promised  my  father  the  reversion  of  Kilkea 
for  three  lives,  renewable  for  ever,  at  an  easy  rent.  It  was  the  if  nest  land 
in  the  whole  county,  and  delightfully  situated,  having  the  River  Greese 
b«iunding  it  on  one  side,  a  fine  turnpike  road  on  the  other,  and  the  park -like 
Demesne  of  Belan,  tiie  seat  of  the  Earl  of  Aldborough,  adjoining.  The 
avenue  up  to  Itelan  House  belonged  to  Kilkea,  and  was  rented  at  a  yearly 
take  from  the  holder  of  Kilkea.  There  was  also  a  strip  of  laud  of  70  acres 
running  along  the  far  side  of  the  turnpike  road,  which  served  for  cottage 
lands,  so  that  all  within  the  Demesne  of  Kilkea  remained  undisturbed. 

"  This  residence  was  all  the  more  desirable  for  my  father,  as  it  lay  in 
the  verr  centre  of  various  places  belonging  to  his  family ;  his  maternal 
grandfather  at  Kilmeed ;  his  uncle  at  Geraldine  near  Atliy ;  his  cousins 
Thomas  Dunne  nt  I^einster  I/>dge,  and  Patrick  Ihinne  at  a  newly  purchased 
farm  aiijoining  I^inster  Ix>dge  (now  called  Dollardstown^ ;  and  his  uncle 
Walter  Fitz  Gerald  at  Gurteen.  Mr.  Dixon  died  in  the  beginning  of  the 
year  1797. 

"My  father  directly  repaired  to  Ilathangan,  the  residence  of  Mr. 
Spencer,  the  Duke's  Af|;ent,  when  he  put  in  his  claim.  The  Barony  of 
Kilkea  and  Moone  consisted  of  1 5(X)  Irish  acres,  exclusive  of  the  gardens, 
orchards  and  land  o<K!upie<l  by  tlie  castle  and  its  appurteuuuceM.  That  part 
called  Moone  was  held  on  lease  by  a  family  of  the  name  of  Yeates,  and 
contained  aliout  KdO  acres,  including  the  old  deerpark,  adjoining  to  which 
wos  the  ancient  habitation  of  the  Karl's  huntsman,  the  Kennel,  and  other 
sporting  establishments;  these  buildings  formed  the  retiidence  of  Mr. 
\  eates's  family.  Kilkea  was  leased  for  three  lives  renewable  for  ever,  which 
constituted  a  freehold  in  Ireland.  My  father's  agreement  was  to  pay  £1000 
as  a  fine  to  the  Duke,  and  to  pay  Mr.  Shannon,  the  Duke's  builder,  for  new 
roofing,  flooring,  and  ceiling  tlie  cantle,  and  for  making  such  other  improve- 
ments as  would  put  it  into  substantial  repair ;  upon  this  outlay  and  upon  the 
line  he  was  to  be  allowed  10  per  cent,  of  tlie  rent,  which  was  fixed  at  a 

guinea  (£1  *2s.  6//.  Irish)  per  acre,  and  on  350  acres  amounted  to  £398  2«.  Qd. 
Ir.  Shannon's  bill  amounted  to  £2500  and  some  odd  pounds  ;  10  per  cent. 
on  it  and  on  the  £1000  fine,  amounted  to  £350,  net  rent  remaining  £-18  'i«.  6c/. 
beveral  ornamental  repairs  and  decorations  were  made,  which  could  not  he 
charged  to  the  Duke,  amounting  to  aUmt  £3oO.  Ilie  Manor  Mill,  with  two 
or  three  acres  of  mill -pond,  adjoined  this  pro|)erty  and  was  then  held  by  one 
Oreen,  a  miller,  on  a  leaeeof  seven  years  ;  this  was  to  be  <lelivered  up  to  my 
father  at  the  end  of  the  lease,  at  the  rent  Green  paid,  if  he  ch<»se  to  accept. 
He  also  had  an  unlimited  right  of  cutting  turf  on  the  great  bog  of  Monavool- 
lagh,  which  lay  not  far  from  Kilkea. 

**The  repairs  of  Kilkea  being  completed  in  December,  1797,  my  father 
removed  all  his  furniture  by  the  canal  which  goes  from  Dublin  to  Athv,  and 
having  completely  furnished  the  castle  and  stocked  the  lands,  he  moved  with 
bis  family  into  it.  .  .  .  Towards  the  end  of  February,  1798,  the  ccmntry, 
which  up  to  that  period  had  been  orderly,  became  the  scene  of  riot,  robbery, 
and  assassination,  by  night  and  day  ;  nor  were  the  United  Irishmen  the  only 
actors  in  these  disgraceful  scenes ;  the  King's  troops  were  too  often  guilty  of 


24  KIT.KEA  CASTLK.- 

few  bth^r^  hj-  good  mnstevs,  to  nioVe'up  a'littl^  coUection,  llie  whole  of  wliich 
waa  dc'stroved;      '     '  -  •   "  .'  :* 

'  **  They  broKe  down,  the  sliiices  of  Hie  lliver  Grecse,  which  ran  through 
the  p^aee;  and  'so -let  the  '\vatei*' inundate  about  7<>  acres  of  meadow  land, 
rntning  it  for  that  season,  and  bv  thus  letting  off  the  water  they  emptied 
the  great  jKind'  which  supplied  \\\B  Manor  Mill,  to  the  great  distress  of  all 
the  neighbourhood.  The  jiretenee  for  this  act  was  to  lower  the  bed  of  the 
river  and  empty  the  mill-pond  that  they  might  see  if  pikes  or  other  weapons 
were  Cimcenled  there.'  'J'he  StewaYd,  Michael  Byrne,  was  flogged  and  tor- 
f  un*d'  to  rndkehim  point  ont-fhe  supposed  depot  of  arms.  Lieutenaut  Love, 
who  liad '  relieved  I'ornet'-Witherington,  of  the  9th  Dragmms,  son  of  the 
Quarter-Mastet  of  the  same  regiment,  being  a  tall  man,  tied  his  silk  sash 
round  Byrne*M  tieck  and'  hung  him  over  his  shoulders,  while  auother  offieei' 
flogged  him  until  he  beeame  insensible ;  similar  acts  acquired  for  Love  the 
name  of  '*  the  Walking  Gftllows.''  The  troops  quitted  Kilkea  on  the  29th, 
but  it  was  shortly  afterwards  again  occupied  by  troops,  and  converted  into 
'  a  regular  gvirrisoii.'  It  wa's  attacked  by  the  Insurgents  during  the  ISebellion,- 
biit  they  co^ld  not  make'  any  impression  on  it.  The  soldiers  wives,  a  few  of 
the  neighlkjuring  p^Aty  gentiy,  and  farmers*  families,  claimed  protection, 
and  were  ailowedto'remove  into  the  castle  with  their  families,  and  reside 
tliered wring  the  trouWes.*'  Thie  castle  was  occupied  by  about  44^0  |>ersonB 
during  two  months:     ^  ' 

*' After  the  troubled  had  entirely  ceased,  an  agent  was  sent  from  Dublin  to 
collect  whatever*  remafned  on  thelandsund  in  the  castle,  and  to  sell  the  whole 
by  auctitm.  The  Earl  of  Aldlwough  was  then  at  his  seat  at  Helan,  which 
adinilied  Kilkea  ;  he  intended  the  sale  in  the  hope  of  purchasing  some  of  the 
paintings,  but  none  remained;  as  a^ magistrate  he  certified  the  fact  of  the 
sale,  &e.,  and  fefter  all  the  expenses  were  paid  my  father  received  for  the 
residue  of  the  entire  pro|)erty  the  sum  of  £27,  Irish  currency  ;  though  in  a 
return  of  his  losses  sent  in  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  under  an  act  fur 
indemnifying  suffering  Loyalists,  the  sum  amounted  to  £12,760,  which 
even  then  would  not  htive  been  suQcient  to  replace  all  that  had  been 
destroyed." 

Thomas  Reynolds's  death  took  place  in  Paris,  in  August, 
1836;  he  was  buried  in  the  vaults  of  Wilton  Church,  in  York- 
sliire;  the  only  good  word  that  can  be  said  of  Reynolds  is  that 
be  had  no  hand  in  tlie  betrayal  of  Lord  Edward.  Cha[)ter  xx. 
of  FitzPatriok's  "Secret  Service  under  Pitt,"  conclusively 
proves  that  Tliomas  Reynolds  richly  deserved  the  detestable 
reputation  of  an  "lufornier." 

Captain  Er^kine  of  tlie  9tli  Dragoons,  mentioned  above,  was 
later  on  killed  at  the  battle  of  Old  Kilcullen,  near  the  Curragh. 
As  he  lay  half  stunned  on  the  ground,  an  old  woman  who  was 
searching  Ihe  dead  caine  across  him,  and  recognising  him,  in 
i^venge  for  some  former  act  of  cruelty,  put  an  end  to  him  by 
repeated  thrusts  of  his  own  sword. 

*  The  late  Verx-  Rev.  Archdeacon  Lawrence  Dunne,  who  succeeded  Father 
Ijcnnon  as  Parish  Priest  of  Castledermot,  was  bom  in  the  castle  at  this 
period ;  he  di.'d  on  the  Idth  of  November,  1883,  after  having:  been  its  Parish 
Priest  for  64  years.  He  was. buried  in  the  Catholic  church  at  Castle-, 
dor  mot. 


i 


6 
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M 

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THS  NSV/  YORC 
]^r^^L\Z  LIBRARY 


KILKEA   CASTLE.  25 

l)iiring  the  Rebellion  the  castle  was  attacked,  hut  without 
succesSy  by  the  Insurgents.  When  tranquillity  was  restored  it 
remained  for  some  time  uninhabited,  until  Iteyuolds  sur- 
rendered the  castle  and  lands  to  the  Duke  of  Leiuster,  from 
whom  Mr.  Daniel  Gaulfield  obtained  a  lease  of  them  in  1799. 
The  castle  was  afterwards  inhabited  by  his  son,  Mr.  Peter 
Gaulfield. 

In  1817,  Mary  Shackleton,  the  authoress  of  the  "Lead- 
beater  Papers,'^  in  vol.  i.,  p.  «I55,  of  tluit  work,  thus  describes 
the  condition  of  the  custle  as  it  then  was: — 

"  About  six  miles  from  Ballitore  stands  the  Castle  of  Eilkea,  belonging 
to  the  FitzOerald  family.  It  in  a  noble  )>ile  and  in  good  preservation.  It 
the  windows  and  ohimueypiece*  in  the  principal  room  were  not  so  modem, 
and  the  massy  balustrades'  of  the  great  stairs  had  been  left  in  the  original 
colour  of  ouk,  and  not  disguised  with  white  paint,  it  would  have  an  effect 
more  appropriate  to  the  dignity  of  the  building.  There  are  a  great  number 
of  rooms ;  in  the  large  one  before-mentioned  are  two  tablets,  tme  bears  the 
figure  of  an  eagle,  another  a  baboon,  with  this  inscription,  ISi  Div  plet, 
Crt>m-a-lK>,  1573.  The  ancient  kitchen,  with  its  seven  ovens,  is  in  the 
lower  part  of  the  building/  frofff  Which  the  ascent  to  the  chief  rooms  is  by 
stairs  of  solid  oak.  The  enlns^  \p}.Uiitf,:piat  is  by  a  great  door,  studded 
with  huge  iron  nails,  and  here  ^xe  dark, and! dreary  apartments,  the  whole 
recalling  the  idea  of  the  feudtd'timest"-* '  -^  •»*  v-  -.     f 

1 

In  1849  the  D)ike!oVtaiD?4>pc»aB§ci^ioii  of  the  castle  from 
Mr.  Peter  Caulfield,<aix4T0LQinine|)^iiJti|Pri'^storat]on;  but  about 
twenty  years  befoife  (1.^.,  about  1829),  imitrovenients  had  been 
gradually  carried  oiit,tll«rprublicTroad8'W€/i-e  altered,  the  Manor 
Mill — known  as  the  Black  Mill — was  taken  down,  and  oak 
woods  were  planted  in  what  became  the  demef^ne.  The  castle 
was  at  this  time  in  a  half  minous  state,  there  was  no  trace  of 
its  former  bawn,  except  the  gateway  into  it,  which  still  ptands, 
nor  of  the  circumventing  fosse;  and  the  otit-houses  were 
thatched  and  had  mud  walls.  The  battlements  on  the  caslle 
were  all  thrown  down  except  one  row  on  the  low  portion  at  the 
south-east  side;  Mr.  Cauljield  is  said  to  have  increased  the 
ruinous  state  of  the  castle  by  pulling  down  portions  in  search 
of  hidden  treasure.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  during  the  restoration 
of  the  Castle  nothing  of  interest  was  discovered  hidden  away, 
except  a  dozen  antique-shaped  glass  bottles  containing  a  treacle- 
like liquid,  which  were  found  in  a  built-up  recess  in  the  parti- 
tion wall  between  *'  the  Puckawu  room "  and  the  ])re8ent 
drawing-room  (then  the  hall) :  the  bottles  had  long  necks  and 
large  round  bodies ;  the  workmen  at  first  were  shy  about  tasting 


'  t.r.  of  the  Puckawn  Room,  which  is  now  at  Carton. 
-  Also  at  Carton. 


26 


KILKEA  CASTLE. 


the  liquor,  but  after  one  had  taken  "  a  sup  "  with  no  ill  effects 
there  was  800!i  great  competition  for  the  remainder. 

A  modern  flight  of  steps  on  the  south-east  side  of  the 
castle,  which  led  externally  up  to  the  drawing-room  window, 
then  a  doorway  into  the  then  hall,  were  at  once  removed  as 
out  of  keeping  with  an  old  castle ;  they  were  probably  erected 
by  the  Dixon  family,  as  they  appear  in  Grose's  engraving  of 
the  castle,  in  1792,  and  not  in  a  small  hand  sketch  on  Kogue's 
map  of  Kilkea,  drawn  in  1760.  The  tall  lancet-shaped  windows 
were  probably  th<^  work  of  Reynolds,  as  they  do  not  appear  in 
Grose  s  engraving  of  1792,  though  shown  in  the  sketches  of 
1849. 


IHK   "EVIL   KVIf   STONE. 

(Beside  the  Gateway  into  the  Bawn  of  the  Castle.) 

Though  externally  very  little  alteration  was  made  in  the 
appearance  of  the  castle  during  its  restoration,  beyond  adding 
a  story  to  its  height  all  round,  yet,  internally  it  underwent  a 
great  change ;  windows  were  added  or  enlarged,  the  rooms  in 
each  story  were  all  brought  to  the  one  level,  and  the  ground 
floor  which  had  been  used  as  stables  for  horses  and  cows  was 
made  inhabitable. 

Three  features  of  especial  interest  to  be  noted  are : — 

1.  The  Evil  Eye  Stone,  which  is  built  17  feet  above  the 


KILKEA  CASTLK. 


27 


ground  into  the  quoin  of  the  "Guard-room,"  close  to  tlie 
entrance  gate  into  tlie  bawn.  Tlie  idea  of  the  **  Evil  Eye  "  is 
that -a  person  unknown  to  himself  may  possess  it,  so  tliat  by 
admiring  or  looking  at  a  human  being,  beast,  or  crop,  &o.,  he 
-would  unintentionally  cause  it  to  sicken  or  be  blighted  by  its 
evil  influence ;  to  preve9t  that,  at  the  present  day,  the  peasants 


THB   HALL-DOOR. 

(Showing  the  Portcullis  Grooves,  and  Square  Hole,  for  Meams.) 

will  add  "  God  bless  it "  or  "  God  bless  you  "  when  taking  any 
special  notice  of  anything;  while  in  tlie  old  times  grotesquely 
cut  carvings  were  built  into  castles  near  the  entrance  in  order 
to  attract  the  "  Evil  Eye,"  and  so  prevent  its  evil  influence 
from  affecting  the  dwellers  in  them.  Some  forms  of  these 
curious  relics  of  the  past,  originating  from  Pagan  sources,  are 
known  as  "  Sheelah-na-gigs,"  and  are  generally  found  built 


28 


JKLILKEA  CASTLK; 


into  the  walls  of  iincient  ohurolies ;  a  list  of  many  of  tliem  is 
to  be  found  at  pages  78  to  81  of  the  1894  v(»lunie  of  the 
Jonmal  of  tlje  lloyal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 

2.  The  hall-imk)r,  which  was  the  main  entrance  into  the 
castle.  This  entrance  consists  of  a  high  outer  arch,  and  an 
inner  pointed  arched  doorway.  Formerly  a  portcullis  hung  in 
the  outer  arch ;  the  grooves  it  slid  down  in  can  still  be  seen, 


Sktcrh  of 

pmUUin  helots 
tAtmney 


as  well  as  two  square  holes 
outside  of  them  again  that  con- 
tained beams  of  timber  which, 
as  an  extra  precaution  for 
safety,  could  be  drawn  out 
across  the  entnince  and  inserted 
in  like  holes  on  the  op^iosite 
side,  now,  unfortunately,  built 
up  ;  an  appliance  inside  the 
castle  prevented  their  being 
shoved  back  from  the  outside. 
At  the  time  of  the  restomtion 
old  oak  beams  were  in  these 
long  holes,  but  were  made  away 
with.  The  portcullis  was  also 
hunging,  but  it  too,  through  negligence,  was  taken  away  nnd 
sold  for  old  iron.  From  a  description  of  it  given  by  old  Michael 
O'Uhaiighnessy,  who  was  employed  as  one  of  the  masons  during 
the  restoration,  and  who  saw  it  in  position,  it  was  a  frame- 
work of  iron  to  which  were  fastened  stout  oaken  planks,  and 
the  whole  was  worked  on  ])ulleys  from  a  small  high  ai'ched 
chamber  above  the  door.     Whether  this  was  an  ancient  port- 


THB  CARVBU  BRACKKT  TO  THK  CHIMNEY  OF  THK 
HAUNTLD  WING. 


KILKEA  CASTLE. 


29 


cullig,  or  one  put  together  owing  to  the  trouhles  of  '98,  is 
now  impossible  to  say.  The  stone  vaulted  ceiling  of  the  hall 
was  removed  at  the  restoration,  in  order  to  add  to  its  height. 

8.  Thb  haunted  room,  which  is  situated  in  the  upper  por- 
tion of  the  wing  projecting  from  the  round  flagstaff  tower.  It 
is  now  much  altered  from  what  it  used  to  be.  Formerly  it 
consisted  of  a  chamber,  to  which  was  attached  a  circular  turret- 
room  ;  this  latter  now  forms  a  part  of  the  circular  stone  stair- 
case running  from  the  ground  floor  up  to  tlie  level  of  the 
roof  of  the  haunted  wing  in  the  flagstaff  tower.  The  haunted 
chamber  opened  into  a  narrow,  rough  stone,  winding  staircase, 
built  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall,  which  led  from  the  old  roof 
level  and  continued  up  to  the  roof  of  the  .haunted  wing.  The 
little  fireplace  to  tliis  room  has  a  projecting  chimney  in  the 
south-west  wall;  one  of  the  stone  brackets  it  rises  from  on  the 
outside  consists  of  a  monkey  clinging  to  the  stone,  having  a 
collar  round  the  neck  to  which  is  attached  a  chain  running 
down  its  back. 

'  Here  it  is  said  Gerald,  the  11  th  Earl  of  Kildare,  practised 
the  *^  Black  Art,"  which  earned  for  him.  the  name  of  *^  the 
Wizard  Earl."  His  portrait,  in  armour,  hat^gs  in  the  drawing- 
room  at  Carton,  and  over  his  head  is  written  in  Irish  characters 
"  Grum-a-buadh"  (Crom-a-boo),  the  family  war  cry.  His  death 
trK)k  place  in  the  year  1585.  In  connection  with  him  is  related 
the  following  legend,  which  has  been  put  into  verse,  in  the 
old  ballad  style,  by  one  of  our  Society's  members,  Mr. 
Thomas  Greene  of  Millbrook: — 

THE  WIZARD  EARL, 
A  Lkoend  of  Kix^kka  Castle. 


If  sentle  life  and  high  degree 

And  beauty  could  avail 
To  shield  from  iU,  it  were  not  mine 

To  tell  so  sad  a  tale. 


If  knightly  valour,  noble  birth, 

Minortune  could  repel, 
Or  i^nsdiim  save,  it  were  not  mine 

So  sad  a  tale  to  tell. 

Ten  mighty  Earls  from  sire  to  son 

Of  Gerald*s  noble  name 
Maintained  their  own,  or  fought  for 
more, 

Or  merely  fought  It  fame. 


13ut  he  the  next  contended  hard, 
With  fierce  resolve  and  stem. 

To  wrest  fn»m  Powers  below  their 
power 
And  all  their  wisdom  learn. 

Till  so  for  ways  of  wilchery. 
And  aits  of  darkness  famed 

In  all  I  he  land,  that  he  at  last 
*'  The  Wizard  Earl "  was  named. 

And  oft  and  oft  was  he  besought 
By  his  lady  good  and  true, 

To  show  her  all  his  power,  and  be 
Transformed  witbiu  her  view. 


30 


KITXEA  CASTLE. 


But  ever  he  fo*%warned  her 

That  if  her  gentle  heart 
Gave  any  sign  of  fear,  he  must 

From  her  for  ever  part ; 

Till  overpressed  by  loving  words 

He  set  her  tiials  three, 
That  if  she  gave  no  sign  of  fear 

He  would  ti-atisf»iiucd  be. 

At  first  the  river  Greesc,  that  near 
Where  Kilkca  Castle  stood 

Ran  gently  by,  n«»w  ciuickly  rose  • 
In  wild  and  sweeping  flood, 

And  whirled  around  the  Ciistle  wall 
And  through  the  doorway  llowed ; 

But  soon  again  it  fell  away, 
F»»r  she  no  terror  showed," 

And  then,  when  out  tlie  wutein  went, 

A  fish-like  creature  wound 
Its  body  tlii-ough,  in  serpent  form, 

And  wriggled  'ori  thcf  ground,  • 
'•• 
And  M wined  abotit  thcjlady^s  feet. 

But  soon  to  disappolir 
It  slurtk  aWay,  for  M^vely  still 

She  showed  not  any  feir.      . 

But  thii-d  and  lost,  a  shadowy  f()rm 
Moved  ftilent  through  the  room,' 

The  loJTO  of  one  jong/y^ars  ago 
Low  laid  within  tbe  tunib  ; 

And  now  it  ilittdd  ftiither.off,  . 

And  now  it  flitted  near, 
But  still  the  lady,  gazing,  gave 

Not  any  sign  of  fear. 

Then  he  who  never  bent  to  man> 

Or  fuiled  in  deadly  strife, 
By  soft  enti-eaty  was  overcome,   . 

And  yielded  to  his  wife. 

Though  gre;it  in  aims,  and  greatly 
skilled 

In  ejich  intiicaie  art, 
The  Earl  was  lost,  not  knowing  well 

To  try  a  woman's  heart ; 

For,  changed  into  a  small  black  bird 

And  on  her  shoulder  lit, 
The  l.'idy  scaice  had  laised  her  hnnd 

To  stroke  and  cheiish  it 

When,  crouching  from  beneath  a  chest 

UpHprang  a  cruel  cat. 
The  e\il  one,  with  ill  design 

To  seijse  it  where  it  sat. 


Then  she  who  feared  not  for  herself, 
Outstretched  her  lifted  arm 

In  terror  lest  her  well -beloved 
Should  suffer  any  harm. 

But  Powers  Dark  no  pity  know, 
For,  when  her  swoon  was  o'er, 

The  Earl  und  all  his  knights  were  gone, 
She  saw  them  nevermore. 

Enchanted  n«)w,  'tis  said  they  sleep, 

Until  the  spell  is  piist, 
FuU-armonred  by  their  steeds,  within 

The  Rath  of  Mulhighmast,; 

And  every  seven  years,  to  where 
The  Curragh's  plain  lies  vide, 

Tliey  stait,  ii^n  their  chargers  all, 
And  round  its  borders  ride, 

And  then  to  Kilkea  Castle, 

Unto  the  haunted  room, 
And  back  again  to  MulUighmafltf-^ 

For  flo  it  is  their  doom  ; 

But,  though  at  dead  of  night  they  ride, 

The  Earl  you  well  may  know,  ' 
•  W  hen  eounde  of  horse  and  armotir 
•By  his  charger  white  aa  snow  ; 

That  charger,  too,  is  silver  shod. 
And  when  those  shoes  are  worn, 

The  spell  oiit'Spent,  the  Earl  aguin 
Will  gloriously  i-eturn ; 

And-  when  he  comes,  oh,  then  let  all 
.   True  men  and  women  pray, 
That  his  good  w^ife  may  meist  him  at 
The  CasUe  of  Kilkea. 

There  is  an  ancient  pn>phecy 
That  when  this  Earl  shall  come« 

Victoriously,  as  I  ijave  said, 
Unto  his  custle  homei 

He  there  will  reign  till  seven  years 

Are  seven  times  told  o'er, 
And  yet  will  do  a  greater  deed 

Than  e'er  he  did  before  ; 


Even  the  ancient  enemies 

Of  Erin  to  withstand, 
And  nortli  and  south,  and  e^ist and  westf 

To  drive  them  from  the  land. 

Then  Heaven  send  those  silver  ahoes 

May  wear  awny  full  fast. 
If  so  thei-eby  our* native  land 

May  rest  in  peace  at  lust. 


lTo/acep(uilgZ2, 


I 


Map  op  the  Eilkea  Castle  Dkmehne, 

Showing  the  alteration  of  public  roads. 
Circa  1822. 


A        I 


\'< 


•THS-WBW'yORC 


\_To  face  page  33. 


BUTLBRSTOWN   CaSTLE,    CoUNTY  WeXFORD. 
(Formerly  belonging  to  the  Sherlock  Family.) 


(     33     ) 


NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 
CHIEFLY  GATHERED  FROM  THE 
STATE  PAPERS  AND  OTHER  OFFICIAL 
DOCUMENTS. 

By  the  rev.  J.  F.  VL.  FFRENCH,  of  CLoiijioit,  M.R.I.A. 

THR  anoient  family  of  Sherlock  is  said  to  derive  its  name  from 
the  Castle  of  Scurlag  or  Soiirloke  in  Wales.  Although  not 
one  of  the  great  families  suoh  as  the  Fitz  Geralds,  the 
Butlers,  and  the  de  Burghs,  or  Boufkes,it  represents  an  important 
and  rapidly  decreasing  class  of  county  families,  the  descendants 
of  the  old  Normans,  who  in  course  of  time  became  "  more  Irish 
than  the  Irish  themselves,"  and  who,  notwithstanding  the 
changes  and  convulsions,  social  iand  political,  to  which  this 
country  has  been  subjected,  still  hold  on  to  their  broad  acres, 
and  for  century  after  century  have  filled  many  and  important 
offices  in  Church  and  State.  Thus  the  Sherlooks  can  boast  of 
having  supplied  the  Lind  of  their  adoption  and  .their  birth 
with  venerable  ecclesiastics,  stout  soldiers,  keen  lawyers,  and 
skilled  physicians.  This  ancient  family  i9  said  to  have  been 
founded  by  one  of  the  companions  in  arms  of  Henry  II.,  who 
accompanied  him  into  Ireland,  and  there  is  some  reason  to 
believe  that  its  senior  branch  is  that  which  was  seated  in  that 
nursery  of  so  many  Anglo-Norman  houses,  the  county  Wex- 
ford. Thomas  Shyrlock  of  Baldwinstown  was  resident  there 
in  the  time  of  King  John,  and  his  great-grandson  John  Shyrlock 
resided  there  in  1306.  At  subsequent  periods  they  acquired  other 
lands  in  that  county,  notably  the  Manor  of  Roslare,  to  which 
reference  will  be  made  further  on  in  this  paper.  Although 
judging  from  their  coat  of  arms,  the  county  Wexford  famuy 
seems  to  be  the  senior  branch,  yet  the  Meath  and  Kildare 
families  appear  to  be  of  equal  antiquity ;  possibly  the  three 
families  were  founded  by  brothers,  for  they  all  seem  to  have 
been  in  existence  shortly  after  the  coming  of  Henry  II.  In 
1180,  William  de  Scurlog  built  the  Castle  of  Scurlogstown  in 
the  bazony  of  Lower  Deece  in  the  county  Meath,  and  this  same 

TOL.  U.,  PT.  1.  I) 


V 


34 


NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK  : 


William  de  Scurlog  granted  the  church  and  tithes  of  Sonrlogfi- 
town  and  five  other  parishes  to  St.  Thomas's  Abbey,  Dublin, 
**  for  the  salvation  of  himself,  of  his  wife,  of  his  ancestors,  and 
successors."  The  Castle  of  Sclirlogsto wn  was  situated  one  and 
a-half  miles  from  Trim,  on  an  estate  granted  to  the  family  by  Sir 
Hugh  de  Lacy.  It  has  been  described  as  *'  one  of  the  strongest 
built  watch-towers  of  the  Pale — its  massive  and  gloomy  walls. 


SCURLOGSTOWN  CASTLE,  NBAR  TRIM,  CO.   MKATH. 

its  tall  towers,  and  unbroken  battlements  give  it  such  a  stem 
appearance  that  in  passing  it  one  still  expects  to  hear  the  warders 
challenge  from  its  gate.''^ 

At  the  early  date  of  1299,  the  family  of  Sherlock  had  been 
loug  enough  resident  in  Kildareto  give  their  name  to  the  town- 
land   which  is  still   known  as  Sherlockstown,  and  from    that 


*  Sir  William  Wilde's  **  fiojne  and  Blackwater."     We  regret  to  hear 
that  this  castle  has  now  been  entirely  demolished. 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.         35 

time  forward  there  are  traces  of  them  to  be  found  in  most  of  the 
southern  counties,  such  as  Limerick  and  Kilkenny,  and  notably 
in  the  county  Waterford,  where  they  are  represented  to  the 
present  day. 

The  earliest  mention  of  them  in  the  State  Papers  is  the 
presence  of  Richard  Scurlage  as  one  of  the  jurors  on  a  sworn 
inquisition  held  on  the  4th  of  June,  1251,  relating  to  half  a 
carucate  of  land  which  the  Abbot  of  Tracton  lost  by  default 
against  the  king.  Subsequently  we  find  from  an  account 
rendered  at  Michaelmas  1279,  that  Maurice  Scorlagge  held  the 
▼ery  important  post  of  Constable  of  the  Castle  of  Dublin,  and 
that  payments  were  made  to  him  for  supplying  food  for  John, 
Robert,  and  William  O'Conor,  who  were  held  as  hostages 
there  for  nine  weeks,  and  that  in  1281  this  same  Maurice 
Scorlagge,  accompanied  by  Henry  de  Rochford  and  Benedict 
de  TJflford,  were  employed  by  the  government  to  convey  what 
was  then  a  great  sum  in  treasure  (one  thousand  pounds)  from 
Dublin  to  the  justiciary  who  was  in  Roscommon,  and  that  a 
sum  of  money  was  paid  for  **  three  pair  of  wallets  "  (doubtless 
saddle-bags)  to  be  used  by  them  in  conveying  the  treasure.  In 
1284,  Maurice  *^  Scurlac ''  was  still  in  the  service  of  the  king 
and  probably  Constable  of  Dublin  Castle,  for  there  is  in  existence 
an  account  rendered  at  Michaelmas  in  that  year  of  the  purchase 
of  two  hogsheads  of  wine  for  the  king's  use,  for  the  sum  of 
seven  marks,  from  Domaion  le  Gascon;  which  wine  was 
delivered  to  Maurice  Scurlac  by  order  of  Stephen,  Bishop 
of  Waterford,  Justiciary  of  Ireland,  ^nd  it  is  further  speci- 
ally mentioned  that  the  wine  was  tested  by  the  bishop 
himself. 

In  1282  we  find  that  the  king's  writ  of  "  venire  facias  " 
was  issued  to  the  sheriff  of  Cork,^  commanding  him  to  cause  a 
jury  of  knights  and  free  tenants  to  come  before  Stephen,  Bishop 
of  Waterford,  Justiciary  of  Ireland,  or  his  deputy,  at  Kilmal- 
lock,  on  Saturday  next  after  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  ad  Yinoula, 
to  take  the  inquisition  ordered  in  the  above  second  writ  to  the 
Justiciary,  and  on  the  panel  the  name  of  John  Scurlag  (junior) 
occurs.  We  find  him  also  on  the  panel  of  a  jury  called  together 
on  the  same  year  to  estimate  the  extent  of  the  lands  of  William 

^  The  late  John  O'Daly,  of  Anglesea-street,  Dublin,  who  was  so  well  known 
among  Irish  antiquarians,  called  the  attention  of  a  gentleman,  interested  in 
the  family  of  Sherlock,  to  a  Gaelic  poem  in  which  the  Sherlocks,  as  a  clan 
under  the  name  of  Skirlogs,  are  mentioned  as  mustering  with  other  clans  in 
the  county  Cork  for  the  purpose  of  engaging  in  battle.  It  was  not  nnusual 
for  Anglo-Norman  families  to  develop  into  semi-Celtic  clans. 

D2 


36  NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK : 

de  Mohun,  whioh  fell  into  the  king's  hands  hy  William's  death 
at  Ottery,  Devon,  on  Tuesday  before  the  Deoollation  of  St. 
John  the  Baptist,  25th  of  August,  1282. 

We  now  turn  to  the  ecclesiastics  of  the  family  who  arrived 
at  distinction  at  that  early  period.  In  1364  Thomas  Scurlock 
was  prior  of  Newtown,  near  Trim,  and  from  thence  was  pro- 
moted to  be  abbot  of  the  great  house  of  St.  Thomas,  near 
Dublin,  whioh  our  readers  will  remember  had  been  enriched 
by  the  liberality  of  his  ancestor ;  and,  while  there,  he  arrived 
at  the  highest  offices  in  the  State,  being  appointed  Deputy 
Lord  Chancellor  in  1366,  and  Lord  High  Chancellor  of  Ireland 
on  the  1st  of  July,  1375.  The  ecclesiastical  influence  of  the 
family  must  have  been  very  considerable  in  the  priory  of  St. 
Peter's,  for  in  1423  William  Scurlock  was  prior  there,  and  in 
1427  Thomas  Scurlog  filled  the  same  office.  In  1429  he  was 
appointed  Lord  High  Treasurer  of  Ireland,  and  on  the  death 
of  Bishop  Edward  Dantsey  he  was  elected  Bishop  of  Meath. 
After  his  election  he  went  to  Rome  to  solicit  the  Pope's  confir- 
mation, but  either  he  was  not  consecrated,  or  he  survived  only 
a  short  time.  Ware  does  not  include  him  among  the  bishops 
of  Meath. 

The  nearest  approach  to  the  present  spelling  of  the  name  at 
a  very  early  period  is  in  the  Roluhrum  Patentium  et  Clamorum 
CancellariiB  Hibemicey  vol.  i.,  part  1,  Henry  II,  to  Hen.  VII.' 
In  this  calendar  there  are  no  less  than  twenty-four  notices  of 
this  family,  and  among  them,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.,  the 
name  of  Walto  Shirlok,  of  the  county  Eildare,  occurs.  In  the 
Patent  and  Close  Bolls  of  Henry  VTII.  this  family  is  mentioned 
several  times.  In  the  twentieth  year  of  that  reign  there  is  a 
grant  from  the  king  to  Barnabas  Scorloke  of  Nail,  gent.,  son 
and  heir  of  Thomas  Scorloke,  late  of  Athboy,  deceased  (Meath 
Co.] ;  livery  and  seisin  as  to  the  town  of  Tullagharde.  Subse- 
quently there  is  a  grant  of  general  livery  of  seisin  and  pardon 
of  intrusion  for  Barnabas  Scorloke  of  Nail,  gent.,  son  aud  heir 
of  Thomas  Scorloke,  late  of  Athboy,  deceased,  who  had  held  of 
the  Crown  the  town  of  Tullagharde,  in  the  Co.  Meath.  On 
the  15th  of  June,  1555,  Bamaby  Scorlock  of  Bective  was 
appointed  attorney-general  to  Queen  Mary,  and  in  1558  this 
Bamaby  Scorlock  was  appointed  attorney-general  to  Queen 
Elizabeth,  who  also  appointed  him  to  act  as  temporary  chief 
justice  in  Ireland,  in  the  room  of  Sir  Robert  Dillon,  and  until 
she  sent  an  Englishman  over  to  occupy  the  post.  Doubtless 
the  sense  of  injustice  he  felt  at  being  deprived  of  the  office  of 


In  1422  John  Shurlag  was  Coroner  of  Meath, 


PROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFiaAL  DOCUMENTS.      57 

chief  juBtioe,  merely  because  of  his  Irish  birth,  drove  him  iuto 

Spofiitioii ;  for  in  1577  he  accompanied  Richard  Nettervyll  and 
enry  Burnell  to  England,  as  a  deputation  from  the  Viscount 
Baltinglass  and  other  barons  and  gentlemen  to  Queen  Elizabetii, 
to  complain  of  the  intolerable  burdens  laid  on  them  by  the  Lord 
Deputy  and  Council,  with  the  result  that  when  they  arrived  at 
the  other  side  of  the  Channel  the  Queen  imprisoned  them,  for 
maintaining  that  cess  was  contrary  to  the  law  and  ancient  cus- 
toms of  Ireland,  and  she  further  ordered  the  Lord  Deputy  to 
oommit  to  ward  the  chief  people  who  had  combined  to  send 
them  to  her. 

Queen  Elizabeth  was  of  a  frugal  mind,  and  it  was  a  sore 
grief  to  her  that  she  could  not  make  Ireland  pay ;  for  her  great 
nobles,  however  willing  they  were  to  receive  pay,  had  the 
strongest  possible  objection  to  be  made  pay  for  a  government 
which  was  often  distinguished  by  a  lack  of  all  governing 
power.  Imprisonment  had  a  wonderful  effect  in  clearing  the 
mind  of  Barnaby  Sourlock  from  all  the  legal  difficulties  that 
stood  in  the  way  of  his  consenting  to  the  English  G-ovemment 
levying  cess  in  Ireland ;  so  much  so,  that  shortly  after  he  and 
his  two  companions  humbly  submitted  to  the  better  judgment 
of  the  Crown,  and  petitioned. to  be  discharged.  In  1584  we 
find  a  letter  from  Lord  Justice  Wallop  to  Walsingham  against 
the  suit  of  Barnaby  Sourlock,  who  had  sent  his  son  without 
lioense  to  obtain  a  confirmation  or  re-grant  of  Scurlockston 
and  Ifemack  (Scurlogstowu  liad  passed  away  from  the  family 
to  the  bishops  of  Meath,  but  had  been  bought  back  by 
him}.  Notwithstanding  the  opposition  of  Lord  Justice  Wallop, 
Barnaby  Sourlock  seems  to  have  been  successful  in  passing  on 
his  large  estates  to  his  eldest  son,  for  doubtless  that  son  was  the 
Oliver  Sourlock  of  the  Manor  of  Sourlockstown,  whose  large 
possessions  are  mentioned  in  the  Inquisitions  of  1623  as  situated 
in  the  county  Meath.  In  1601,  Walter,  son  of  Barnaby 
ISourlook,  was  appointed  an  attorney-at-law  in  the  province  of 
Gonuaught. 

This  family,  like  so  many  other  Norman  families,  took  side 
with  the  Confederate  Catholics,  and  lost  their  property  in 
1641. 

In  1560,  and  for  many  years  after,  Patrick  Sherlock, 
sometimes  styled  of  Burnt  Cliurch,  Co.  Kilkenny,  was  very 
much  in  evidence,  both  in  that  county  and  in  the  counties  of 
Tipperary  and  Waterford;  from  1560  to  1576  he  was 
constantly  in  commission  as  sheriff  of  those  counties.  He  is 
described  by  Bagwell  in  his  Riatory  of  the  Tudots^  as  a  ^^  stout 
old  campaigner,  who  had  served  the  Emperor  and  the  King  of 


38  NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 

France."  In  1564  his  commission  ran  to  ''make  war  on  the 
Graces  and  Booroks  and  their  adherents  in  rehellion/'  and  in 
carrying  on  the  war  he  often  doubtless  exceeded  his  powers, 
for,  in  those  old  days,  the  rough  old  soldiers  who  had  work  to 
do  were  by  no  means  particular  as  to  the  manner  of  doing  it. 
Consequently,  we  find  that  in  1574  a  pardon  was  issued  to 
Patrick  Sherlock,  of  St.  Katheriiie's  Priory,  sheriff  of  the  Co. 
Waterford,  and  to  divers  others,  in  consideration  of  their  good 
Bervice. 

In  1577  there  is  to  be  found  among  the  State  Papers  an 
agreement  signed  by  Patrick  Scurlocke  and  others,  on  behalf 
of  the  county  Kilkenny,  by  which  they  agree  to  accept  the 
terms  of  a  composition  for  cess,  subscribed  by  the  lords  and 
gentlemen  in  England;  and  we  find  that  this  family  gave  their 
name  to  several  localities  or  denominations  of  land  in  that 
county.  Another  notable  Sherlock  of  those  days  was  Pierce  or 
Peter  Sherlock,  who  was  sheriff  of  the  Cross  of  Tipperary  in 
1578,  with  commission  to  execute  martial  law.  In  recompense 
for  his  services,  he  and  his  sons  obtained  grants  of  lands  in 
Tipperary,  Limerick,  and  Cork.  Probably  from  him  descended 
Sir  G-eorge  Sherlock,  of  Cahir,  who  was  knighted  by  Sir  A. 
Chichester,  Lord  Deputy  of  Ireland,  in  1606. 

We  now  return  to  the  Wexford  branch  of  the  family, 
which  we  have  already  seen  seated  at  Baldwinstown,  in  the 
county  Wexford,  in  the  reign  of  King  John,  and  from  time  to 
time  we  find,  in  the  State  Papers,  glimpses  of  its  history.  It  is 
not  quite  clear  how  the  Sherlocks  came  into  possession  of  Bald- 
winstown Castle,  as  there  seems  reason  to  believe  that  it  was 
built  by  a  cadet  of  the  great  house  of  Montgomery,  who 
settled  in  Ireland.  That  family  possessed  a  castle  bearing  the 
same  name  in  Wales,  and  it  was  their  chief  seat.  One  of  the 
Montgomerys  received  the  cognomen  of  Le  Gogh  (the  red- 
haired)  from  the  Welsh,  and  his  descendants  have  kept  it  as  a 
surname.  This  castle  and  manor  of  Baldwinstown  at  one 
time  fell  into  the  hands  of  a  junior  branch  of  the  house 
of  Keating  of  Kilcowan,  and  it  is  now  held  by  the  Swan 
family.  The  castle  itself  has  a  keep  about  30  feet  square,  with 
walls  13  feet  thick  at  the  base. 

But  to  return  to  our  State  Papers ;  we  find  in  the  Patent 
and  Close  EoUs  of  Henry  VIII.  (28th,  29th,  and  30th 
year),  a  grant  of  the  offices  of  Treasurer,  Ileceiver-GFeneral, 
and  Bailiff  of  the  lordship  of  Wexford  to  James  Sherlock, 
gentleman.  This  James  Sherlock,  in  1539,  presented  a  survey 
of  that  county  to  Secretary  "  Crumwell,"  for  the  use  of  the 
Government,  and  in  a  letter  he  shows  that  the  King's  revenue 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.        39 

there  amounted  to  £220  yearly;  he,  at  the  same  time, 
complains  bitterly  of  one  Jerberd,  the  deputy-seneschal  of  the 
county,  and  of  the  bad  conduct  of  the  soldiers  under  the 
senesehars  command.  It  seems  probable  that  he  was  the 
founder  of  the  Sherlooks  of  Bolgaureigh,  Co.  Wexford,  who 
are  mentioned  in  the  ''  Inquisitionum  Uancellariae  Hibemiae 
liepertorium,"  where  we  find  that,  in  1625,  Thomas  Sourlock 
was  seised  of  the  town  and  lands  of  Bolgaureigh,  and  a 
hamlet  called  Curraghgost,  also  Ballynechae,  Ballymullin,  and 
Ballymeiler. 

In  1542  Henry  YIII.  granted  a  pardon  to  Roland  Sourlock, 
of  Wexford  and  Dublin,  Bachelor  of  Physic,  for  heresies  pub- 
lished about  six  years  previously.  This  Roland  Scurlock  and 
others  were,  in  the  years  1622-1623,  seized  of  the  town  and 
lands  of  Ballyboygh,  otherwise  Ballybough  ;  he  must  have 
been  in  high  favour  with  the  ruling  powers,  for  he  was  ap- 
pointed physician  to  Queen  Mary,  and  subsequently  he  was 
made  physician  to  her  strong-minded  sister  Queen  Eliza- 
beth ;  from  her  he  obtained  a  grant  of  the  manor  of  Boslare. 
Consequently  it  is  stated  in  The  luqumtions  that  in  1625 
Rowland  '^Scurlocke  of  Rosclare"  was  seized  of  the  manor 
of  Rosclare  and  Ballinmore,  and  of  the  advowson  of  the 
rectory  of  Rosclare.  The  Sherlocks  seem  to  have  lost  their 
Wexford  estates  in  consequence  of  the  1641  troubles,  for  in 
1667  Edward  Shurlock,  of  Bolganreagh,  in  the  barony  of 
Bantry,  forfeited.  When  the  manor  of  Roslare  was  confis- 
cated, it  passed  into  the  possession  of  John  Uigate,  and  from 
him  to  his  cousin  Higate  Boyd.  The  Boyd  family  still  hold 
this  estate,  or  rather  what  remains  of  it,  as  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  it  has  been  encroached  on  and  now  lies  under  the  sea. 

There  are  some  curious  particulars  about  this  manor  of 
Roslare  to  be  found  in  the  Southwell  Fapef*8.  After  the 
surrender  of  Wexford  to  the  Normans,  the  Ostmen  of  Wexford 
were  placed  under  the  care  of  the  seneschal  of  the  liberties  of 
Wexford,  and  he  seems  to  have  transplanted  them  to  the 
parishes  of  Roslare  and  Ballymore  in  Forth,  which  were 
manors  attached  to  his  office.  In  the  Charter  House  at  West- 
minster there  is  a  curious  document  giving  the  result  of  an 
inquest  held  by  Lord  William  de  Y  alence,  as  to  the  rents, 
services,  and  customs  of  the  foreign  Eastmen  of  the  counties  of 
Wexford.  It  is  worthy  of  observation  that  at  that  time  they 
were  not  called  Danes.  These  tenants  of  the  manors  of  Roslare 
and  Ballymore,  under  the  Sherlocks,  held  as  copyholders,  a 
tenure  common  enough  in  England,  but  we  believe  unique  in 
Ireland.    Under  this  tenure,  in  Roslare,  the  tenant  was  obliged 


40       NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 

to  do  homage  to  the  lord  of  the  manor,  none  oonld  marry  in 
his  lordship  without  his  permission,  nor  build  a  house,  nor 
suffer  it  to  be  demolished,  or  fall,  or  decay.  If  a  oopy holder 
married  a  maid,  a  certain  fine  was  payable  to  his  lord ;  if  a 
widow,  double  as  much ;  if  a  woman  whose  chastity  had  been 
violated,  more.  These  fines  were  called  ^^  Lotherwite ; "  all 
tenants  were  liable  to  *'  heriotts,"  i.e,  the  best  beast  on  the 
farm,  or  the  best  piece  of  furniture  in  the  house,  was  due  to  the 
lord  on  the  death  of  a  tenant.  A  transgressor  of  the  laws  of 
the  manor  forfeited  his  copyhold.  The  marriage  laws  were 
probably  intended  to  prevent  marriage  with  the  so-called 
"  Wild  Irish,"  and  the  duty  of  the  tenant  to  pay  fines  and 
heriotts  was  in  existence  among  copyholders  in  England  quite 
lately,  and  probably  is  so  still.  The  writer  of  these  notes,  when 
he  resided  in  England,  knew  of  an  arrangement  that  was  then 
made  between  the  copyholders  and  the  lord  of  a  manor,  by 
which  the  copyholders  gave  up  their  rights  in  a  common  to  the 
lord,  and  he,  in  return,  relinquished  his  rights  to  fines  and 
heriotts  from  them.  The  name  of  Sherlock  has  now,  it  is 
believed,  quite  died  out  of  the  county  Wexford,  but  a  few  years 
since  it  was  in  existence. 

In  the  year  1618  Sir  Daniel  Molyneux,  Ulster  King-at* 
Arms,  visited  Wexford  while  the  judge  of  assize  was  holding 
his  court.  He  came  for  the  purpose  of  inquiring  into  and 
registering  the  descent,  arms,  and  pedigrees  of  the  principal 
gentlemen  of  the  shire.  The  result  of  his  labonra  is  to  be 
found  in  the  College  of  Arms  in  the  Bermingham  Tower,  and 
there  the  coats  of  arms  of  the  different  fanulies  liiay  be  seen 
beautifully  emblazoned  ;  among  them  will  be  found  the  Scur- 
lockes  of  Boslare,  who  registered  six  generations.  We  must 
now  return  to  an  earlier  period. 

The  Four  Masters  tell  us  that  in  1599  Bichard  Scurlock 
was  the  Queen's  sheriff  of  the  county  Clare,  and  we  may  feel 
well  assured  that  he  was  a  stout  soldier  to  undertake  that  office. 
Even  in  1894,  the  acting  sheriff  of  Clare  had  not  a  happy  life, 
but  what  must  it  have  been  in  1599  P  The  Waterford  family 
which  was  an  offshoot  of  the  Wexford  branch,  we  find  seated 
at  Grace  Dieu,  Pembrokestown,  Island  Bridge,  and  other 
places.  The  Waterford  Sherlocks  seem  to  have  adopted  the 
modem  spelling  of  the  name  at  an  earlier  date  than  the 
members  of  the  family  elsewhere,  so  that  we  find  them  called 
Sherlock  at  a  very  early  period.  From  the  year  1462  to  the 
year  1690,  when  the  city  of  Waterford  was  surrendered  to 
King  William  III.,  the  offices  of  mayor  and  sheriff  of  Water* 
ford  were  served  on  thirty-three  occasions  by  gentlemen  of  the 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.       41 

name  of  Sherlock.  Four  htmdred  and  thirty-one  years  ago  a 
member  of  that  family  named  John  Sherlock  was  mayor  of 
Waterford,  and  in  those  days  the  position  of  mayor  of  a  city 
was  one  of  great  dignity  and  importance.  We  are  still  enabled 
to  form  some  idea  of  the  manner  in  which  merchant  princes 
and  gentlemen  lived  from  the  old  mansions  of  the  Bothes  in 
Kilkenny,  and  similar  buildings.  The  Eothe  family  were  at  a 
▼ery  early  period  connected  by  marriage  with  the  family  of 
Sherlock,  David  Bothe,  whose  father,  John  Bothe,  served  as 
sovereign  of  Kilkenny  in  1440,  having  married  Catherine 
daughter  of  Sir  Paul  Sherlock,  knight,  of  Qrace  Dieu,  county 
Waterford. 

These  gentlemen  merchants  placed  great  store  on  theijr 
armorial  bearings,  and  it  was  their  custom  to  have  their  arms 
cut  in  stone  and  inserted  over  the  doors  or  in  the  front  walls  of 
their  houses,  and  sometimes  on  their  appointment  to  the  ofSees 
of  mayor  or  sovereign  they  had  their  arms  beautifully  emblaz- 
oned in  the  corporation  books,  instances  of  which  are  still  to 
be  found  in  the  books  of  the  more  ancient  cities  and  towns.  If 
the  barons  dominated  the  country,  the  guild  merchants  domi* 
nated  the  towns.  '*  No  one  could  come  into  the  town  and  sell  his 
wares  to  anyone  except  to  a  member  of  the  said  society,  and  this 
at  the  pleasure  of  the  buyer.  Foreign  merchants  could  only  vend 
tlieir  merchandise  wholesale,  and  then  only  to  one  of  the 
brethren.  By  reason  of  the  guild  merchant,  no  foreign 
merohant  could  buy  wholesale,  wine,  wool,  woolfells,  leather 
or  lead  from  any  foreigner,  except  from  members  of  the  same 
guild."  In  some  towns  custom  made  the  rule  of  the  guild  more 
oppressive;  for  instance,  ''if  anyone  brought  neat's  leather,  wool, 
or  woolfells  into  Derby  to  sell,  and  one  of  the  guild  placed  his 
foot  on  the  thing  to  be  bought,  no  one  but  a  member  of  the 
society  would  dare  to  buy  it,  nor  would  the  merchant  dare  to 
sell  it,  save  to  a  member,  nor  for  a  higher  price  than  that  which 
the  member  of  the  society  offered."  -  These  old  guild  merdiants 
were  recruited  from  some  of  the  best  families  in  the  land,  and 
readily  passed  back  again  into  the  ranks  of  the  nobles,  but  if 
the  guild  merchant  occupied  a  privileged  position,  how  much 
more  so  the  mayor.  Let  us  take  Galway  for  instance,  and  we  find 
in  1564,  one  Nicholas  Blake  fined  the  great  sum  (considering 
the  value  of  money  then  and  now)  of  £40  for  daring  to  issue 
the  Queen's  writ  against  the  Warden  without  first  suing  before 
the  mayor  and  council;  and  no  matter  how  rich  a  guild 
merchant  was,  he  was  not  to  allow  his  wife  to  vie  with  the 
mayor's  wife  in  matters  of  dress,  for  it  was  straightly  ordered : 
**  That  no  woman  shall  weare  no  gorgiouse  aparell,  but  as 


42  NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 

beoometh  them  to  do  aocordingto  ther  oallinge,  and  upon  th^oi 
they  shall  weare  no  oogtlie  hatt  bands  or  cap  bauds  of  gold 
treede,  the  mayorases  only  excepted."^  Our  merchant  of 
those  days  must  not  only  be  an  expert  in  the  counting-house, 
but  he  must  also  be  a  good  soldier,  and  the  mayor  should  be 
ready  at  a  moment's  notice  to  put  himself  at  the  head  of  the 
trained  hands,  to  repel  the  enemies  of  his  city.  Many  were 
tlie  battles  the  good  citizens  of  Waterford  fought  against  their 
enemies  the  Powers,  who  were  lords  paramount  of  the  county, 
and  the  O'Drisoolls  of  Baltimore,  in  the  county  Cork,  who  seem 
to  have  been  very  much  like  a  band  of  pirates,  uutil  in  15^7, 
exasperated  by  the  plunder  of  one  of  their  merchantmen,  the 
mayor  assembled  a  little  fleet,  consisting  of  the  great  galley  of 
the  city  and  two  other  ships  well  appointed  with  artillery  and 
400  men  under  the  command  of  bailiff  Woolock  as  chief 
captain,  James  Sherlock  and  others,  and  with  this  little  force  the 
Wuterford  men  destroyed  the  castles,  burned  the  galleys  and  pin- 
naces and  pluudered  the  territory  of  this  sept.  We  do  not  hear 
that  the  O'DriscoUs  ever  molested  Waterford  after  that  defeat. 
When  in  1544  Henry  VIII.  engaged  in  a  war  with  the 
£ing  of  France,  and  passing  over  into  that  kingdom  besieged 
Bologne,  he  was  accompanied  by  a  considerable  body  of  Irish 
soldiers,  who  we  are  told  distinguished  themselves  by  their 
undaunted  spirit,  and  astonished  the  enemy  by  the  rapidity 
with  which  they  traversed  the  country,  and  by  their  ferocity. 
8even  huudred  of  these  soldiers  were  Waterlord  men,  com* 
mauded  by  the  Lord  Poer  (or  Power)  and  Captain  Sherlock. 
Lord  Poer  was  killed  at  this  siege,  as  appears  from  a  Qrueeu's 
letter  dated  the  Slst  May,  158b,  ordering  a  grant  of  laud  iu 
fee-farm  to  Richard  Poer,  ^'  his  grandfather  having  been  slain 
in  service  against  the  rebels,  and  his  uncle  having  been  slain  at 
Bulloigne  in  the  service  of  our  late  father,  of  hap[)y  memory." 
These  soldiers  plundered  all  the  adjacent  country,  and  we  are 
told  that ''  their  manner  of  collecting  cattle  was  by  tying  a  bull 
to  a  stake,  and  scorchiug  him  with  faggots  in  order  to  force 
him  to  bellow,  which  gathered  all  the  neighbouring  cows  about 
him,  by  which  artifice  they  were  taken  and  carried  to  the  camp ; 
and  whenever  they  met  with  a  Freuchman,  they  always  cut  ofiF 
his  head,  refusing  him  both  quarter  and  ransom.  The  French 
being  astonished  by  this  strange  kind  of  making  war,  sent  a 
trumpet  to  King  Henry  to  learn  whether  he  had  brought  with 
him  men  or  devils  that  could  neither  be  won  with  rewards  or 


^  The  oharters  and  oustoms  of  corporate  towns  at  both  sides  of  the 
Channel  were  much  the  same. 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.       43 

oompassion,  which  the  king  turniog  to  a  jest,  seyeral  of  the 
Irish  who  straggled  from  their  companions  and  fell  in  the 
enemy*s  hands,  were  afterwards  used  very  cruelly,  and  put  to 
great  tortures  before  they  were  slain.  At  this  siege  a  French- 
man challenged  to  fight  any  of  the  English,  hand  to  hand,  in 
single  combat,  and  came  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  for  this 
purpose,  being  encouraged  thereto  by  the  depth  of  the  water 
and  the  nearness  of  his  own  men.  One  Nicholas  Walsh,  an 
Irishman,  accepted  the  challenge,  swam  across  the  bay,  fought 
the  Frenchman,  despatched  him  before  any  of  his  countrymen 
could  assist  him,  and  returned  across  the  water,  swimming  with 
Monsieur's  head  in  his  mouth,  for  which  exploit  he  was  well 
rewarded."  Bat  not  only  were  the  Irish  soldiers  in  those  days 
accustomed  to  catch  their  cows  in  a  strange  manner,  but  they 
had  an  equally  strange  manner  of  cooking  them.  They  in  fact 
boiled  them  in  their  skins ;  having  skinned  a  cow,  they  formed 
a  bag  or  trough  by  lashing  the  skin  firmly  at  the  four  corners 
to  trees  or  stakes,  and  then  having  poured  water  into  the 
trough,  they  kindled  a  large  fire  at  one  «ide,  and  they  boiled 
the  water  and  cooked  the  meat  by  heating  stones  to  a  ffreat  heat 
and  throwing  them  into  the  trough.  This  seems  to  have  been 
an  adaptation  of  the  manner  of  cooking  adopted  in  the  old  Irish 
cooking  places,  called  ''  the  Boiling-places  or  Fire-places  of  the 
Deer."  So  that  between  the  catching  and  the  cooking,  we  can- 
not be  surprised  that  the  French  were  not  a  little  astonished. 

In  15tj5  James  Sherlock  (Fitz  Thomas),  who  is  styled  of 
Butlerstown,  Co.  Waterford,  was  granted  a  certificate  exempting 
his  lands  there  from  the  payment  of  a  subsidy,  and  in  1570  he 
was  sheriff  of  the  county,  and  had  a  commission  empowering 
him  to  execute  martial  law.  In  the  same  year  he  and  others 
were  appointed  Commissioners  to  survey  and  divide  the  lands 
of  "the  White  Knight.]' 

All  through  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  the  Waterford 
Sherlocks  seem  to  have  been  staunch  loyalists,  and,  as  they  con- 
stantly served  the  offices  of  sheriif  and  mayor,  we  find  them 
in  continual  communication  with  the  Government  officials, 
and  supplying  them  with  valuable  information,  obtained  from 
sailors  and  others,  as  to  proposed  invasions  of  the  country  from 
abroad.  In  the  reign  of  James  I.,  a.d.  1603,  we  find  Walter 
Sherlock  and  five  others  stated  to  be  the  only  people  in  the  city 
who  refused  to  take  a  seditious  oath.  The  family  seem  to 
have  remained  steadily  loyal  to  the  Crown  ;  yet,  notwithstand- 
ing that  loyalty,  Sir  Thomas  Sherlock,  who  was  mayor  of 
Waterford  in  1632,  very  nearly  lost  all  lus  estates. 

There  is  a  strange  account  of  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune 


44  NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 

that  befel  him,  in  an  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  the  17th  and 
18th  years  of  Charles  II.,  oalled  ^*  an  Act  for  the  explaining  of 
some  doubts  arising  upon  an  Act  intitled  an  Act  for  the  bettw 
execution  of  his  Majesties  gracious  declaration  for  the  settle- 
ment of  his  Kingdom  of  Ireland,"  &c.  (see  page  74).  This  Act 
was  not  passed  until  after  Sir  Thomas  Slierlock's  death,  and 
from  it  we  learn  that ''  Sir  Thomas  Sherlock,  £night,  deceased, 
was  in  his  life  time  a  very  dutifuU  and  loyal  subject,  and  from 
the  first  breaking  out  of  the  said  rebellion  (1641)  and  war  unto 
the  last  end  thereof  behaved  himself  with  great  courage  and 
dilligence  in  his  Majesties  service  and  suffered  great  hardships 
and  extremities  from  the  said  Irish  rebells — until  at  last  being 
taken  prisoner  by  them,  he  was  forced  for  fear  of  his  life  t^ 
subscribe  their  oath  of  association,  and  having  so  gained  his 
liberty  did  immediately  fly  uuto  Dublin  and  there  submitted 
himself  to  the  now  Lord  Duke,  then  Lord  Marquess  of  Ormond, 
his  Majesties  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  and  continued  there 
ever  after  serving  his  Majestic  and  his  authority  to  the 
utmost  of  his  power,  the  consideration  whereof  inclined  his 
Majestic  to  mention  the  said  Sir  Thomas  Sherlock  in  his  late 
gracious  declaration  amongst  the  names  of  those  few  persons 
whom  his  Majestic  was  pleased  to  appoint  to  be  restored  to  their 
former  estate  without  any  further  proof  of  their  innocency — 
which  said  Sir  Thomas  Sherlock  was  afterwards  by  the  Com- 
missioners for  the  execution  of  the  said  former  Act  adjudged  a 
nocent  person  upon  no  other  ground  or  evidence  thaa  the 
enforced  subscription  of  the  oath  of  association  as  aforesaid. 
Be  it  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid :  That  the  Commis- 
sioners for  the  execution  of  this  Act  shall  forthwith  and  without 
any  previous  reprisall,  restore  unto  Paul  Sherlock  Esq.,  son  and 
heir  of  the  said  Sir  Thomas  Sherlock,  and  his  heii's  the  posses- 
sion of  the  principal  and  capital  messuage  or  seat  and  also  one 
third  part  of  all  and  singular  the  messuages,  manors,  lands, 
tenements,  and  hereditaments,  whereof  the  said  Sir  Thomas 
Sherlock  was  possessed  upon  the  22nd  of  October,  1641.'*  The 
foregoing  is  a  slightly  contracted  extract  from  the  Act  of  Par- 
liament, and  it  seems  to  show  that  King  Charles  II.  was  often 
unjustly  blamed  for  not  restoring  confiscated  estates  to  his 
followers. 

In  this  case  it  required  not  only  the  whole  power  of  the 
King  but  two  Acts  of  Parliament  to  wrest  one-third  of  Sir 
Thomas  Sherlock's  lands  from  the  Adventurers,  and  even  this 
could  not  be  accomplished  until  after  his  death ;  so  that  notwith* 
standing  his  great  services  to  the  Crown,  he  must  have  passed 
away  from  the  world  in  a  state  of  uncertainty  as  to  whether 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.        45 

his  family  would  have  been  left  in  a  state  of  poverty  or  not. 
The  lands  that  were  restored  to  Paul  Sherlook  will  be  found  in 
the  Aots  of  Settlement,  and  we  believe  that  they  are  still  in  the 
hands  of  his  descendants.  The  Sherlooks  were  among  the 
numerous  Irish  families  who,  during  the  unceasing  troubles 
that  kept  their  native  land  in  a  state  of  unrest,  found  a  home 
in  Spain,  consequently  we  find  in  the  middle  of  the  18th 
century  a  Don  Pedro  Sherlock  to  have  been  Colonel  of  the 
XJltonia  Begiment.  He  died  at  Madrid,  leaving  as  his  heir  his 
son,  Don  Juan  Sherlock,  captain  in  the  same  regiment,  who 
in  proving  his  father's  will  is  described  as  of  Waterford. 
Numerous  members  of  this  family  are  to  be  found  among 
the  officers  in  King  James  II.'s  Irish  Army  List,  such  as 
Captain  Christopher  Sherlook,  in  the  Lord  Grand  Prior's  regi- 
ment. Captain  Thomas  Sherlook  and  Ensign  Maurice  Sherlook, 
in  Sir  Maurice  Eustace's  regiment,  and  Captain  Sherlock,  in 
O'Moore's  regiment. 

In  King  James's  Irish  Parliament  held  on  the  7th  day  of 
May,  1689,  we  find  that  Edward  Sherlock,  of  Dublin,  was 
member  for  the  borough  of  Cloghmyne  or  Clonmines,  Co. 
Wexford,  and  during  that  reign  Thomas  Sherlock  was  deputy- 
lieutenant  for  the  city  of  Waterford. 

We  have  already  mentioned  the  Kildare  branch  of  the 
family  of  Sherlock  as  seated  there  at  a  very  early  period,  at  so 
early  a  date  that  in  1299  they  had  given  their  own  name  to  the 
lands  on  which  they  resided.  The  representative  of  the  family 
was  fined  in  that  year  for  not  attending  the  inquisitions  of  the 
coroner,  held  at  Kildare  in  the  months  of  May  and  November. 
In  1389  Walter  Sherlook  held  60  acres  of  land  in  Sherlocks- 
town.  Doubtless,  some  of  our  readers  may  be  surprised  at  the 
small  portions  of  land  mentioned  as  being  held  by  men  of 
considerable  social  importance,  at  that  early  period,  but  thoy 
should  always  bear  iu  mind  that  very  often  it  was  only  the 
arable  or  profitable  lands  that  are  mentioned,  and  in  addition 
to  the  lord's  lands  there  was  always  the  lord's  waste,  which  was 
often  of  very  great  extent.  In  1413-22  Walter  Sherlock  was 
chief-sergeant  of  Kildare. 

In  1432  Nicholas  Sherlock  was  dean  of  Kildare. 

In  1549  we  find  it  recorded  that  Robert  Sherloke  was 
seated  at  Sherlockston. 

In  1556  Philip  Sherlock  was  seated  at  Little  Bath  and  Deny. 

In  1608  Sherlocke  of  Sherlockstowne  was  Constable  of 
Kildare. 

In  1627  Christopher  Sherlook  was  seated  at  Sherlockstown. 
After  that  date  this  estate  passed  out  of  the  hands  of  the  family 


46  NOTES  ON  THE  FAMILY  OF  SHERLOCK: 

until  the  year  1704,  when  William  Sherlook  purchased  itvbaok, 
and  it  remains  up  to  the  present  day  in  the  hands  of  his 
descendants. 

We  have  already  mentioned  that  the  Sherlocks  were  located 
at  Little  Rath,  in  the  county  Kildare,  in  the  year  1556.  In 
1646,  Sir  John  Sherlock,  knight  of  Little  Rath,  was,  like  many 
of  his  relatives,  an  officer  in  the  service  of  King  Charles  I., 
and  was  governor  of  Naas  under  Lord  Ormond.  In  his  will, 
dated  1652,  he  gives  a  vivid  picture  of  the  discords  and  unhap- 
piness  of  the  times  he  lived  in.  He  says — "  In  rep^rd  to  the 
trouble  of  these  times,  and  the  general  devastation  of  this 
county,  my  whole  estate  is  likely,  in  all  probability,  to  be  of 
small  benefit  to  me  or  to  my  wife,  during  our  natural  lives,  and 
it  hath  pleased  God  (the  wise  disposer  of  all  things)  to  bereave 
of  my  children  and  posterity  of  my  own  loyns;  and  those  that 
are  my  brothers  by  ray  father  (a  second  mother)  are  utterly 
incapable  to  inherit,  in  respect  of  their  wicked  adhering  to  the 
Irish,  in  the  horrid  rebellion  of  this  nation."  Sir  John 
Sherlock  was  buried  at  St.  Michan's,  Dublin.  His  stepbrother 
Philip,  who  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  the  Right  Honour- 
able Sir  John  Eustace,  knight,  of  Harristown,  had  his 
property  sequestered  as  a  Papist,  and  was  among  the  few 
proprietors  who  were  restored  in  1662  by  the  Court  of  Claims. 
He  was  buried  at  Bodenstown.  Several  of  his  sons  followed 
the  fortunes  of  Kine  James  II.,  and  among  them  Christo- 
pher, the  eldest,  wno  forfeited  Little  Rath,  Derry,  and 
bodenstown  in  170iS,  which  townlands  were  bought  back  by 
Richard  Sherlock,  and  united  with  Sherlockstown  in  1741. 

So  that  the  representation  of  both  branches  of  the  Eildare 
Sherlocks  now  devolves  on  the  present  proprietor  of  Sherlocks- 
town. The  Sherlocks  of  Rahan,  King's  County,  are  lineal 
descendants  of  the  Little  Rath  family. 

An  intimate  connection  existed  for  many  years  between  the 
family  of  Sherlock  and  the  borough  of  Naas.  John  Sherlock 
was  M.P.  for  that  borough  in  1560,  and  his  son  James  Sherlock 
was  member  for  *^le  ]Naase"  in  1585.  In  May,  1586,  his 
name  appears  among  those  of  the  knights  and  burgesses  of 
Parliament  who  protested  against  the  attainder  of  Desmond. 
And  when  he  died  in  1595,  he  was  seized  in  fee  of  2  castles, 
1  stone  house,  35  messuages,  132  acres  of  arable  land,  1  garden, 
and  1  water  mill,  all  in  Naas.  In  1613  Christopher  Sherlock 
was  M.P.  for  Naas ;  in  1634  Christopher  Sherlock  was  M.P.  for 
Naas;  in  1639  Charles  Sherlock  was  M.P.  for  Naas.  This 
same  Charles  Sherlock  was  expelled  for  non-attendance  in 
1642 ;  he  was  probably  a  recusant,  and  afraid  to  attend.     In 


FROM  STATE  PAPERS  AND  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS.       47 

1609  Ohristopher  Sherlook  was  soyereign  of  Naas,  and  in  1636 
Biofaard  Sherlock  was  sovereira  of  Naas. 

Note. — I  have  to  thank  the  Rev.  Canon  Sherlook  for  per- 
mission to  make  use  of  his  notes  when  ooUeotiug  materials  for 
the  foregoing  Paper. 


^HIKLD   I.— ARMS  OF  SHBRLOCKS  OF  BALDWINSTOWN    AND    ROSLARR,  CO.  WEXFORD. 

(From  a  Pedigree  in  Ulater  King- of- Arms'  Office.) 

SHIBLD  a.— ARMS  OF  SHKRLOCKS  OF  SHRRLOCKSTOWN  AND  LITTLK  RATH,  CO.  KILDARB. 

(From  an  old  stone  found  at  Sberlockstown  in  x88o,  with  Arms  of  Christopher 
Sherlock  and  Anne  Fitz  Gerald,  bis  wife.) 


SHIKLO  J.—AMMS  OF  SHBRLOCKS  OF  GRACB   DIBU,  CO.   WATBRFORI>. 

(From  a  Pedigree  in  Ulster  King-of-Arms'  Office.) 


(     48     ) 

^      ''THE  PALEr 
Bx  THE  EEV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  S.J.,  M.R.I.A. 

THE  word  Pale  is  oue  of  very  frequent  occurrence  in  the 
later  medisBYal  portion  of  Irish  history.  The  word  is 
derived  from  the  Latin,  paluBy  a  stake,  which  is  pointed 
to  be  thrust  into  the  ground[for  supporting  a  hedge  or  vines, 
to  which  a  criminal  would  be  tied  when  he  was  about  to  be 
scourged,  or  on  which  his  body  would  be  put  when  left  to  be 
devoured  by  the  birds  of  the  air.  The  English  derivatives  are 
a  pale,  paling,  impaled,  a  heraldic  term,  and  so  forth. 

Boate,  an  Englishman  who  came  to  Ireland  in  1645,  and 
wrote  a  work  bearing  the  title  of  the  "  Natural  History  of 
Ireland,"  speaking  of  the  various  divisions  of  Ireland  says : — 
"  There  is  yet  another  division  of  Ireland  whereby  the  whole 
land  is  divided  into  two  parts,  tlie  English  Pale  and  the  land 
of  the  mere  Irish ;  the  original  of  which  division  is  this : — The 
English  af  the  first  conquest,  under  the  reign  of  Henry  II., 
having  within  a  little  time  conquered  great  parts  of  Ireland, 
did  afterwards  in  the  space  of  not  very  many  years,  make 
themselves  masters  of  almost  all  the  rest,  having  expelled  the 
natives  (called  the  Wild  Irish  because  that  in  all  manner  of 
wildness  they  may  be  compared  with  the  most  barbarous 
nations  of  the  earth)  into  the  desert,  woods,  and  mountains ; 
but  afterwards  having  fallen  on  odds  among  themselves,  and 
making  several  great  wars,  t)ie  one  upon  the  other,  the  Irish 
thereby  got  the  opportunity  to  recover  now  this,  and  then  that 
part  of  the  land,  whereby  and  through  the  degenerating  of  a 
great  many,  from  time  to  time,  wlio,  joining  themselves  with 
the  Irish,  took  upon  them  their  wilcl  fashions  and  their  language, 
the  EnffUsh,  in  length  of  time,  came  to  be  so  much  weakened, 
that  at  last  nothing  remained  to  them  of  the  whole  kingdom 
worth  the  speaking  of  but  the  great  cities  and  four  counties ; 
to  whom  the  name  of  Pale  was  given,  because  that  the  authority 
and  greatness  of  the  kings  of  England,  and  the  English  colonies 
or  plantations,  which  before  had  been  spread  over  the  whole 
land,  now  were  reduced  to  so  small  a  compass,  and  as  it  were 
empaled  within  the  same.  And,  although,  since  the  beginning 
of  the  present  age,  and  since  King  James'  coming  to  the  Crown 
of  England,  the  whole  island  was  reduced  under  the  obedience 


THE  PALE.  49 

and  government  of  the  English  laws,  and  replenished  with 
English  and  Scotch  colonies,  nevertheless,  the  name  of  English 
Pale,  which  in  the  old  signification  was  now  out  of  reason, 
remained  in  use,  and  is  so  still,  even  since  this  last  hloody 
rebellion,  wherein  the  inhabitants  of  almost  all  the  Pale, 
although  all  of  them  of  English  descent,  have  conspired  with 
the  native  Irish/' 

Campion,  who  wrote  his  "History  of  Ireland"  in  1571,  gives 
a  slightly  different  meaning  for  the  name : — "  An  old  distinc- 
tion," he  says,  "  there  is  of  Ireland  into  Irish  and  English 
pales ;  for  wlien  the  Irish  had  raised  continued  tumults  against 
the  English  planted  here  with  the  conquest,  at  last  they  coursed 
them  into  a  narrow  circuit  of  certain  shires  in  Leinster,  which 
the  English  did  choose  as  the  fattest  soyle,  most  defensible, 
their  proper  right,  and  most  open  to  receive  help  from  Eng- 
land. Hereupon  it  was  determined  ^  their  Pale,'  as  whereout 
they  durst  not  peepe.  But  now,  within  this  Pale,  uncivil  Irish 
and  some  rebels  do  dwell,  and  without  countries  and  cities  are 
well  governed." 

Sir  John  Davis  too  states  that  when  the  English  Pale  was 
first  planted,  "  all  the  natives  were  clearly  expelled ;  not  so 
much  as  one  Irish  family  had  so  much  as  an  acre  of  freehold 
in  all  the  Pale."  If  he  means  thereby  that  at  an  early  date, 
soon  after  the  coming  of  the  Anglo-Normans,  the  territory, 
afterwards  called  the  rale,  was  entirely  cleared  of  the  natives, 
he  is  quite  wrong. 

We  must  bear  in  mind  that  many  of  the  original  Anglo- 
Normans  separated  themselves  in  a  great  measure  from  their 
oompanions  in  arms,  and  settling  down  in  various  parts  of  the 
country,  assumed  the  position  and  authority  of  the  Irish  chiefs, 
whom  in  part  or  wholly  they  dispossessed.  So  it  was  with  the 
Fitzgeralds  of  Desmond,  the  De  Burgos  of  Connaught,  the 
D'Exeters,  the  Birminghams,  of  some  of  whom  it  was  said  that 
they  were  ^^  Hibernis  ipsis  Hibemiores,"  more  Irish  than  the 
Irish  themselves  ;  but  at  no  time  and  nowhere  was  any  great 
part  of  the  country  so  cleared  of  its  original  inhabitants,  for 
the  very  good  reason  that  the  settlers  could  not  do  without 
them,  even  if  they  wished  to  be  rid  of  them. 

The  English  who  lived  up  and  down  throughout  the  country 
without  being  incorporated  with  the  people,  as  those  whom  I 
have  mentioned,  seem  to  have  withdrawn  into  the  portion  of 
Leinster  nearest  to  the  metropolis,  towards  the  end  of  the  reign 
of  Edward  I. ;  that  is,  about  the  year  1300,  no  doubt  because 
this  district  was  '*  most  open  to  receive  help  from  England." 
This  was  called  ^'  The  English  land,"  and  those  who  dwelt 

▼OL.  II.,  PT.   I.  £ 


50  THE  PALE. 

outside  were  said  to  be  '*  inter  HibemicoB,"  dwelling  among  the 
Irish.  About  a  century  later,  and  only  then,  tne  name  of 
"  Pale  "  was  given  to  it.  In  the  "  State  Papers,"  relating  to 
the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Henry  YIII.,  under  the  date 
1515,  we  find  it  limited  to  four  counties,  viz. :  Dublin,  Kildare, 
Meath,  and  Uriel,  now  Louth.  It  is  sometimes  said  to  contain 
five  counties ;  but  then  we  must  remember  that  it  was  only  in 
the  34th  of  Henry  YIII.,  i.«.,  in  1543,  Meath  was  divided  into 
East  Meath,  which  we  now  call  Meath,  and  Westmeath,  and 
that  both  were  included  within  the  Pale.  Its  exact  limits  are 
set  down  there  :  "  The  English  Pale  doth  stretche  and  extend 
from  the  town  of  Dundalk  to  the  town  of  Derver  (4  miles 
N.W.  of  Castle  Bellingham),  to  the  town  of  Ardee,  always  on 
the  left  side  leaving  the  march  on  the  right  side,  and  so  to  the 
town  of  Sydan  (4  miles  8.  W.  of  Nobber),  to  the  town  of 
Kenlis  (Kells>,  to. the  town  of  Dengle  (Dangan),  to  Kilcocke, 
to  the  town  6i  Clane,  to  the  town  of  Naas,  to  the  bridge  of 
Kilcullen,  to  the  town  of  Ballimore  (Eustace),  and  so  backward 
to  the  town  of  Bamore  (Eatlimore),  and  to  the  town  of  Bath- 
ooule,  to  the  town  of  Tallaght,  and  to  the  town  of  Dalkey, 
leaving  always  the  marche  on  the  right  hand  from  the  saide 
Dundalk,  following  the  said  course  to  the  said  town  of  Dalkye." 
From  this  enumeration  it  is  clear  that  considerable  districts  of 
these  four  counties  were  not  included  in  the  Pale.  Within  this 
territory,  and  only  within  it,  did  the  justices  and  judges  hold 
assize,  and  the  sheriff  enforce  English  law.  These  may  be 
considered  the  limits  of  the  Pale  in  a  general  way ;  but  at  times 
it  seems  to  have  extended  further ;  thus  we  read  in  the  Beoords 
for  the  37th  of  Edward  III.  (1364) :  "To  such  a  height  had 
the  power  of  the  Kavanaghs  and  others  arisen  that  the  more 
distant  districts  of  the  Pale  were  then  relinquished  and  the  rest 
retained,  for  the  barrier  from  Carlow  to  Dublin  was  ordered 
to  be  removed.''  It  was  a  common  saying  all  this  time  that 
**  they  dwelt  beyond  the  law  that  dwelt  west  of  the  Barrow." 
The  Eavanaghs  were  paid  an  annual  rent  called  "  black  rent," 
to  protect  the  King's  subjects  when  crossing  the  Barrow  at 
Leighlin  Bridge.  So  too  the  O'Neills,  O'Connors,  and  others 
received  a  sort  of  tribute  from  the  Crown  or  from  the  English 
settled  on  the  borders  of  the  Pale,  and  the  practise  seems  to  nave 
lasted  till  the  24th  of  Henry  YIII.  (1533),  when  it  was  for- 
bidden by  Act  of  Parliament  to  pay  such  tax  further  to  the 
Irish.  Yet,  eyen  in  1599,  the  Irish  Council  complained  to 
Elizabeth  that  the  English  subjects  still  paid  most  oppressive 
black  rents. 

In  1494,  a  parliament  was  held  at  Drogheda,  by  Sir  Edward 


THE  PALE.  51 

Poynings,  the  same  in  which  the  famous  Foynings'  Act  was 
passed ;  in  this  parliament  an  Act  was  passed  for  the  protection 
of  those  who  dwelt  within  the  Pale.     It  runs  as  follows : — 

''As  the  marches  of  four  shires  lie  open  and  not  fensible  in 
fastness  of  ditches  and  castles,  by  which  Irishmen  do  great  hurt 
in  preying  the  same ;  it  is  enacted  that  every  inhabitant,  earth- 
tiller,  and  occupier  in  said  marches,  t.  e.  in  the  county  of  Dublin, 
from  the  water  of  Anliffy  to  the  mountain  in  Kildare,  from  the 
water  AnlifTey  to  Trim,  and  so  forth  to  Meath  and  XJriell,  as 
said  marches  are  made  and  limited  by  the  Act  of  Parliament 
held  by  William,  Bishop  of  Meath,  do  build  and  make  a  double 
ditch  of  six  feet  high  aoove  ground  at  one  side  or  part  which 
meaieth  next  unto  Irishmen,  l^twizt  this  and  the  next  Lammas, 
the  said  ditches  to  be  kept  up  and  repaired  as  long  as  they  shall 
occupy  said  land,  under  pain  of  40s. ;  the  lord  of  said  lands  to 
allow  the  old  rent  of  said  lands  to  the  builder  for  one  year, 
under  said  penalty.  The  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the  sheriff 
of  the  county  of  Dublin,  the  Bishop  of  Kildare,  and  the  sheriff 
of  the  county  of  Kildare,  the  Bishop  of  Meath,  and  the  sheriff 
of  the  county  of  Meath,  the  Primate  of  Armagh  and  the  sheriff 
of  the  county  of  Uriel,  be  commissioners  within  their  respective 
shires,  with  full  power  to  call  the  inhabitants  of  said  four  shires 
to  make  ditches  in  the  waste  or  Fasagh  land  without  the  said 
marches." 

There  are  still  several  portions  of  this  double  ditch  six  feet 
high  remaining,  one  part  between  Ckne  and  Clongowes,  close 
to  the  south-western  angle  of  the  garden  wall  of  the  colle^, 
another  part  from  the  college  farmyard  to  the  nearer  end  of  the 
by-road  that  leads  to  Rathcoffy ;  both  are  locally  known  as 
"  the  Bampart,"  and  are  still  of  the  original  height,  as  some  of 
our  fox-hunting  friends  must  know  to  their  cost,  and  almost  wide 
enough  at  the  top  for  a  cart  to  go  along  on  them.  There  is  a 
third  portion  near  Kilcock,  I  have  been  told,  and  perhaps  more 
in  other  parts  along  the  line  of  division  given  above.  Perhaps 
some  of  our  members  who  reside  in  that  part  of  the  country  may 
look  them  up  and  give  us  some  information  about  them.  This 
ditch  would  not  be  any  great  hindrance  for  an  active  person  to 
cross  it,  such  as  an  English  writer  who  accompanied  King 
Bichard  II.,  in  his  expedition  to  Ireland  against  Art 
M'Morrogh,  describes  the  Irish  to  be, ''  so  nimble  and  swift  of 
foot  that  like  unto  stags,  they  ran  over  mountains  and  valleys,'' 
and  oould  mount  a  horse  going  at  full  speed.  But  if  we  bear 
in  mind  that  cattle  constituted  the  great  wealth  of  the  English 
colonists,  and  that  the  lifting,  or  'reeving'  of  them  was  the 
principal  way  in  which  their  Irish  neighbours  could  do  them 

E2 


25 


THE  PALE. 


harm  and  benefit  themselves,  we  shall  readily  see  what  a  pro- 
tection such  a  barrier  afforded.  We  find  something  of  the  kind 
done  in  other  parts  for  the  protection  of  the  Pale.  Thus  in  1478, 
in  the  parliament  held  at  Drogheda,  an  Act  was  passed  empower- 
ing Andrew  Tuite  to  make  a  trench  a  mile  in  length  between 
Bathconyll  and  Queylan,  in  Meath,  '^  where  there  is  a  common 
road  for  the  Irish  enemies  of  the  king  to  come  and  enter,"  and 
he  was  allowed  to  raise  a  tax  of  one  penny  for  every  cow,  and 
bullock,  and  every  horsepack  of  merchandize  and  victuals  coming 


Tim    RAMPART  (NORTH  VIBW),   BKIWKKN  CLANK   AXD  CLONGOWES  C  OLLBGK. 

(From  Th€  ChngowHt'an,  with  the  Editor^s  kind  permission.) 

or  going  by  or  near  that  road.  In  1553,  tlie  Inst  year  of  the 
reign  of  Edward  VI.,  a  commission  was  issued  to  John  Parker, 
Master  of  the  Rolls,  bidding  him  raise  of  every  townland  in 
Moyfenrath,  Luue,  Bermingham's  country,  tlie  Bishop's  and 
Lenagh's  lands,  Ferbill,  and  FertuUagh,  six  men  for  six  days  to 
repair  a  ditch  that  reacheth  from  the  castle  of  Secrorghan 
(Tecroghan  near  Trim),  to  the  Boyne  which  at  times  past  was 
made  for  the  defence  of  the  country.     At  intervals  above  the 


THE  PALE.  53 

border  line  there  were  castles  and  '^  fenced  houses,"  the  constable 
of  each  of  which  should  be  an  Englishman,  for  an  Irishman 
"  would  by  nature  discover  the  secrets  of  the  English."  So  we 
find  an  Act  passed  in  the  seventh  year  of  Henry  YI.  (1429), 
ordering  several  castles  to  be  built,  as  in  county  Louth,  *^  that 
county  Doing  destroyed  by  default  of  castles  and  towers."  In 
a  parliament  held  at  Naas  in  1472,  a  castle  was  ordered  to  be 
built  at  Windgates,  county  Kildare,  and  a  levy  of  £10  was 
ordered  to  be  made  in  the  county  for  the  purpose  ;  at  the  request 
of  the  Abbot  of  Baltinglas  the  same  permission  was  given  to 
Bowland  Eustace,  Lord  Fortlester,  to  build  a  castle  at  Bala- 
blaght,  county  Kildare ;  and  so  forth.  Bound  each  of  these  castles 
there  was  a  bawn  (bodun,  a  cow  enclosure)  into  which  the 
cattle  were  driven  at  the  approach  of  the  Irish  on  their  raids. 

But  this  was  not  all.  It  was  desirable  that  all  inter- 
course, so  far  as  was  possible,  should  be  prevented  between 
the  English  settlers  and  their  Irish  neighbours.  ^'  Lord,"  says 
Spenser,  '^  how  quickly  doth  that  country  alter  m^n's  natures  !  " 
and  the  same  writer — remember  he  wrote  at  th^  end  of  Elizabeth's 
reign — ^in  his  "  View  of  the  State  of  Ireland,"  which  in  the  form 
of  a  colloquy  between  Eudoxus  and  Ireneaus,  makes  Eudoxus  ask : 
"  What !  are  not  they  that  were  once  English,  English  still  ?  " 
and  Irenffius  answers.  "  No,  for  some  of  them  are  degenerated 
and  grown  mere  Irish,  yea,  and  more  malicious  to  the  English; 
than  the  Irish  themselves."  .....  '*The  English  Pale/'  he 
says  elsewhere,  ^*  hath  preserved  itself  through  nearness  of  the 
state  in  reasonable  civility ;  but  the  rest  that  dwelt  in  Con- 
naught  and  Munster,  which  is  the  sweetest  soil  in  Ireland,  and 
some  in  Leinster  and  Ulster,  are  degenerate ;  yea,  and  some  of 
them  have  quite  shaken  off  their  English  names  and  put  on  Irish, 

that  they  might  be  altogether  Irish The  like  is  reported 

of  the  old  followers  of  the  Earl  of  Desmond ;  who  for  some 
ofEence  by  the  Queen  against  him  conceived  was  brought  to  his 
death  most  injustly  at  Brogheda  in  1467,  notwithstanding 
that  he  was  a  very  good  subject  to  the  king.  Thereupon  all 
his  kinsmen  of  the  Qeraldines,  which  was  then  a  mighty  family 
in  Munster,  in  revenge  of  that  huge  wrong,  rose  into  arms 
against  the  king,  and  utterly  renoimced  and  forsook  all  obedi- 
ence to  the  Crown  of  England.  .  .  .  And  with  them  all  the 
people  of  Munster  went  out,  and  many  other  of  them  that  were 
mere  English  thenceforth  joined  with  the  Irish  against  the 
king,  and  turned  themselves  very  Irish,  taking  on  them  Irish 
habits  and  customs,  which  could  never  be  clean  wiped  away." 
The  reference  here  is  to  Thomas,  eighth  Earl  of  Desmond,  who 
was  attainted  of  treason  in  a  parliament  held  at  Drogheda  in 


54  THE  PALE. 

1467,  for  alliance^  fosterage,  and  alterage  with  the  Irish^  and 
executed.  This  was  but  a  pretext;  his  real  crime  was  his 
having  spoken  disparagingly  of  the  Queen. 

And  elsewhere  the  same  writer  says :  ''  There  were  Irish 
customs  which  the  English  colonies  did  embrace  and  use  after 
they  had  rejected  the  civil  and  honourable  laws  and  customs  of 
England,  whereby  theybecame  degenerate  and  metamorphosed 
like  Nebuchadnezzar,  who,  though  he  had  the  face  of  a  man, 
had  the  heart  of  a  beast :  in  so  much  that  within  less  time  than 
the  age  of  a  man,  they  had  no  marks  or  differences  left  among 
them  of  that  noble  nation  from  which  they  were  descended ; 
for  as  they  did  not  only  forget  the  English  language,  and 
soome  the  use  thereof,  but  grew  to  be  ashamed  of  their  very 
English  names,  and  took  Irish  surnames  and  nicknames. 
Namely,  the  two  most  potent  families  of  the  Burkes  in 
Connaught,  called  their  chie  f  s  M*"  William  Eighter  and  M*" William 
Oughter.  In  the  samejprovince  Bermingham,  Baron  of  Athenry, 
called  himself  Mac  Yoris.  Dexeter  was  called  Mac  Jordan, 
Nangle,  or  de  Angulo,  took  the  name  of  Mac  Gostello,  and  so 
forth/'  Let  me  give  one  example  of  many,  a  domestic  one, 
which  will  show  you  how  these  English  settlers  degenerated, 
or  improved  rather,  as  many  think. 

In  1331  William  de  Burgo,  known  as  the  Dun  Earl,  5th 
in  descent  from  WiUiam  Fitzadelm,  who  came  to  Ireland  witli 
Henry  II.,  and  grandson  and  heir  of  Bichard,  the  2nd  Earl, 
known  as  the  Red  Earl,  who  became  Earl  of  Ulster  by  his 
marriage  with  the  heiress  of  De  Lacy,  and  Lord  of  Connaught 
by  the  grant  of  Henry  II.  to  his  ancestor,  was  killed  by  Robert 
de  Mandeville  and  other  English  settlers,  near  Carrickfergus, 
at  the  instigation  of  Qyle  de  Burgo,  wife  of  Sir  Richard 
Mandeville,  in  revenea  for  his  having  imprisoned  her  brother 
Walter.  There  are  those  who  think  tnat  it  was  only  the  Irish 
that  quarelled  among  themselves  in  those  times.  Here  is  what 
the  author  of  the  '*  Annals  of  Glonmacnoise  "  remarks  on  this 
subject :  '*  There  reigned  more  discentions,  strifes,  warres,  and 
debates  between  the  Englishmen  themselves  in  the  beginning 
of  the  Conquest  of  this  kingdom  than  between  the  Irishmen,  as 
by  perusing  the  warres  between  the  Lasies  of  Meath,  John 
Goursey,  Earl  of  Ulster,  William  Marshal,  and  the  English  of 
Meath  and  Munster,  Mac  Gerald,  the  Burkes,  Butlers,  and 
Cogann  may  appear."  Be  that  as  it  may,  Earl  William's  wife, 
after  her  husband  was  slain,  fled  to  England,  taking  with  her 
their  only  daughter  Maud,  then  only  a  year  old.  The  De 
Bmrgos  of  Connaught,  descended  from  William,  second  son  of 
Richard,  son  of  William  Fitzadelm,  fearing  that  the  lands 


THE  PALE.  55 

which  they  held  would  be  transferred  to  some  royal  favourite, 
to  whom  the  king  would  give  this  wealthy  heiress  in  mairiage^- 
for  the  tastes  and  affections  of  young  ladies  were  not  consulted 
then  so  much  as  now,  especially  if  they  were  wealthy  heiresses — 
declared  themselves  independent  of  English  law,  renouncing  at 
the  same  time  the  English  language  and  costume.  Sir  William,- 
eldest  son  of  Sir  William  Liagh,  who  died  in  1324,  ancestor  of 
the  Earls  of  Clanricarde,  took  the  title  of  M*" William  Oughter 
or  Upper,  and  Sir  Edward  Albanagh,  his  second  son,  ancestor 
of  the  Earls  of  Mayo,  took  that  of  M' William  Eighter,  or  the 
Lower,  the  lands  of  the  former  b^ng  in  the  south  of  Galway, 
those  of  the  latter  in  Mayo,  and  we  find  that  the  two  chiefs 
were  for  the  three  centuries  following  duly  chosen  and  in- 
augurated chiefs  of  their  respective  *'  nations  "  after  the  Irish 
fadiion.  I  may  remark  that  Lionel,  Duke  of  Clarence,  third 
son  of  Edward  III.,  got  the  young  lady  in  marriage,  and 
though  he  came  over  with  the  authority  of  Viceroy  three 
several  times  to  take  possession  of  his  lands  in  Connaught,  he 
returned  home  to  Ensland  none  the  richer. 

The  De  Burgos  aid  not  agree  among  themselves  about  the 
division  of  the  spoil,  for  we  read  in  the  '*  Annals  of  the  Four 
Masters"  under  the  date  1366  :  ^'  A  great  war  broke  out  between 
the  English  of  Connaught ;  Mao  Moris  was  banished  from  his 
territory  by  Mac  William,  and  fled  for  protection  to  the  Clan 
Bickard.  Mac  William,  Hugh  O'Connor,  King  of  Connaught, 
and  O'Kelly,  lord  of  Hymany,  marched  with  an  army  to 
Upper  Connaught  against  the  Clan  Bickard,  and  remained 
there  nearly  three  months  engaged  in  hostilities,  until  at  the 
last  M*" William  subdued  the  Clan  Bickard  ;  whereupon  the 
hostages  of  these  latter  were  delivered  up  to  him,  and  he 
returned  to  his  country  in  triumph."  Lionel  hoped  to  come 
by  his  estates,  owing  to  the  wranglings  of  the  present  possessors. 
But  however  much  they  might  quarrel  among  themselves,  they 
were  always  ready  to  unite  and  present  a  firm  and  undivided 
firont  against  him. 

In  1367  Lionel  called  together  a  parliament  at  Kilkenny, 
and  had  passed  there  the  famous  statute  known  as  the  Statute 
of  Kilkenny.  **  It  was,"  says  a  writer  on  constitutional  law, 
"  nothing  more  than  a  peevish  and  revengeful  expression  of  the 
Duke's  resentment  for  the  opposition  he  had  met  with,  and  the 
loss  of  the  lands  to  which  he  laid  a  claim.  It  was  not  to  have 
any  obedience  paid  to  it  outside  the  English  Pale.  It  was  in 
reality  a  declaration  of  perpetual  war  against  those  of  the 
EngliiBh  race  who  were  settled  up  and  down  the  country,  and 
had  been,  more  or  less,  necessitated  to  adopt  the  Irish  customs 


58  THE  PALE. 

of  Pilltown,  Co.  Eakenny,  in  1462,  between  the  two  Earls,  in 
which  the  Earl  of  Ormond  was  defeated. 

Elsewhere  I  have  spoken  of  the  Fraternity  of  St.  G-eorge, 
established  in  1472  for  the  defence  of  the  Pale,  a  poor  defence 
at  best,  showing  the  inability  of  the  State  to  procure  an 
adequate  protection  for  the  settlers. 

The  Wars  of  the  Boses  weakened  still  more  the  English 
power  in  Ireland,  by  withdrawing  the  chief  men  and  the 
soldiers  to  support  the  rival  combatants  in  England.  These 
and  the  other  subsequent  events  in  connexion  with  this  subject 
I  need  not  dwell  on.  Those  who  care  to  pursue  the  subject 
further  will  find  it  treated  of  at  length  in  Sir  John  Davis's 
*'  True  Discovery  of  the  Ganses  why  Ireland  was  not  entirely 
subdued." 

I  must  not,  however,  omit  to  mention  the  attempt  to 
transform  into  Englishmen  the  intruders  into  the  Pale.  By  an 
Act  passed  in  the  fifth  year  of  Edward  lY.,  it  was  ordained 
that  '*  Every  Irishman  dwelling  amongst  the  Euglish  in  the 
counties  of  publin^  Meath,  Uriel,  or  iCildare,  shall  go  like 
an  Engli8hiz|fin1ia>apparelf  and  shaving  of  liis  beard  above  the 
mouth,  and  tHiaU^wiCIun  o%e  year  take  to  him  an  English  name 
of  one  towi^,  W>^^on,*Cmster,  ^Trym,  Cork,  ICinsale,  or 
colour,  as  T^hite,  black,  brown,  or 'art  or  science,  as  smith, 
carpenter,  otofiKoe,.a«7vCOok,.butI|)r,  ^nd  he  and  his  issue  shall 
use  this  nam^  .un^e^^naUy  of  forfeiting  his  goods  yearly  till 
the  aforesaid  be  done,  to  be  levied  .two  times  by  the  year  for 
the  King's  warsr"        -      ....  -.,.., 

In  the  24th  of  Henry  VIII.,  the  Irish  Privy  Council  wrote 
to  Allen,  Master  of  the  KoUs,  to  instruct  the  king  of  the  great 
decay  of  this  land,  that  neither  the  English  language,  or  order 
or  habit  hath  been  used,  nor  the  king's  laws  obeyed  within 
twenty  miles  in  compass.  This  legislation  was  not  successful 
then,  and  whether  it  produced  the  desired  effects  in  later  times, 
and  whether  tliese  have  extended  to  our  own  times,  and  if  they 
have,  how  far,  are  matters  of  which  you  are  capable  of  judging 
quite  as  well  as  I. 


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(    59     ) 


NOTES  ON  THE  SOUTHERN  BOUNDARY  OF 
THE  ANCIENT  KINGDOM  OF  MEATH 
WHERE  IT  PASSED  THROUGH  NORTH 
KILDARE.    (With  Map.) 

BY  THE  REV.  E.  O'LEAEY,  P.P. 

ANY  information  which  throws  light  on  the  pages  of  our 
ancient  history  is  always  welcome,  and  is  important,  if  it 
helps  us  to  trace  the  limits  and  boundaries  of  the  territories 
and  kingdoms  of  ancient  Erin.  Our  own  county  of  Kildare  was 
mapped  out  in  its  present  form  nearly  700  years  ago,  and  its 
northern  boundary  fairly  defines  what  at  that  period  was  the 
fioutbem  boundary  of  ancient  Meath.  But  did  the  kingdom  of 
Meath  previously  include  any  portion  of  the  present  Co.  Kildare, 
if  so,  what  portion,  and  where  are  the  existing  landmarks  of  tbe 
ancient  boundary  lineP  The  answer  to  this  question  shall 
form  the  subject  of  the  present  Paper. 

Keating,  describing  the  southern  boundary  of  ancient 
Meath,  tells  us  '*  that  it  ran  from  Dublin  to  the  Abhain  Bighe 
(now  the  Rye  water,  which  runs  east  through  Kilcock,  May- 
nooth,  Carton,  and  flows  into  the  liffey  at  Leixlip),  from  the 
Abhainn  Bighe  the  boundary  runs  westward  to  Cluain  Conrach 
(Clonourryj,  from  Cluain  Conrach  to  the  Ford  of  the  French 
Mill,  thence  to  the  confluence  of  Clonard,  thence  to  the  Tocher 
of  Carbury,  and  from  the  Tocher  of  Carbury  to  Crannach 
Oeishille  (G-easbillJ,  thence  to  Drumcullen,  thence  to  Birr  and 
the  river  called  Abhainn  Cara,  and  thence  to  the  Shannon." 

O'Donovan  says  that  this  description  is  very  correct  and 
valuable,  and  throws  a  flood  of  light  on  ancient  topography, 
and  dears  up  an  important  point,  viz:  that  the  Carbrie 
O'Siery  of  the  ancient  nistorians  is  no  other  than  the  present 
Barony  of  Carbury  in  the  county  Kildare,  and  that  the  old 
historians — M'Firbisse,  Colgan,  and  Lanigan — ^were  at  fault, 
some  placing  it  in  Sligo,  and  others  in  Longford.  O'Donovan 
identified  all  the  places  mentioned  by  Keating  except  two — the 
ford  of  the  French  Mill  and  the  Tocher  or  causeway  of  Carbury. 
From  the  information  and  traditions  which  I  have  gathered 
from  the  old  people,  and  which  I  will  now  lay  before  you,  I 
hope  to  satisfy  you  as  to  the  identification  of  these  two  places. 


6o   SOUTHERN  BOUNDARY  OF  THE  KINGDOM  OF  MEATH 

Clonard,  mentioned  on  the  boundary  line,  is  a  name  in  Irish 
history  familiar  to  everyone.  The  two  missing  landmarks  we 
are  in  search  of  come  at  each  side  of  Clonard — the  Ford  of  the 
French  Mill  comes  before,  and,  at  the  Dublin  side,  the  Tocher 
of  Carbury  comes  next  to  and  after  Clonard.  Let  us  therefore 
take  Clonard  as  the  point  to  start  from  in  our  search,  and  go 
back  towards  Dublin  to  find  tlie  Ford  of  the  French  MUl. 
Here  there  is  a  long  esker  or  ridge  of  sand-hills  running  east 
and  west.  This  is  no  other  than  the  Eiscir  Kiada  which  crosses 
Ireland  from  Dublin  to  Galway.  There  is  a  tradition  that  at 
this  point  the  Esker  was  called  the  long  boundary.  This  name 
has  fallen  into  disuse^  and  is  now  but  a  faint  tradition  amongst 
the  very  old.  I  asked  them  why  it  was  called  the  long  boun- 
dary, and  they  answered,  because  it  was  the  old  boundary  line 
between  Meath  and  Kildare.  Here,  at  once,  we  stumble  on  a 
bit  of  the  ancient  boundary  line.  Let  us  trace  it  back  towards 
Oloncurry  to  find  the  Ford  of  the  French  Mill.  The  Eisoir 
Biada  runs  east  through  the  townlands  of  Ballyonan,  Ballina- 
drimna,  and  Koyal  Oak,  till  it  meets  a  tract  of  bog  called  the 
Balyna  Bog.  Crossing  this  bog,  which  of  course  continued  the 
boundary,  we  meet  the  demesne  of  Mr.  More  O'Ferrall,  and 
crossing  the  demesne  to  the  east  or  Dublin  side,  we  come  upon 
the  site  of  the  ancient  village  of  Balyna,  not  a  vestige  of  which 
now  remains.  We  are  now  at  a  point  half  way  between 
Clonard  and  Cloncurry,  and  the  landmark  we  are  seeking 
cannot  be  far  away. 

The  name  Balyna  may  be  interpreted  to  mean  the  mouth  of 
the  ford  with  Dr.  Comerford,  or  the  town  on  the  ford  with  other 
interpreters,  but  either  meaning  will  describe  the  little  village 
of  Balyna.  There  was  a  mill-stream  crossing  the  road  at  the 
village,  and  there  was  a  mill  a  little  lower  down  the  stream. 
Both  the  village  and  the  mill  must  have  been  places  of  some 
importance  in  the  old  times ;  for,  when  roads  were  few  in  this 
part  of  the  country,  we  see  from  the  old  maps  that  three  roads 
met  at  the  mill.  A  bit  of  the  masonry  of  the  mill  still  existing 
shows  it  to  have  been  grouted  in  the  ancient  style,  and  strongly 
built.  So  far,  we  have  found  a  ford  and  a  mill,  and  if  this  be 
the  Frendi  mill  our  search  is  complete.  O'Donovan,  in  one  of 
the  Ordnance  Survey  letters,  after  mentioning  the  Ford  of  the 
French  Mill,  asks  who  was  this  Frenchman  Y  The  history  of 
the  Balyna  property  gives  us  the  answer. 

About  the  year  1555  Bory  O'More  of  Leix  fell  in  battle 
against  the  O'Connors  and  his  brother  Patrick.  He  left  two 
sons,  Kedagh  and  Charles.  Kedagh  died  young,  and  Charles 
was  transplanted   to  Balyna  in  the  county  Kildare  to  the 


WHERE  IT  PASSED  THROUGH  NORTH  KILDARE.         6 1 

forfeited  property  of  Delahbide.  Mr.  Delahoide  was  a  man  of 
hif^h  character,  good  educatioo,  and  varied  acquirements,  and  I 
refer  you  to  Dr.  Comerford's  work  for  more  particulars  about 
him.  But  he  was  evidently  Mr.  O'Donovan's  Frenchman,  and 
we  may  take  it,  therefore,  that  the  village  of  Balyna,  the  mouth 
of  the  ford,  or  the  town  on  the  ford,  was  the  Ford  of  the  French 
Mill,  and  one  of  the  landmarks  defining  the  boundary  of 
ancient  Meath.  From  Clonard  back  to  Balyna  is  about  five 
miles,  and  from  Balyna  to  Cloncurry  about  five  miles  also.  A 
straight  valley  runs  the  whole  way  back,  the  Midland  Railway 
and  Boyal  Canal  are  carried  through  it,  and  such  a  feature  in 
the  landscape  would  be  naturally  fixed  upon  for  a  boundary. 

Before  leaving  Balyna  I  may  mention  that  there  are  but  few 
vestiges  now  remaining  of  either  village,  mill,  or  stream.  After 
the  famine  of  '47  and  the  exodus  which  followed,  the  village 
soon  disappeared  ;  extensive  drainage  works  carried  out  by  the 
late  Mr.  O'Ferrall  about  the  same  time  diverted  the  course  of  the 
stream ;  even  the  three  old  roads  were  blotted  out  to  enlarge 
the  demesne,  and  new  roads  constructed  outside  its  enclosure. 
And  all  that  now  remains  to  point  out  the  ford  of  the  French 
Mill,  with  its  village,  roads,  and  stream,  is  a  dried-up  water- 
cotnrse,  deep  and  wide,  and  running  along  inside  the  boundary 
of  the  demesne,  where  formerly  the  milUstrenm  flowed  down  to 
the  mill.  And  a  little  lower  down,  peeping  out  through  a  bank 
under  the  trees,  is  a  solid  block  of  grouted  masonry  which  was 
once  the  comer  of  the  mill. 

Having  now,  I  hope,  given  satisfactory  evidence  to  identify 
the  ford  of  the  French  Mill,  and  defined  the  boundary  line  of 
ancient  Meath  from  Dublin  to  Clonard,  let  us  see  if  we  can 
identify  the  other  missing  landmark — the  Toclier  of  Carbury. 
There  is  no  road  or  place  at  present  in  the  Barony  of  Carbnry 
known  by  such  a  name ;  but  in  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century  there  was  such  a  causeway,  called  the  Tocher  of  Car- 
bury.  Its  site  is  now  occupied  by  a  well-constructed  county 
road.  This  high  road  runs  north  from  Carbury  through  a 
large  tract  of  bog  called  the  bog  of  Enockcur.  It  was  con- 
structed in  the  beginning  of  the  present  century ;  but  before 
its  existence,  there  was  always  a  passage  or  causeway  over  the 
bog,  chiefly  for  foot  people.  It  was  evidently  the  approach 
from  the  north  to  the  castle  of  Carbury,  and  the  tradition  is, 
that  this  passage  or  causeway  through  the  bog  of  Knockcur 
was  called  the  Tocher  of  Carbury.  We  have  no  choice  but  to 
take  it  as  the  tocher  mentioned  by  Keating.  This  being  so, 
we  have  now  the  boundary  taking  a  new  direction,  and  running 
south  to  the  bog  of  Enockcur,  which  is  immediately  to  the  north 


62   SOUTHERN  BOUNDARY  OF  THE  KINGDOM  OF  MEATH 

of  Garbuiy.  A  stream  rises  in  this  bog,  flows  northward  to 
the  sandhills  above-mentioned,  and  then  into  the  Boyne  at 
Olonard.  This  is  the  oonfluenoe  of  Clonard,  mentioned 
by  Keating.  The  boundary  follows  this  stream  south  from 
Clonard  to  the  bog  and  the  tooher.  The  bog  of  Knock- 
cur  is  only  separated  by  about  two  miles  of  low  flat  country 
from  the  great  bog  of  Allen,  which  runs  uninterruptedly  from 
Edenderry  across  the  King's  County  to  the  south  of  Philips- 
town  and  on  to  Geashill.  And  though  it  must  be  fifteen  miles 
from  the  tocher  of  Carbury  to  Geashill,  Keating  gives  no  land- 
marks the  wliole  way,  for  the  good  reason  that  he  had  no  land- 
marks to  give,  as  the  boundary  ran  through  the  bog  of  Allen 
for  the  fifteen  miles. 

Let  us  now  see  how  the  old  boundary  stood  in  reference  to 
the  present  boundary,  that  we  may  know  how  much  of  the 
present  county  Kildare  belonged  to  ancient  Meath.  The  *^  long 
boundary  "  referred  to  already,  lies  one  mile  south  of  the  pre- 
sent boundary  line.  The  continuation  of  this  line  back  to  the 
ford  of  the  French  Mill,  dips  one  and  a  half  miles  south  of  the 
present  line.  Soon  after  passing  Baljma  it  runs  out  on  the 
present  boundary  line,  and  continues  alonff  it  (with  a  small 
deviation  at  Cloncurry)  back  to  Kilcock,  Maynooth,  and 
Leixlip.  So  that  it  cuts  off  a  mile  or  more  in  width,  and 
about  four  in  length,  from  the  present  county  Kildare  from 
Clonard  to  Balyna. 

The  boundary  line  running  south  from  Clonard  to  the 
Tocher  of  Carbury  cuts  off  a  broad  piece  of  the  present  county 
Kildare,  five  miles  long,  and  varying  from  three  to  four  miles 
wide,  and  leaving  the  old  parishes  of  Kilraney,  Carrick, 
Numey,  and  Kilmore  in  ancient  Meath.  From  the  Tocher  of 
Carbury  the  boundary  line  took  a  south-westerly  direction 
througn  the  bog  of  Allen  to  Geashill. 

That  the  boundary  line  of  Meath  ran  south  from  Clonard 
towards  Carbury  receives  confirmation  from  the  following  facts. 
The  great  Monastery  of  Clonard  was  situated  north  of  the  river 
Boyne,  and  certainly  in  the  kingdom  of  Meath.  But  we  know 
from  the  ^*  Monast.  Hib."  that  the  Monks  of  Clonard  held  several 
townlands  south  of  the  Boyne,  which  they  lost  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.  Now  it  is  very  interesting  to  know  the  precise 
locality  of  these  townlands  in  the  present  county  Kildare. 
Taking  the  line  already  indicated  from  Clonard  to  the  Tocher 
of  Carbury,  this  line  will  out  off  every  one  of  the  townlands 
above-mentioned  from  Kildare,  and  leave  them  in  the  territory 
of  ancient  Meath.  That  the  monks  of  Olonard  should  cross  the 
Boyne  and  acquire  lands  in  a  territory  often  hostile,  is  not  easy 


WHERE  IT  PASSED  THROUGH  NORTH  KILDARE.         63 

to  explain ;  but  when  we  oonolude  that  these  monks  held  their 
lands  in  their  own  kingdom,  the  difficulty  is  solved. 

In  conclusion,  we  may  observe  that  our  ancestors  made  the 
bog  their  boundary  wherever  they  found  it.  They  first  met  it 
near  Balyna,  and  utilised  it  for  this  purpose.  Then,  after 
turning  south  at  Glouard,  they  met  it  again  at  the  Tocher  of 
Carbwy,  and  made  it  their  boundary.  And  two  miles  to  the 
south-west  they  met  the  great  bog  of  Allen,  and  made  it  their 
boundary  to  Geashill. 

All  which  goes  to  prove  the  sagacity  of  our  pagan  ancestors ; 
for  the  bog  of  Allen  is  an  excellent  boundary  to  place  between 
either  warlike  pagans  or  pugnacious  Christians. 


(64     ) 


0ott$  antv  <atter(e$4 


On  page  127  of  vol.  i.  of  our  Joubkal  there  is  a  mistake  which  I  heg 
leave  to  correct  here.  It  is  there  stated  that  in  Dr.  Arthur's  "  Fee 
Book  '*  there  is  mention  of  a  Lady  Baltinglass,  who,  I  thought,  might 
he  the  wife  of  the  Lord  Baltinglass.  When  I  wrote  that,  I  was  not 
aware  that  this  statement  referred  to  a  person  in  no  way  connected 
with  the  Eustace  family.  I  have  since  found  that  the  title  of 
Baltinglass  was  revived  in  favour  of  a  certain  Thomas  B.oper,  who  was 
Constahle  of  Castlemaine,  Co.  Kerry,  from  1 605  to  1 637,  and  estiih- 
lished  an  "English  "  plantation  '*  at  Crookhaven,  Co.  Cork.  His  con- 
nection with  Baltinglass  arose  in  this  way.  In  1588  a  grant  was 
made  to  Sir  Henry  Harrington,  knight,  of  the  Cistercian  Ahhey  of , 
Baltinglass,  with  all  its  ))Ossessions,  to  hold  in  capite  for  ever  at  an 
annual  rent  of  £11  19«.,  Irish  money.  Thomas  Roper  married  Ann, 
daughter  of  Sir  Henry  Harrington,  and  had  a  grant  conferred  to  him 
of  the  monastery  and  lordship  of  Baltinglass  hy  Charles  I.  in  1626, 
**  in  regard  of  the  many  acceptable  services  done  unto  his  father  and 
the  late  Queen  Elizabeth."  In  the  following  year  he  was  made  a 
Baronet,  and  Baron  of  Bantry,  and  Viscount  Baltinglass.  He  died  in 
1637,  and  was  succeded  by  his  son  Thomas.  Thomas'  name  is 
frequently  mentioned  in  the  Journals  of  the  House  of  Lords.  He  bore 
the  Swoi-d  of  State  at  the  opening  of  the  fii-st  Parliament  held  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  II.,  in  1661.  He  died  in  1665,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Carey  Roper,  3rd  Viscount  Baltinglass,  who  died  in  1676.  The  title 
became  extinct  then. 

The  title  was  again  revived  in  1685  hy  James  II.  in  favour  of 
the  famous  Richard  Talbot,  who,  in  that  year,  was  created  Baron  of 
Talbot's  Court,  Viscount  Baltinglass,  and  Earl  of  Tirconnell,  and,  in 
1689,  Duke  of  Tirconnell. 

I  find  that  ^  petition  was  presented  to  the  Crown  by  Charles 
Eustace,  of  Kilmayne,  Co.  Kildare,  Lieutenant-General  Henry  Eustace, 
of  Corbally,  Queen's  County,  Lieutenant-General  Sir  William  Eustace, 
of  Sandford  Hall,  Essex,  and  Colonel  Sir  John  Rowland  Eustace,  of 
Baltrasney,  Co.  Kildare,  sons  of  the  late  Lieutenant-General  Eustace, 
Colonel  of  the  68th  Regiment,  and  for  many  years  Member  of  the  Irish 
Parliament,  in  which  they  pray  **  that  her  Majesty,  taking  unto  her 
gracious  consideration  the  injustice  of  the  attainder  of  James  Viscount 
Baltinglass,  as  well  as  the  Act  of  Oblivion  and  Indemnity  issued  by 
the  Lord  Deputy  Mountjoy,  and  confiiined  in  1614  in  the  Parliament 
held  by  King  James  I.,  would  direct  the  reversal  of  the  Act  of  Attainder 
still  pressing  on  the  Eustace  family,  and  restore  them  to  their  former 
position  in  Ireland  so  far  as  the  peerage  alone  is  concerned  (for  they 
disclaim  all  wish  to  disturb  any  settlement  of  property  made  under  the 
said  Act)." 


NOTES  AND^  QUERIES.  65 

No  date  is  affixed  to  this  petition,  but  reference  is  made  in  it  to 
another,  presented  in  1839,  on  which  it  was  reported  "that  the 
Petitioner,  Rev.  Charles  Eustace,  had  shown  sufficient  evidence  of  his 
right  to  the  said  dignity  of  Viscount  Baltinglass,  in  case  the  attainder 
of  James,  the  third  Viscount,  was  reversed." — B,  If. 


St.  Bermott  of  Castladermot— On  page  361,  of  voL  i.  of  the 

JouuiTAL,  it  is  stated  that  St.  Biarmaid  founded  his  hermitage,  called 
after  him  **  Bisert  Diarmada,"  about  the  year  500.  This  statement 
is  an  error,  probably  copied  from  Archdall's  Mmasticon  Rihernicum^ 
as  in  the  Annah  of  the  Ftmr  MiiuUrs^  under  the  year  823,  the  death  is 
recorded  of  Diarmaid,  grandson  of  Aedh  Eoin,  who  was  an  anchorite 
and  a  distinguished  doctor. 

Acdh  Roin  was  Xing  of  Ulidia,  or  Eastern  Ulster,  and  lost  his 
life  in  a  battle  against  Aedh  Allan,  King  of  Ireland,  in  the  year 
732,  when  he  was  decapitated  on  the  "  Cloch-an-choramaigh  (or 
Stone  of  the  Breaking),  in  the  doorway  of  the  church  at  Faughard, 
county  Louth.  Consequently  O'Donovan,  in  the  Addenda  at  the 
end  of  the  second  volume  of  the  Annttls,  says  Castledermot  was 
founded  about  800,  and  Archdall  is  incorrect  in  stating  it  was  founded 
about  the  year  600.— W.  Fm  G. 


Can  any  of  our  Members,  with  a  knowledge  of  Irish,  explain  the 
following  names  : — 

1.  *' EoehfdlyMy^  which  seems  to  have  been  a  nickname,  and 
was  applied  to  Gerald  fitz  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald,  4th  Baron  of  Offaly, 
who  was  drowned  between  Ireland  and  England  in  1277. 

2.  *'  Fealyghe,^^  alias  Eussellstown,  a  townland  lying  near  and  to 
the  north-east  of  Athy,  in  the  county  Eildare. 

3.  *'  Berhidoiy^^  or  '*  IWhettasj^*  now  the  townland  of  Jerusalem, 
in  the  south-eastern  comer  of  the  county  Eildare.  It  appears  as 
the  former  name  in  a  Patent  Roll  of  1552,  as  the  second  name  in  an 
Inquisition  of  1621,  and  in  its  present  name  on  a  hand-painted  map 
of  1760. 

4.  **  MeirgeaehV — In  the  Annah  of  the  Four  Masters,  under  the 
year  1535,  James,  one  of  the  uncles  of  the  Silken  Thomas,  is  styled 
Shemus  "Meirgeach,"  and  O'Donovan  does  not  explain  its  mean- 
ing—W.  Fitz  O. 

In  reply  to  No.  4, 1  should  say  that  this  is  the  same  word  as 
mergach,  which  Windisch,  in  his  "  Irish  Dictionary,"  translates  by 
the  Latin  rugatus,  i.e.  wrinkled.  This  word  is  akin  to,  if  not  iden- 
tical in  meaning  with,  meirgeach,  which  O'Donovan  translates  by 
rusty.— T^.  M. 

VOL.  U.,  FT.  I.  F 


(     66    ) 


Pagan  Ireland:  An  Arehaohgiedl  Sketch,  A  Handbook  of  Irish. 
Fre-Christdan  Antiquities,  with  numeroas  Illustrations.  By 
W.  G.  Wood-Maktik,  X.B.I.A.     (pp.  xzviii.,  689.    Price  15«.) 

The  author  of  this  work  set  before  himself  an  extensive  programme, 
as  may  be  seen  by  the  titles  of  a  few  out  of  the  fifteen  chapters  which 
make  up  the  book :  Ancient  Fauna  and  Primitive  Man ;  Authenticity 
of  the  early  Irish  Becords ;  The  Disposal  of  the  Dead ;  Traces  of  the 
Elder  Paiths;  Flint,  Stone,  Wooden,  and  Bronze  Implements; 
Weapons  and  Musical  Instruments;  Personal  Ornaments;  Bock 
Sculptures,  &c.  &c.  It  is  in  fact  a  sort  of  encyclopaedia  of  early 
Irish  Antiquities.  In  such  a  book  one  will  look  for  the  latest  con- 
clusions of  specialists  in  each  of  the  above  branches.  It  would  be 
unreasonable  to  suppose  that  the  opinions  of  any  one  man  on  all  these 
subjects,  each  of  which  is  vast  enough  to  take  up  an  ordinaij  life- 
time, are  of  very  much  value,  on  the  principle :  '*  qui  trop  etreint 
mal  embrasse."  Hence  the  author,  while  deserving  every  credit  for 
bis  diligence,  will  allow  some  of  his  readers  to  dissent  from  several 
of  his  conclusions  and  assertions,  such  as  that  'Hhe  ancient  Irish 
warriors  were  addicted  to  habitual  savagery  " — very  probably  they 
were  no  worse  than  their  neighbours.  *'  The  early  monkish  chro- 
niclers" were  not  the  only  persons  ''  who  sought  to  place  the  past  <^ 
ancient  Erin  on  an  eminence";  others  were  guilty  of  the  same  crime, 
and,  indeed,  but  for  these  ^'  monkish  chroniclers "  we  should  have 
very  little  left  of  the  history  of  Ireland  in  ancient  times.  The  author 
has  entirely  missed  the  signification  of  ''  the  rounds "  made  by  our 
people  to  the  holy  wells,  when  he  looks  on  them  as  ''  a  survival  of 
the  olden  heathen  adoration  of  water-wells."  Such  an  opinion  as  that 
expressed  at  p.  543  is,  to  put  it  mildly,  out  of  place  there :  *'  smith- 
craft, witchcraft,  priestcraft,  alike  attempt  to  constitute  themselves  a 
distinct  and  separate  caste  . . .  charlatanism  is  the  same,  whether  prac- 
tised in  the  boginning  of  man's  existence  on  the  earth,  or  in  the  nine- 
teenth century ;  in  the  East,  or  in  the  West."  So,  too,  the  note  at  p.  129 
might  well  be  omitted;  it  adds  little  to  our  knowledge  of  Irish  antiquities. 
We  beg  leave  to  dissent  from  the  statement  that ''  the  modern  usage 
of  partaking  of  food,  &c.,  in  presence  of  the  dead,  was  a  fragmentary 
relic  of  the  savage  feast  when  the  real  body  of  the  deceased  was  con* 
Bumed,"  in  other  words,  of  cannibalism. 

The  illustrations,  over  400  in  number,  are,  with  very  few  excep- 
tions, a  really  valuable  portion  of  the  book.  With  most  of  them 
students  of  Irish  antiquities  are  already  familiar.  Here  the  reader 
will  find  them  gathered  together  in  a  narrow  compass,  so  as  to  have 
them  readily  at  hand  for  purposes  of  reference.  The  '*  Bibliography," 
too,  supplies  a  want. 


;ESSI0H  1896. 


VOLTTHE  n.,  Ho.  2. 


JOURNAI^ 


OF  THE 


X/ 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOBICAL  SOCIEtlr. 


CONTENTS. 


ProcMdincs : — 

\nnual  General  Meeting,  1896, 
Report  of  Council  for  1895, 
Excunion  Meeting,  1895,    . 
Hon.  Treasarer's  Account, 
List  of  Officers  and  Members,  . 
Rules, 


PAGE 

.  67 

.  e9 

.  71 

.  74 

.  76 

.  80 


Obituary  of  the  late  Rev.  Denis  Murphy, 
S.J.,  M.R.I.A.,  Vice-President.  With 
Portrait 81 

Papers : — 
Carbury  and  the  Binninghams'  Country. 
Hy  Rev.  Matthew  Dbvitt,  s.j.    With 

lUustrations, 86 

Rathmore  (the  Big  Rath).  By  The  Earl 
o*  MxYOt  President.  With  an  Illustra- 
tion  lU 


'29.y^r%— continued  .•—  1 

Incidents  in  the  Life  of  Garrett  More, 
Eighth  Earl  of  Kildare.  By  Lord 
Walter  Fitz  Gerald.  With  Illus- 
trations,   ' 

John  Lye,  of  Clonaugh,  Co.  Kildare.  By 
Rev.  E.  O'Leary,  p.p.  With  Illustra- 
tions,          

Irish  Place-names  and  Local  Folk-lore. 
By  M.  Darby,  Esq.,  m.d., 

Xiioallanea  :— 
The  Hills,  Eire  and  Alba,  .        .       '. 
Lord  Edward  Fitz  Gerald's  Bag-pipes,     . 

Notes:— 

Stone  Effi^es  in  the  County,  .        .  167 

Crannogs  m  Co.  Kildare,  ....  1^ 

Queries, 168 


117 


IBS 
161 


166 
166 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦♦♦♦»»»♦♦••♦♦»»♦♦♦♦< 


PONSONBY,    116,    GRAFTON    STREET. 
1896. 


I*rl«»i».   VwA  iililllln«i  and  iilvBi»ni»A. 


THE  COBHCn.  OF  THE  CODNTT  KILDARE  ARCHAOLOGICiL  SOCIETY. 


]f rBsidaat : 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 

lyjce-Jf  resident : 
The  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  ll.d.,  m.r.i.a. 

gotmcil : 

Thomas  Cooke  Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a. 
The  Rev.  Edward  O'Leary,  p.p. 
Thomas  J.  De  Burgh,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Mathew  Devitt,  s.j. 

]^xro.  Traasurer : 
Hans  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Esq.,   Kerdiffstown,  Naas. 

]^tm.  Sdcretaries: 

Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  m.  r.i. a.  ,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney . 

Arthur  Vicars,  Esq.,  f.s.a.,  Ulster,  44,  Wellington-road, 
Dublin. 

TSf^tm.  EditDi* : 

The  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  ll.d.,  University  College, 
St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin. 


JOURNAL 


OF  THE 


AND 


The  Annual  GFeneral  Meeting  of  the  Sooiety  was  held  on 
Wednesday,  the  6th  of  February,  1896,  in  the  Court-House, 
Naas,  kindly  lent  by  the  High  Sheriff. 

The  Earl  of  Mayo,  President^  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  Members  of  the  Gounoil  were  present: — 
Mr.  Thomas  Cooke  Trench ;  Mr.  George  Mansfield ;  the  Bev. 
E.  O'Leary ;  Mr.  Thomas  J.  De  Burgh ;  Mr.  Hans  Hendriok- 
Ay Imer,  Hon,  Treasurer ;  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  m.r.i.a.  ; 
and  Mr.  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  f.s.a.,  Hon,  Secretaries^  and 
the  Bev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  m.r.i.a.,  Hon.  Editor, 

In  addition  the  following  Members  and  Visitors  were 
present : — 

ReT.  W.  8.  Large;  Mr.  Algernon  Aylmer;  Hon.  Gerald  Fonsonby; 
The  (^unless  of  Mayo ;  Rey.  Thomas  Carberry ;  Mr.  T.  J.  Brooke ;  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  •  Edmund  Sweetman ; '  The  Very  Key.  The  Dean  of  Eildare ; 
General  and  Mrs.  M'Mahon ;  Rey.  H.  B.  Kennedy ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  R. 
Sutcliffe ;  Mr.  J.  Loch,  c.i.R.i.c. ;  Mrs.  and  Miss  Loch ;  Rey.  Thomas 
Morrin;  Very  Rey.  T.  Tynan;  Very  Rey.  E.  W.  Burke;  Rey.  Thomas 
Doyle;  Major  G.  Wolfe;  Rey.  R.  D.  Skuse;  Mr.  W.  G.  White;  Rey,  M. 
Deyitt;  General,  Mrs.  and  the  Misses  Weldon;  Mr.  William  Staples; 
Miss  Aylmer  (Donadea) ;  Rey.  James  Adams ;  Mr.  P.  A.  Maguire ;  Rey. 
William  Elliott;  Mrs.  Elliott;  Rey.  J.  T.  Bird;  The  Misses  Sherlock; 
Mrs.  and  Miss  Brown;  Rey.  M.  Cloyer ;  Rey.  Thomas  Doyle;  Rey.  J. 
(Tonnery;  Mr.  T.  R.  Gibson;  Rey.  M.  Deyine. 

yoL.  n.y  PT.  u.  G 


68  ^PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

The  Minutes  of  the  previous  Meeting  having  been  read 
and  signed  by  the  Chairman,  Mr.  Arthur  Vicars  (tJlster), 
as  Hon.  Secvetaryy  read  the  Report  of  Council  for  the  year 
1895,  which  was  adopted. 

The  following  Resolution,  which  was  proposed  by  the  Earl 
of  Mayo,  and  passed  in  respectful  silence  at  the  Excursion 
Meeting  in  1895,  was  brought  up  for  confirmation  and 
ordered  to  be  inserted  on  the  Minutes : — 

**  The  Members  of  the  County  Eildare  Archaeological  Society  desire  to 
express  their  deep  sense  of  the  loss  the  Society  has  experienced  by  the  death 
of  their  Vice-President,  The  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Comerford,  whose  interest  in 
their  work  was  shown  by  the  learned  and  interesting  Papers  that  he  read  at 
their  meetings." 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  then  read  his  Report  for  the  year 
1895,  which  was  also  adopted. 

Tlie  Earl  of  Mayo  proposed,  and  Rev.  E.  O'Leary, 
seconded  the  following  resolution,  which  was  passed  unani- 
mously : — 

**  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  are  hereby  tendered  to  Mr.  J.  R. 
Satcliffe,  for  kindly  having  audited  the  accounts  of  the  Society." 

The  Rev.  E.  O'Leary  and  Mr.  Thomas  Cooke  Trench, 
being  the  Members  of  Council  retiring  by  rotation,  were  re- 
elected. 

The  office  of  Vice-President  being  vacant  by  the  lamentable 
death  of  the  most  Rev.  Dr.  Comerford,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Denis 
Murpliy  was  unanimously  elected  to  fill  tliat  office.  The 
Rev.  Dr.  Murphy,  s.j.,  in  acknowledging  the  compliment, 
signified  his  willingness  to  continue  to  act  as  Hon.  Editor  of 
the  Society's  publications. 

The  Rev.  Mathew  Devitt,  s.j.,  was  elected  Member  of 
the  Council  in  the  place  of  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected: — The  Rev. 
Thomas  Doyle  ;  Mr.  William  Staples,  Mr.  A.  A.  Warraington, 
Hon.  Mrs.  Barton  (Life  Member),  1-iord  Henry  FitzQerald, 
and  Lady  Mabel  FitzQerald. 

The  following  new  Rule  was  proposed  and  passed : — 

''  That  the  names  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  desiring  to  become  Members 
of  the  Society  shall  be  submitted,  together  with  the  names  of  their  proposera 
and  seconders,  to  the  Council,  and,  if  approved  of  by  them,  shall  then  be 
submitted  to  the  next  Meeting  of  the  Society  for  Election.  That  the  above 
Rule  be  inserted  after  Rule  III.  or  Rule  lY.,  and  that  the  numeration 
of  the  succeeding  Rules  be  altered  accordingly." 

It  was  decided  that  the  Excursion  Meeting  for  the  ensuing 
Session  of  the  Society  should  take  place  at  Celbridge  and 
district  in  September. 


COUNTY  KH-DAKE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY.  69 

The  following  Papers  were  then  read : — 

1.  "The  Moat  of  Rathmore,"  by  the  Earl  of  Mayo, 
President. 

2.  "John  Lye  of  Olonagh,  Co.  Kildare,"  by  the  Rev. 
E.  O'Leary. 

3.  "Early  Landowners  in  Kill,"  by  the  Rev.  Canon 
Sherlock.    [Read  in  the  author's  absence  by  Mr.  T.  C.  Trench.] 

4.  "  Castle  Carbury,  and  the  Birmingham's  Country,"  by 
the  Rev.  M.  Devitt. 

5.  "  On  the  Lost  Ogham,  Deccedda  Stone,  once  at  Killeen 
Oormao,  Co.  Kildare,"  by  the  Rev.  W.  FitzGerald.  [Read  in 
the  author's  absence  by  Mr.  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster),  Hon, 
Secretary.'] 

6.  "  The  Burial  Place  of  St.  Laurence  O'Toole,"  by  the 
Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  Vice-President, 

Thanks  were  returned  to  the  several  authors  of  these 
Papers*  which  were  referred  to  the  Hon.  Editor  for  publication 
in  the  Journal. 

It  being  tliought  necessary  to  curtail  the  length  of  Papers 
read  at  the  January  meetings,  owing  to  the  time  being  limited, 
the  following  Resolution  was  proposed  by  the  Earl  of  Mayo, 
seconded  by  Mr.  Thomas  Cooke  Trench,  and  passed : — 

"That  the  papers  read  at  the  January  Meetings  do  not  exceed  a 
quarter  of  an  hour  each." 

By  the  kind  permission  of  the  owner,  Mr.  Telford,  some 
iron  implements  recently  discovered  near  Athy,  were  shown 
and  described  by  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald.  Other  objects  of 
antiquarian  interest  were  also  exhibited. 

The  proceedings  concluded  with  a  vote  of  thauks  to  those 
who  kindly  contributed  Papers  and  Exhibits,  to  the  Higli 
Sheriff  for  the  use  of  the  Court  House,  and  to  the  Chairman 
for  presiding. 

Report  of  Council  for  1895. 

At  the  first  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  each  year,  it  is  the 
custom  for  the  Council  to  submit  a  Report,  reviewing  shortly . 
the  progress  of  the  Society's  work  during  the  past  year. 

The  Kildare  Archaeological  Society  has  now  been  in  exis- 
tence for  five  years,  and  during  that  period  has  steadily 
increased  its  numbers,  and  done  much  good  work,  both  in  a 
practical  form,  in  the  restoration  and  preservation  of  ancient 

G2 


70  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

monuments  in  its  distriot,  and  in  encouraging,  by  its  publica- 
tions, an  interest  amongst  the  people  in  the  antiquities  and 
history  of  the  county  and  its  neighbourhood. 

Allowing  for  losses  by  death  and  other  causes,  the  Society 
now  starts  with  135  members  on  the  roll,  which  shows  that  we 
have  not  merely  not  lost  ground,  but  slightly  improved  the 
position  of  last  year. 

The  Society  met  with  a  heavy  loss  during  the  past  year  by 
the  death  of  its  Vice-President,  the  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Comerford, 
who  was  not  only  known  to  us  as  an  archsBologist  of  the  first 
order,  but  recognized  as  a  prominent  antiquary  and  historian 
throughout  the  country.  His  place  will  indeed  be  hard  to  fill. 
The  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Comerford,  from  the  very  first,  took  the 
keenest  interest  in  the  Kildare  Archsdological  Society,  and  was 
one  of  its  most  active  supporters.  The  Hon.  Secretaries,  who 
have  much  to  do  regarding  the  inner  working  of  the  Society, 
can  willingly  testify  to  the  great  assistance  they  at  all  times 
received  from  the  late  courteous  Vice-President. 

You  will  be  called  upon  to  elect  a  Vice-President  to  fill  the 
vacancy  thus  caused. 

The  first  Meeting  of  the  year  1895  was  held  in  the  Court- 
House,  Naas,  kindly  lent  by  the  High-Sheriflf  (Mr.  Thomas 
Greene,  of  Millbrook),  at  which  several  interesting  Papers 
were    read,    some  of  which  have  already   appeared   in   the 

JOUKNAI.. 

The  town  of  Kildare  was  selected  as  the  rendezvous  for  the 
Excursion  Meeting  held  on  the  17th  September,  when  the 
Society  spent  a  most  interesting  day  in  visiting  Eildare 
Cathedral  and  other  antiquities  in  the  town,  and  paid  a  visit  to 
Great  Council  Abbey  and  the  Curragh. 

A  special  account  of  this  Meeting  is  given  below. 

The  Council  wish,  however,  in  passing,  to  express  their 
tlianks  to  tlie  Dean  of  Kildare  and  the  Very  Rev.  Michael 
Murphy  for  the  kind  assistance  they  gave  towards  making  the 
Excursion  a  success,  and  also  to  iJord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  for 
his  indefatigable  efforts  in  the  same  direction. 

During  the  past  year,  through  the  exertions  of  the  Society, 
the  Round  Tower  of  Oughterard  has  been  added  to  the  list  of 
National  Monuments^  and,  under  Sir  Thomas  Deane's  able 
supervision,  has  been  carefully  re-pointed  and  saved  from 
further  injury. 

The  Council  also  beg  to  report  that  arrangements  have  been 
completed  for  adding  the  Abbey  at  Castledermot  to  the  list  of 
National  Monuments,  the  necessary  papers  having  been  signed 
by  the  owner  (Major  Farrell)  within  the  last  month. 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL   SOCIETY.  7 1 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  will  present  his  report,  which  shows 
the  financial  condition  of  the  Society  to  he  satisfactory. 

Two  Members  of  the  Council,  the  Rev.  E.  O'Leary  and 
Mr.  Thomas  Cooke  Trench,  retire  by  rotation,  and,  being 
eligible,  offer  themselves  for  re-election. 

In  conclusion,  the  Council  venture  to  offer  a  mild  rebuke  to 
some  of  the  Members  for  not  making  a  greater  effort  to  aid  in 
the  Society's  work  by  contributing  more  frequently  than  they 
do  to  the  pages  of  the  Journal.  Surely  there  must  be  many 
Members  who  could,  from  their  family  archives,  produce 
interesting  papers  on  family  history,  local  traditions,  and 
folk-lore. 

The  Council  would  wish  the  Members  to  realize  more  fully 
their  obligation  to  further  the  good  work  of  the  Society ;  and 
those  who  do  not  lay  claim  to  any  literary  abilities,  can  mate- 
rially help  by  inducing  more  of  their  friends  to  join,  recollect- 
ing that  the  larger  the  Society  becomes,  the  more  extended  can 
be  its  sphere  of  operations. 

Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Council, 

Mato,  President 

Walter  FitzGkrald,   \        Hon. 
Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster^  ]   Seereiaries, 

Dated  this  bth  day  of  Fehimry,  1896. 

Excursion  Meeting,   1895. 

The  Fifth  Annual  Excursion  Meeting  took  place  on  Tuesday 
the  17th  September,  at  Ghreat  Council,  Eildare,  and  district. 

Most  of  the  company  assembled  by  tlie  various  morning 
trains  at  Newbridge  Station,  the  Society  having  arranged  for 
a  special  train  from  Sallins  to  Newbridge  in  order  to  further 
convenience  Members.  On  the  arrival  of  the  trains,  brakes  and 
oars  were  ready  to  convey  the  Members  and  their  friends  to 
Ghreat  Connell,  a  distance  of  two  miles.  A  halt  was  made  at  the 
old  church  called  "  the  Reliceen,"  where  the  recumbent  effigy 
of  a  Bishop  was  inspected  in  the  churchyard ;  also  several  other 
monuments  of  the  17th  and  18th  centuries,  and  Great  Connell 
being  but  a  short  distance  off,  those  present  walked  down  the 
road  to  the  Abbey  ruins. 


72  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

Here  the  Earl  of  Mayo,  President  of  the  Society,  addressing 
the  assemblage,  alluded  to  the  8a<l  loss  the  Society  had  sustained 
in  the  deatli  of  the  Vice-President,  the  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Comer- 
ford,  and  took  this,  the  first  opportunity,  of  moving  a  resolu- 
tion  expressing  the  feelings  of  the  Society,  which  was  passed  in 
respectful  silence. 

Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  then  proceeded  with  the  reading  of 
his  Paper  on  the  history  of  the  abbey,  which  will  appear  in  the 
pages  of  the  Journal. 

The  company  tlien  betook  themselves  to  the  vehicles  and 
proceeded  to  Kildare,  entering  the  Curragh  at  the  Athgarvan 
end  and  driving  along  its  entire  length  to  Kildare.  Here 
luncheon  had  feen  provided  in  the  Court  House  (kindly  lent 
by  the  High  Sheriff  J  for  those  who  had  previously  sent  in  their 
names. 

The  next  move  was  for  the  Cathedral,  where  the  Dean  of 
Baldare  read  a  most  interesting  and  exhaustive  Paper  on  the 
whole  history  of  the  building;  tliose  present  ranging  them- 
selves in  the  seats  in  the  nave,  the  main  portion  of  the  recently 
restored  edifice  not  being  yet  opened  for  worship. 

The  Dean  of  Kildare  exhibited  several  armorial  tiles  and 
other  objects  of  interest  found  when  the  restoration  works  were 
in  progress,  and  also  the  Cathedral  Communion  Plate,  some  of 
which  dates  from  the  17th  century. 

On  the  conclusion  of  the  Dean's  Paper  tlie  Rev.  Denis 
Murphy  read  at  the  foot  of  the  Bound  Tower  a  paper  of  much 
research  on  "  the  Antiquities  of  Kildare,"  including  the  Grey 
Abbey  and  the  Preceptory  of  TuUy .  The  day  being  somewhat 
advanced,  the  company  adjourned  to  the  Court-House  and  par- 
took of  tea — a  considerable  section  of  those  present  first  paying 
a  visit  to  the  old  Castle,  and  afterwards  wending  their  way 
back  on  foot  to  the  Railway  Station. 

The  weather  throughout  was  ideal  for  an  archaeological 
excursion. 

The  arrangements  of  the  day  were  in  charge  of  Lord  Walter 
Fitz  Gerald  and  Mr.  Arthur  Vicars  ( Ulster),  Hon.  Secretaries, 
who  had  provided  for  the  comfort  of  the  Members  and  their 
visitors  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  every  one. 

The  following  Members  and  Visitors  took  part  in  the  Ex- 
cursion : — The  Countess  of  Mayo ;  Lady  Eva  Fitz  Gerald  ;  Miss 
A.  F.  Long ;  Dr.,  Mrs.,  and  Miss  Woolcombe ;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Cooke  Trench  ;  Mr.  J.  B.  CuUen ;  Mr.  M.  P.  and  Miss  Cullen ; 
Bev.  R. D.  Skuse  and  Mrs.  Skuse ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  M.Wilson ; 
Miss  Dupr^  Wilson ;  Lady  and  Miss  Weldon ;  Mr.  A,  A, 
Weldon ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  Sweetman ;  Mr.  H.  Hendrick- 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCILEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.  73 

Aylmer,  Hon,  Treasurer;  Mr.  D.  G.  Jameson;  Surgeon-Major 
J.  R.  Keogh ;  Col.  Vigors ;  Miss  Johnson  ;  Mr.  William  JJ. 
MoUoy ;  The  Dean  of  Kildare ;  Mr.  W.  J.  Kirkpatrick ;  Mr. 
Thomas  Greene  (High  Sheriff),  and  Miss  Greene;  Bey.  William 
Fitzgerald ;  llev.  James  Jesspn ;  Xiord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  and 
Mr.  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster  King  of  Arms,  Hon.  Secretmies ; 
Bey.  Canon  Slierlock,  and  the  Misses  Sherlock ;  Mr.  F.  M. 
Carroll ;  Mrs.  and  Miss  Carroll ;  Miss  Archbold ;  Bey.  James 
Adams ;  Mr.  B.  B.  Kennedy,  r.m.  ;  the  Earl  of  Mayo,  Pre- 
sident ;  Mr.  J.  C.  O'Meagher,  m.r.i.a.  ;  Dr.  Darby;  Bey.  T. 
Morrin ;  Very  Bey.  Thomas  Tynan ;  Mr.  T.  J.  Hannon ; 
Bey.  Denis  Murphy,  ll.d.,  m.r.la.,  Hon.  Editor;  General  and 
Mrs,  M*Mahon ;  Mr.  J.  Loch,  c.i.,  r.i.c.  ;  Bey.  M.  Devitt ; 
Bey.  J.  Dunne;  Very  Bey.  M;  J.  Murphy;  Bey.  William 
Elliott ;  Bey.  John  T.  Bird ;  Mr.  K.  Supple,  n.i.,  r.i.c.  ;  Mr. 
H.  Thynne,  c.b.,  Dep.-Inspector-General,  n.i.c. ;  Misses  Med- 
Uoott;  Mr.  and  Miss  Armstrong;  Miss  Hopkins;  Colonel 
Sheryington ;  Mr.  A.  Leigh ;  Bey.  A.  and  Bey.  E.  Kirkpatrick  ; 
Miss  Kirkpatrick ;  Mr.  B.  Long ;  Miss  Moody ;  Mr.  and  Mrs, 
Vipond  Barry ;  Miss  Stack ;  Mr.  F,  J.  Conlan,  (&o. 


[Balanck  Shekt 


74 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 


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COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.  75 

LIST  OF  HONORARY  OFFICERS  AND  MEMBERS. 

{CORRECTED  TO  FEBRUARY  5.  2S96.) 


THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 
THE  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  8.J. 

(in  o&dbb  op  BLIOnON.) 

THOMAS  COOKE  TRENCH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
GEOROE  MANSFIELD,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
THE  REV.  CANON  SHERLOCK,  M.A. 
THE  REV.  EDWARD  O'LEARY,  P.P. 
THOMAS  J.  DE  BURGH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
THE  REV.  MATHEW  DEVITT,  S.J. 

y^aru  ^xtztTxtni 

HANS  HENDRICK-AYLMER,  ESQ.,  Kebdiffstown,  Naab. 

LORD  WALTER  FITZGERALD,  M.R.LA.,  Kilxba  Castlb,  Maobnbt. 
ARTHUR  VICARS,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  mster,  44,  Wblunoton-road,  Dublxic. 

yjon*  €Mt0f ; 
THE  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  S.J. 


76  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

[Officeri  are  indicated  by  heavy  type ;  Life  Members  by  an  asterisk  (*).] 

Adams,  Bot.  James,  Kill  Rectoiy,  Straffan. 

Archbold,  Miss,  Davidstown,  Castledermot. 

Aylmer,  Miss,  Donadea  Castle,  Co.  Kildare. 

Aylmer,  Algernon,  Rathmore,  Naas. 

ATLXEB,  H.  EEHDBIGK-,  Hon.  Treaiurer,  Eerdiffstown,  Naas. 

*Barton,  Hon.  Mrs.,  Straffan  House,  Straffan. 
*Barton,  Major  H.  L.,  d.l.,  Straffan  House,  Straffan. 

Bonham,  Colonel  J.,  Ballintaggart,  Colbinstown,  Co.  Kildare. 

Bird,  Bey.  John  T.,  Curragh  Camp. 

Brooke,  J.  T.,  Dungannon,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Brown,  Stephen  J.,  Naas. 

Browne,  Rev.  Hawtrey,  Victoria  Cottage,  Permoy. 

Burke,  Very  Rev.  E.,  p.p.,  Bagenalstown,  Co.  Carlow. 

Burtchaell,  G.  D.,  m.a.,  7i  St.  Stephen*s-green,  Dublin. 

Cane,  Major  Claude,  St.  Wolstan's,  Celbridge. 

Carberry,  Bev.  Thomas,  p.p.,  The  Presbytery,  Ballitore. 

Carroll,  Frederick,  Moone  Abbey,  Moone. 

Carroll,  Bev.  James,  c.c,  Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 
^Clements,  Colonel,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Clements,  Mrs.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 
^Clements,  Henry  J.  B.,  d.l.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Coady,  D.  P.,  m.d.,  Johnstown,  Straffan. 

Cochrane,  Robert,  f.s.a.,  m.r.i.a.,  Hon.  Secretary  b.s.a.i.,  17,  Highfield-road, 
Rathgar. 

Cole,  Rev.  J.  F.,  The  Rectory,  Portarlington. 

Conmee,  Rev.  J.  F.,  s.j.,  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Upper  Gardiner-street,  Dublin. 

Cooper,  Austin  Damer,  Drumnigh  House,  Baldoyle,  Co.  Dublin. 

Coote,  Stanley,  The  Orchard  House,  Wargrave,  Berks. 

Cowell,  Very  Rev.  G.  T.,  Dean  of  Kildare,  The  Deanery,  Kildare. 

Crosby,  Rav.  £.  Lewis,  36,  Rutland-square,  Dublin. 

Cullen,  J.  B.,  40,  Kenil worth-square,  Rathgar,  Dublin. 

Dames,  R.  S.  Longworth,  21,  Herbert-street,  Dublin. 
Dane,  J.  Whiteside,  Osberstown  Hill,  Naas. 
Darby,  M.,  m.d.,  Monasterevan. 
Day,  Robert,  p.b.a.,  x.b.la.,  3,  Sydney-place,  Cork, 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY.  ^^ 

Dease,  Colonel  6.,  Celbridge  Abbey,  Celbridge. 

DB  BUBeH,  THOMAS  J,,  d.l.,  Oldtown,  Naas. 

DBVUT,  Bey.  MATHBW,  S J.,  ClongoweB  Wood  College,  SalliiiB. 

Dojle,  Rev.  J.  J.,  Derrycappagh,  Mountmellick,  Queen's  County. 

Doyle,  Rev.  Thomas,  Caragh,  Naas. 

Drew,  Thomas,  r.h.a,,  m.r.i.a..,  p.b.s.a.i.,  Gortnadrew,  Monkstown. 

Duncan,  J.  A.,  Athy. 

Dunne,  Rev.  John,  C.C.,  Clane. 

Dunne,  Laurence,  j.p.,  Dollardstown  House,  Athy. 

Elliott,  Rev.  William,  The  Manse,  Naas. 

Falkiner,  F.  J.,  m.d.,  Spring  Gardens,  Naas. 

Ffreneh,  Rev.  J.  F.  M.,  m.k.i.a.,  Bally redmond  House,  Clonegal. 
*Fitz  Gerald,  Lady  Eva,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Eildare. 

Fitz  Gerald,  Lady  Mabel,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Eildare. 
*Fitz  Gerald,  Lady  Nesta,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 
*Fitz  Gerald,  JiOrd  Frederick,  Carton,  Maynooth,  Co.  Kildare. 
*Fitz  Gerald,  TiOrd  George,  King's  House,  Kingston,  Jamaica. 
«FITZeEBALD,  LOBD  WALTBB,  M.B.LA.,  Eon.  Secretary,  Kilkea  Castle, 
Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 

Fitz  Gerald,  Lord  Henry,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 

Fitz  Gerald,  Rev.  W.,  Castletown  Rectory,  Portroe,  Killaloe. 

Fogarty,  Rev.  M.,  Professor,  Maynooth  College. 

Follis,  Rev.  C.  W.,  Emily-square,  Athy. 

Ganly,  Rev.  C.  W.,  The  Rectory,  Castledermot,  Co.  Kildare. 

Garrett,  Rev.  George,  Kilmeague,  Co.  Kildare. 

Garstin,  J.   Ribton,  d.l.,   f.s.a.,   m.r.i.a.,    Braganstown,    Castlebellingham, 

Co.  Louth. 
Glover,  Edward,  19,  Prince  Patrick-terrace,  North  Circular-road,  Dublin. 
Greene,  Thomas,  ll.d.,  MiUbrook,  Mageney. 

Hade,  Arthur,  c.b.,  Carlow. 

Hannon,  Thomas  J.,  Millview  House,  Athy. 

Higginson,  Lady,  Connellmore,  Newbridge. 

Hoguet,  Madame  Henry  L.,  48,  West  Twenty-eighth-street,  New  York. 

Houston,  Rey.  B.  C.  Davidson,  St.  John's  Vicarage,  Sydney  Parade,  Dublin. 

Jameson,  Miss  Sophia,  Glenmona,  Moone. 

Jessen,  Rev.  J.  L.,  The  Rectory,  Eilkea,  Co.  Kildare. 

Johnson,  Miss,  Prumplestown  House,  Castledermot,  Co.  Kildare. 

Joyce,  Patrick  Weston,  Lyre  na  Grena,  Leinster-road,  Rathmines,  Dublin. 


8o         COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCILSOLOGICAL  SOCIETY. 


RULES. 

I.  That  this  Society  he  called  '<  The  County  Eildare  ArchsBological 
Society." 

II.  That  the  purpose  of  the  Society  he  the  proinotion  of  the  study  and 
knowledge  of  the  antiquities  and  ohjects  of  interest  in  the  county  and 
surrounding  districts. 

III.  That  the  Society  consist  of  a  President,  Vice-President,  Council, 
Hon.  Treasurer,  two  Hon.  Secretaries,  and  Members.  Ladies  are  eligible 
for  Membership. 

lY.  That  the  Names  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  desiring  to  become 
Members  of  the  Society  shall  be  submitted,  together  with  the  names  of 
their  proposers  and  seconders,  to  the  Council,  and,  if  approved  by  them, 
shall  then  be  submitted  to  the  next  Meeting  of  the  Society  for  Election. 

y.  That  the  affairs  of  the  Society  be  managed  by  the  President,  Vice- 
President,  Hon.  Treasurer,  and  Hon.  Secretaries,  together  with  a  Council 
of  six  Members.  That  for  ordinary  business  two  shall  form  a  quorum  ;  but 
any  matter  upon  which  a  difference  of  opinion  arises  shall  be  reserved  for 
another  meeting,  in  which  three  shall  form  a  quorum. 

VI.  That  two  Members  of  the  Council  shall  retire  by  rotation  each 
year,  but  shall  be  eligible  for  re-election. 

YII.  That  Members  pay  an  Annual  Subscription  of  Ten  Shillings  (due 
on  the  1st  of  January),  and  that  the  payment  of  £o  shall  constitute 
a  Life  Member. 

VIII.  That  Meetings  of  the  Society  be  held  not  less  than  twice  in  each 
year,  one  Meeting  being  an  excursion  to  some  place  of  archeeological 
interest  in  the  district. 

IX.  That  at  the  first  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  each  year  the  Hon. 
Treasurer  shall  furnish  a  balance-sheet. 

X.  That  a  Journal  of  the  Society  be  published  annually,  containing 
the  Proceedings  and  a  column  for  local  Notes  and  Queries,  which  shall  be 
submitted  to  the  Council  for  their  approval. 

XI.  That  the  Meetings  of  the  year  be  fixed  by  the  Council,  due  notice 
of  the  dates  of  the  Meetings  being  given  to  Members. 

XII.  That  Members  be  at  liberty  to  introduce  visitors  at  the  Meetings 
of  the  Society* 

XIII.  No  Member  shall  receive  the  Jouenal  if  his  Subscription  for 
the  previous  year  be  not  paid. 


THE  LATE  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY.  S.J„  LL.D-,  M.HA.A, 


joiim.  AmcH.  ««■.  KtLtj,  [Tnl.  iL^  p.  It.] 


{    8i     ) 


OBITUAET. 

THE  Eev.  Denis  MuiirHY,  S.J.,  was  born  at  Newmarket, 
in  the  ooimty  of  Cork,  on  the  12th  of  January,  1833. 
He  acquired  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education  at  a 
dame's  school  in  Kanturk.  Quickly  learning  all  that  was  to 
be  taught  therein,  he  was  placed  at  a  classical  school  in  the 
same  town,  where  he  acquired  a  sound  elementary  knowledge 
of  Greek  and  Latin.  From  this  school  at  Kanturk  he  proceeded 
to  Clongowes,  where  he  studied  rhetoric  with  some  distinction. 
He  was  gifted  with  an  excellent  memory,  and  early  in  life 
acquired  a  power  of  mastering  the  details  of  a  subject. 

In  October,  1848,  he  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus,  making 
his  noTiciate  at  Toulouse.  After  the  noviciate  he  spent  three 
years  in  the  study  of  philosophy,  when,  returning  to  Clongowes, 
he  commenced  the  teaching  of  grammar  and  the  humanities. 

His  theological  studies  were  for  the  most  part  carried  on  in 
Germany  and  Spain.  He  acquired  an  excellent  knowledge  of 
French,  Spanish,  and  German.  From  his  youth  he  knew  the 
modem  Irish.  On  his  final  settling  down  in  Ireland,  he 
devoted  himself  to  mission  work  and  preaching.  His  was  a 
iamiliar  face  throughout  most  of  Ireland  as  a  conductor  of 
Betreats,  and  few  surpassed  him  in  the  labours  of  a  missionary 
priest. 

Deeply  interested  in  all  that  concerned  his  native  country, 
he  eommeneed  to  investigate  its  past  history  in  the  hopes  that,' 
by  an  appeal  to  facts,  and  an  avoidance  of  fiction,  he  might 
make  manifest  how  matters  really  stood.     His  first  attempt 


82  OBITUARY  OF  THE  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  SJ. 

was  in  his  **  Cromwell  in  Ireland."  Great  clouds  of  fiction 
circled  about  the  few  solid  facts  of  the  visit  of  Oliver  Cromwell 
to  Ireland.  Stories  of  his  deeds  in  parts  of  Ireland  which  he 
never  visited,  were  not  onlj  numerous,  but  were  believed  in. 
By  a  patient  investigation  of  authentic  records,  our  author  fol- 
lowed Cromwell  from  his  landing  in  Ireland  in  August,  1649, 
to  his  departure  on  the  29th  May,  1650.  This  interesting 
volume  was  published  in  1883,  and  was  soon  out  of  print.  The 
study  of  the  various  towns  and  castles  visited  by  Cromwell  led 
to  a  further  investigation  of  the  antiquities  of  Ireland,  and  this 
soon  took  up  all  the  time  not  devoted  to  his  sacred  duties.  In 
1891  he  privately  printed  ^*  Triumplialia  Chronologica  Monas- 
terii  Sanctee  Crucis  in  Hibernia,"  and  '^De  Cisterciensium 
Hibemorum  Yiris  lUustribus."  These  were  edited,  with  a 
translation  from  the  manuscript  then  in  the  possession  of  the 
Most  Bev.  Dr.  Croke.  Apart  from  the  interest  of  this  work  as 
descriptive  of  Holy  Cross  Abbey,  the  account  of  the  forty- 
four  illustrious  Irish  Cistercians,  beginning  with  St.  Malachy 
O'Morgair,  who  died  1148,  to  Patrick  Everard,  the  Abbot  of 
Dunbrody,  who  died  1650,  makes  it  a  peculiarly  valuable 
volume. 

His  next  work  was  the  translation  of  Cucogry  O'Clery's 
Irish  manuscript  of  Lughaidh  O'Clery's  life  of  Hugh  Boe 
O'Donnell,  Prince  of  Tirconnell  (1586-1602).  The  Iiish  text 
is  given,  with  an  historical  introduction,  notes,  and  illustra- 
tions (1893).  This  was  speedily  followed  by  a  "  Short  History 
of  Ireland  "  (1894),  in  which  he  endeavoured,  without  note  or 
comment,  "  to  give  all  the  leading  facts  of  Irish  history  in  a 
manner  which  might  interest  the  young  reader." 

Early  in  1896  appeared  "  The  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise," 
being  annals  of  Ireland  from  the  earliest  period  to  a.d.  1408. 
This  had  been  translated  into  English,  a.d.  1627,  by  Conell 
Mageoghagan.  It  was  now  for  the  first  time  printed,  being 
edited  by  Dr.  Murphy  for  the  Boyal  Society  of  Antiquaries 
of  Ireland,  and  issued  as  their  extra  volume  for  1893-95. 
The  text  was  printed  from  the  copy  made  in  1684  by  Tadhg 


OBITUARY  OF  THE  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  S.J.  83 

O'Daly,  now  in  the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin.  It 
has  a  carefully  made  index. 

The  last  work  he  was  engaged  on  has  for  its  title  "  Our 
Martyrs,"  and  g^ves  an  account  of  those  who  had  suffered 
during  the  religious  persecutions  in  Ireland,  and  who  had 
belonged  to  the  author's  Churcli. 

Besides  making  a  study  of  Irish  manuscripts,  he  for  many 
years  made  Irish  antiquities  an  object  of  special  investigation, 
and  he  })as  published  very  many  contributions  in  the  Journals 
of  our  Antiquarian  Societies.  With  the  history  of  most  of  the 
Irish  stone  crosses  he  was  particularly  familiar,  and  he  never 
refused  a  request  to  give  a  lecture  on  these,  generally  illustrated 
by  photographs,  many  taken  by  himself.  He  was  always 
ready  to  assist  other  investigators,  many  of  whom  will  for  long 
miss  his  generous  help. 

On  the  morning  of  the  18th  of  May,  1896,  not  making  his 
appearance  as  usual,  he  was  found  dead  in  his  bed,  with  a 
peaceful  expression  on  his  features.  Proofs  of  his  "  Martyrs 
of  Ireland  "  were  on  a  table  by  his  bedside.  By  his  decease 
many  of  the  Members  of  the  Kildare  Archaeological  Society 
have  lost  a  genial,  kindly  friend. 

The  Royal  University  of  Ireland  conferred  on  him  the 
Hon.  Degree  of  LL.D.,  of  which  University  he  was  an 
Kxaminer  in  Spanish.  He  was  Professor  of  the  Language 
and  Literature  of  France  in  University  College,  St.  Stephen's 
Green.  He  was  a  Vice-President  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  Ireland,  and  of  the  County  Kildare  ArchsBO- 
logical  Society,  a  Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  and  an  Hon-  Member  of  the  Waterford  and  South- 
East  of  Ireland  Archaeological  Society.  Father  Murphy  was 
also  the  Hon.  Editor  of  our  Journal,  a  duty  which  he  kindly 
undertook  on  the  resignation  of  that  office  by  the  Rev.  Canon 
Sherlock  in  1894.— E.  P.  W. 


VOL.  II.,  PABT  II.  H 


o 


TRINITY  WELL.— TUB  SOURCE  OF  THE  BOYNB. 


CARBURY  AND   THE  BIRMINGHAMS*      ^ 
COUNTRY, 

By  rev.   MATTHEW   DEVITT.   S.J. 

[liead  at  Naas,  February  5,  1896.] 

rilHKKB  aro  few  districts  in  the  Co.  Kildare  more  attractive  to 
X  the  archaeologist  than  the  area,  roughly  speaking,  covered 
by  the  present  barony  of  Carbury,  in  the  north-western 
corner  of  the  county.  On  almost  every  hill,  at  every  ford  and 
point  of  vantage,  in  that  interesting  region,  we  find  the  remains 
of  feudal  keeps  or  castles,  rising  gaunt  and  grim  from  the  rich 
grassjr  sward,  like  the  ghosts  of  the  old  mail-clad  warriors  who 
raised  them  to  guard  the  lands  they  had  won  by  the  sword, 
and  held  by  the  sword.  But  high  above  them  all,  like  the  son 
of  Telamon  among  the  Greeks,  towers  the  famous  Castle  of 
Carbury,  situated  on  the  northern  spur  of  the  hill  of  Carbury, 
even  in  its  decay  impressing  us  with  its  rugged  magnificence, 
and  tempting  us  to  conjecture  how  still  more  imposing  it  must 
have  appeared  in  the  days  of  its  glory  when  it  was  sometimes 

H2 


"'<<) 


86 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 


the  terror  and  sometimes  the  protection  of  the  plains  on  which 
it  frowned. 

"  The  length  of  the  line  of  the  southern  wall,"  writes  Sir 
William  Wilde,  "  is  alone  100  feet;  and  the  general  view  of  the 
castle  upon  our  first  approach,  with  its  chimneys,  narrow  pointed 
gables,  and  large  stone-sashed  windows,  is  that  of  one  of  the 
Best  specimens  of  the  castellated  mansions  of  about  the  time  of 
James  I. .  .  .  The  eastern  front,  which  measures  sixty  feet,  still 
remains  with  several  of  its  mullioned  windows,  even  yet  quite 
perfect ;  and  upon  a  gentle  slope  leading  down  from  its  walls  on 


CASTLE  CARBURY. 


this  side  may  yet  be  traced  the  vestiges  of  a  garden,  with  a 
few  of  its  flowers  now  wild  and  neglected.  ...  In  fact  every- 
thing about  this  ruin  bears  evidence  of  ladies  fair  as  well  as 
valiant  knights  having  inhabited  it,  .  .  .  but  on  a  closer  inspec- 
tion and  an  internal  examination,  we  perceive  from  the  charac- 
ter of  the  masonry,  the  massive  walls,  the  deep  stone-roofed 
donjons,  the  principal  of  which  runs  for  85  feet  under  the 
great  keep,  from  south  to  north,  the  manifest  antiquity  of  the 
entire  western  end,  and  the  general  arrangement  of  the  whole, 
that  the  present  ruin  consists  of  the  remains  of  structures,  very 
much  older  than   the  early  part  or  middle  of  the  sixteenth 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.  87 

century ;  indeed  some  of  them  appear  to  be  as  old  ba  the  twelfth 
century,  and  there  are  remains  of  walls  of  great  thickness,  buUt 
with  rubble  masonry  and  grouted,  extending  even  beyond  the 
confines  of  the  present  ruin  to  the  north-west.  The  modern 
additions  all  exist  on  the  opposite  side,  and  their  later  date  is  at 
once  manifest.  Four  of  the  chimneys,  three  of  which  are  in  the 
eastern  front,  have  sixteen  sides,  and  are  like  some  of  the 
chimneys  of  English  castles  built  about  the  year  1530,  being 
beautifully  wrought  and  moulded  at  the  top." 
So  far  Sir  W.  Wilde. 


CASTLB  CARBURY.— PART  OF   INTKRIOR. 


If  we  ascend  to  the  summit  of  the  hill,  which  rises  471  feet 
above  the  sea,  we  shall  be  repaid  by  the  prospect  of  a  landscape 
replete  with  historical  associations.  On  the  south  we  see  the 
infant  Boyne  as  it  emerges  from  Trinity  Well,  for  the  legend  of 
which  I  must  refer  you  to  Sir  William  Wilde's  book  on  "  The 
Boyne  and  the  Blackwater."  Beyond  it  is  an  immense  stretch 
of  bog,  once  covered  with  forests,  the  name  of  which  alone 
survives  in  the  Fews  (Jidh^  being  the  Irish  for  woods).  This 
tract  was  considered  one  of  the  strong  passes  of  Ireland,  and 
was  called  the  *'  door"  of  the  English  Pale. 


go  CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS*  COUNTRY. 

"  Martyrology  "  was  writteu  by  the  learned  Michael  O'Clery, 
one  of  the  Four  Masters,  in  the  seventeenth  century,  we  may 
be  sure  that  Kilcock  was  recognized  to  be  a  permanent  portion 
of  Carbury. 

Again,  in  O'Heeriu's  "Topographical  Poem,'*  written  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  we  read : — 

'*  Over  Carbury,  of  Leinster  of  the  plains, 
Rules  O'Keary,  of  the  red-handed  swords, 
The  scion  of  Almhain,  without  scarcity  to  the  east, 
By  whom  battles  were  kindled  round  Croghan." 

From  the  expression  the  "scion  of  Allen,"  O'Donovan 
concludes  that  Carbury  O'Keary  extended  south  as  far  as 
Allen." 

The  O'Kearys  were  a  very  powerful  and  noble  family  in 
ancient  Erin.  O'Duggan,  in  his  "  Topographical  Poem"  com- 
posed in  the  fourteenth  century,  says : — 

*  *  0  Ciardha  over  Carbury  of  poets 
Of  the  tribes  of  nine-hostaged  Niall, 
They  are  but  themselves  over  to  the  east 
Of  the  clans  of  Niall  in  I^einster.'' 

They  alone  of  all  the  Leinster  families  .w.ere  descended  from 
Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages,  and  thus  were  of  the  noblest  blood 
in  Ireland. 

Tlie  deaths  of  their  princes  are  frequently  recorded  in  the 
"Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  and,  as  usual  with  Irish  princes, 
were  violent  deaths.  The  following  extracts  relate  to  this 
family: — 

A.D.  952.  "A  great  slaughter  was  made  of  the  people  of 
Carbury  and  Teathbha  (Teffia  was  a  district  in  Longford  and 
Westmeath)  by  O'Buairc,  on  which  occasion  T7a  Ciardha,  lord 
of  Cairbr^,  was  slain." 

A.D.  992.  "  Maelruaneadh  Ua  Ciardha,  lord  of  Carbury, 
was  slain  by  the  men  of  Teathblid." 

A.D.  999.  "  Aedh  Ua  Ciardha  was  blinded  by  his  brother, 
i.e.  Ualgharg  Ua  Ciardha." 

As  we  frequently  read  in  the  Irish  annals  of  this  horrible 
form  of  mutilation  inflicted  by  some  member  of  the  victim's 
family,  it  may  be  well  to  observe  that  the  object  in  view  was  to 
disqualify  the  unfortunate  relative  for  the  chieftainship.  In 
Ireland  the  succession  was  determined  by  election,  but  was 
limited  to  the  members  of  one  family,  and  any  deformity  or 
personal  blemish  disqualified  a  candidate. 

We  now  come  to  a  very  important  event  in  Irish  history — 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS*  COUNTRY.  89 

wife  was  Boan,  from  whom  the  River  Boyne  is  supposed  to 
have  got  its  name. 

The  celebrated  Laeghaire,  who  was  Ard-righ  of  Ireland  in 
the  time  of  St.  Patrick,  having  been  forced  by  the  men  of 
Leinster  to  swear  by  the  elements  that  he  would  never  exact 
the  Boru  tribute,  broke  his  oath,  and,  advancing  into  Leinster, 
made  a  raid  on  Sidh-Nechtain.  For  this  he  was  struck  down 
by  a  thunderbolt  from  heaven,  or,  according  to  anotlier  account, 
as  lie  had  sworn  by  the  elements,  the  elements  wreaked  their 
vengeance  on  him ;  that  is,  the  air  forsook  him,  the  sun  burned 
him,  and  the  earth  swallowed  him,  a.d.  458.  The  exact  spot 
on  which  he  fell  has  not,  I  believe,  been  identified.  It  was 
called  Oraillach  Daphilly  near  Liffe,  according  to  Keating.^  The 
^^  Four  Masters  "  say  it  was  situated  between  the  hills  Eire  and 
Albha.  F.  Shearman'  tells  us  that  Graillach  Daphill  means 
the  swamp  or  miry  place  of  Daphil,  the  lap  dog  of  Boan  above 
referred  to,  who,  with  his  mistress,  was  borne  on  the  waves  of 
the  Boyne  to  the  sea.  This  would  place  the  scene  of  his  death 
near  Trinity  Well.  Alblia  may  be  the  hill  of  Allen,  but  Eire 
cannot  yet  be  identified.  In  one  of  the  so-called  prophecies  of 
St.  Patrick,  quoted  by  O'Curry,'  we  read  that  Laeghaire  shall 
be  slain  on  the  banks  of  the  rivor  Caisd  ;  and  the  Four  Masters 
tell  us  that  he  died  by  its  side.^  About  two  miles  south  of 
Carbury,  near  Drummond  House,  a  small  river  called  the 
Cwshuling  crosses  the  road  from  Carbury  to  Allen ;  and  I 
strongly  suspect  this  is  the  river  referred  to  by  the  prophecy 
and  by  tlie  Four  Masters.  The  name  of  Sidli-Nechtain  after 
the  above  date  does  not  appear  in  our  Annals,  and  we  find  the 

Cce  henceforth  called  Carbury.  This  name  is  said  to  liave 
u  taken  from  Cairbrd,  one  of  the  sons  of  Niall  of  the 
Nine  Hostages,  and  brother  of  Laeghaird.  Though  Cairbre 
died  without  issue,  he  seems  to  have  conquered  this  territory,  and 
to  have  acquired  it  from  some  of  his  race.  They  were  after- 
wards called  the  O'Keareys,  and  their  territory  is  always  spoken 
of  as  "  Carbury  of  the  O'Kearys,"  Cairhri  na  Ciardha. 

That  this  territory  was  much  more  extensive  than  the 
present  barony  of  Carbury  is  evident  from  the  "  Martyrology 
of  Donegal,"  which  makes  it  extend  eastward  as  far  as  Eilcock. 
St.  Coca,  from  whom  Kilcock  derives  its  name,  is  thus 
calendared  in  that  **  Martyrology,"  on  8th  January : — "  Cuaigh, 
virgin    of    Cil  Cuaigh  in  Cairbre    na   Ciardha."      As    this 

• ___^ 

'  Book  II.,  p.  12,  Dermod  O'Connor's  translation. 

'  **  Looa  Patrioiana,"  p.  67,  note. 

'  Lectures  on  MS.,  p.  388.        «  Sub  ans.,  p.  4d8. 


92  CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

Glontarf,  and  that  when  Brian  asked  him  what  news  he 
brought,  he  told  him  that  Aedh,  son  of  TJalgharg  Ua  Ciardha, 
king  of  Garbury,  refused  to  accompany  him  to  battle  in  defenoe 
of  Brian.  Thereupon  Brian  cursed  the  O'Kearys  and  the  men 
of  Carbury. 

At  the  period  of  the  English  invasion,  Carbury  was  given 
to  Meiler  Fitz  Henry.  In  the  old  Anglo-Norman  poem,  gene- 
rally spoken  of  as  the  composition  of  Maurice  liegan,  interpre- 
ter to  Eang  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh,  we  read  :  "  Carbry  he 
(Strongbow)  gave  to  the  good  Meiler  who  was  such  a  noble 
Lord."  Giraldus  Cambrensis^  says  that  *^he  gave  in  fee  to 
Meiler  as  Lord  Marcher  the  remoter  cantred  of  Ophelan." 
Carbury  was  outside  Ophelan,  but  we  need  not  trouble 
ourselves  with  the  geography  of  Qiraldus  Cambrensis,  which 
was  as  loose  as  his  tongue.  He  tells  us,  later  on,  that  in 
1181,  ^^Kildare,  and  the  adjacent  country  granted  by  the 
Earl  (Strongbow),  was  taken  from  Meiler  by  John  Constable 
of  Chester,  and  Kichard  Le  Pec,  Governors  of  Ireland  at  that 
time,  and  that  Meiler  received  Leix  in  exchange.  This  again 
would  show  that  Giraldus  considered  Kildare  to  be  in  Ophelan, 
while  in  reality  it  was  in  Ophaly.  Most  likely  he  confused 
Ophelan  with  OfEaly. 

Into  whose  hands  did  Carbury  fall  when  it  was  taken  from 
Meiler  Fitzlienry  P 

There  seems  to  be  a  general  impression  that  it  was  acquired 
by  the  Birminghams.  Sir  W.  Wilde'  thought  that  the  Castle 
of  Carbury  was  built  by  the  Birminghams;  and  even  Dr. 
Gilbert '  implies  that  they  were  planted  there  by  Strongbow. 

I  hope  to  prove  that  this  view  is  untenable.  Carbury,  as 
portion  of  Dermod's  kingdom  of  Leinster,  was  held  by  Meiler 
from  Strongbow,  and  when  taken  from  Meiler  would  naturally 
revert  to  the  heirs  of  Strongbow,  unless  we  have  evidence  of 
another  grant.  As  there  is  no  trace  of  such  a  grant  at  this 
period,  we  may  take  the  reversion  for  granted.  On  the  death 
of  Strongbow  in  1176,  his  only  child  Isabel,  the  granddaughter 
of  Dermod  M'Murrough,  was  the  heir  to  his  vast  estates.  lu 
llb9,  she  was  given  by  the  crown  in  marriage  to  William  Earl 
Marshal,  head  of  the  great  Baronial  family  which  held  the 
hereditary  office  of  Marshal  to  the  King  of  England.  By  this 
marriage  he  became  Lord  of  ancient  Ossory,  and  of  the  three 
counties  of  Wexford,  Carlow,  and  Kildare,  and  Earl  of  Fem- 

^  Vol.  V.  Rolls  Series,  p.  314. 

s  «Bojne  and  Blaokwater,"  2nd  edition,  p.  30. 

» *•  Hist,  of  Viceroys,''  p.  144. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.  93 

broke  aud  of  Strigoil.  In  1191,  he  was  appointed  Chief 
Gk>Yemor  or  Justiciary  of  Ireland;^  and  from  the  official 
documents  which  I  now  proceed  to  quote,  it  will  be  made  dear 
that  he  was  the  next  owner  of  Garbury  after  the  great  Meiler 
Fitz  Henry. 

Under  the  date  1216,  we  find : '  **  The  king  commands  the 
justiciary  to  cause  Earl  William  Marshal,  to  have,  according 
to  the  King's  charter,  all  his  fees  in  the  lands  held  by  Meilex 
Fitz  Henry  " ;  and  again : ''  commands  that  if  Meiler  Fitz  Henry 
depart  this  life  or  take  tlie  religious  habit,  the  justioiaiy  shall 
cause  Earl  William  to  have  all  the  fees  which  Meiler  held  of 
the  Earl  within  the  justiciary's  Bailiwick." 

This  William  Earl  Marshal  had  by  Isabel,  daughter  of 
Strongbow,  five  sons  and  five  daughters.  The  five  sons  enjoyed 
the  earldom  in  succession.' 

The  eldest  William  was  appointed  Viceroy  of  Ireland  in 
1224.  He  united  his  forces  with  Cahal  O'Connor  King  of 
Connaught,  and  defeated  the  DeLacys  of  Meath,  who  liad 
made  incursions  on  his  Leinster  estates.  The  Irish  chroniclers 
record  that  this  Earl  William,  '*  by  the  help  of  his  sword  and  the 
strength  of  his  hand,  rescued  Cahal  O'Connor  from  the  Anglo- 
Normans,  who  had  enticed  him  to  Dublin  and  unjustly  tried  to 
detain  him.  He  died  in  1231,  and  his  brother  liichard  suc- 
ceeded to  his  Irish  estates.  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald,  the  Viceroy, 
instigated  by  the  foreign  favourites  of  Henry  III.,  joined  in  a 
huge  conspiracy  to  seize  the  lands  and  castles  of  Richard.  He 
was  joined  by  Hugh  De  Lacy,  Richard  De  Burgh,  and  others. 
They  procured  a  chai-ter  marking  out  the  partition  of  his  lands 
among  them,  and  proceeded  to  invade  his  territories.  But 
Richard,  wlio  is  described  as  a  learned  and  valiant  knight,  aud 
so  beautiful  in  person  that  nature  seemed  to  have  vied  with 
virtue  in  his  composition,^  took  the  field  against  them,  and 
defeated  them  in  several  engagements.  A  truce  was  solicited 
and  granted,  and  Richard,  with  a  few  retainers,  met  them 
in  conference  on  the  Curragh  of  Elildare.  There  he  was 
treacherously  attacked,  but  with  only  fifteen  retainers  faced 
the  army  of  the  Viceroy,  prostrated  six  of  his  opponents, 
struck  olf  the  armoured  hands  of  a  gigantic  knight  who 
endeavoured  to  tear  off  his  helmet,  and  clove  another  to  the 
middle.    After  some  hours  had  been  passed  in  this  unequal 

*  Gilbert,  *•  Viceroys,"  pp.  56-56. 

'  State  Doouments,  Ireland,  vol.  i.,  Nos.  689-691. 
»  Carew  M8S.,  •*  Book  of  Howth,"  pp.  122-123. 

*  GUbert,  "  Viceroys,"  p.  94. 


94  CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

ooutest,  the  soldiery,  urged  forward  in  a  crowd  by  the  Barons, 
closed  upon  the  Earl  with  lances,  halberds,  and  axes,  and, 
having  hewn  off  the  feet  of  his  wounded  but  still  spirited 
steed,  at  length  succeeded  in  bringing  his  rider  to  the  ground, 
where  through  the  joinings  of  his  armour  a  long  knife  was 
plunged  to  the  haft  in  his  back."^  ^'This  occurred  on  the 
first  of  April,  1234 ;  and  a  few  days  after,  he  died  of  his  wounds 
at  Kilkenan"  (Kilkenny).'  "  Henry  III.  expressed  deep  grief 
at  his  death,  denied  that  he  had  authorised  the  warrant  against 
him,  invested  his  brother  Gilbert  as  Earl  Marshal  of  England, 
with  all  the  privileges  enjoyed  by  his  predecessors  in  that 
high  office," '  and  ordered  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald,  the  Justiciary, 
to  restore  to  Gilbert  all  his  brother's  lands  and  castles  in  Ireland. 
He  also  sent,  on  September  26th,  1234,  a  ^'  mandate  to  Hugh 
de  Lacy,  Earl  of  ulster,  to  give  the  messenger  of  Gilbert, 
Earl  of  Pembroke,  seisin  of  the  Castle  of  Cabry  {m)  in  his 
custody,  owing  to  the  war  between  the  King  and  Kichard, 
Earl  of  Pembroke."* 

This  is  the  first  mention  of  the  castle  that  I  can  find  on  record, 
and  completely  disposes  of  the  assertion  that  the  castle  was 
built  by  the  Birminghams,  or  that  they  came  into  possession  of 
the  place  on  the  removal  of  Meiler  Fitz  Henry.  Gilbert, 
Earl  Marshal,  died  in  1241 ;  and  his  estates  and  titles  passed  to 
his  brother  Walter,  who  died  in  1245. 

The  last  of  the  brothers  Anselme  survived  him,  but  eighteen 
days,  and  as  he,  like  his  brothers,  died  without  issue,  the  name  of 
this  great  family  died  with  him.  According  to  Mathew  of 
Westminster,^  Isabel,  their  mother,  the  daughter  of  Strongbow 
and  granddaughter  of  Dermod  Mac  Murrough,  had  prophesied 
that  all  her  sons  should  enjoy  the  Earldom  in  succession; 
but  all  die  without  heirs,  ''and  so  he  says  the  shield  of  the 
Marshals,  terrible  to  so  many  and  mighty  foes  of  England,  was 
no  more." 

Their  Estates  in  Leinster  were  divided  among  their  five 
sisters.  Provision,  however,  was  made  for  their  surviving  widows ; 
aud  we  find  under  the  date  of  30th  April,  1249,  a  mandate  from 
tlie  king,  reciting  that  Margaret  Countess  of  Lincoln,  widow  of 
Walter,  Earl  Marshal,  having  been  granted  one-third  of  Walter's 
estates  in  Ireland  as  her  dower,  had  received  from  the  justiciary 
the   whole  Co.   Kildare,  the  manor  of  Fothered  (Barony   of 


1  GUbert,  "  Viceroys,"  p.  97.        «  '*  Book  of  Howth,"  p.  123. 
»  GUbert,  '*  Viceroys,"  p.  98. 

*  •*  Col.  of  State  Documents,  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  No.  2175* 
» **  Flores  Hist.,'*  1670,  204. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.  95 

Fortli,  Co.  Carlow),  and  £62  17«.  4d.  in  the  manor  of  Abo^. 
'^  But,  as  the  Justiciary  had  not  given  the  countess  seisin 
of  her  castles  in  Eildare,  because  there  was  no  mention 
of  them  in  the  king's  letters,  the  king  now  commands  the  Jus- 
ticiary, to  cause  the  countess  to  have  seisin  of  the  castles  of 
Kildare  and  Carbury,  in  that  county."* 

On  her  death,  these  lands  and  castles  would  revert  to  the 
direct  heirs.  One  of  the  five  daughters  of  William  Marshall, 
named  Sybil,  had  married  the  Ean  of  Derby,  and  was  entitled 
to  a  great  part  of  the  Co.  Eoldare.  On  her  death  she  left  four 
daugnters,  Agnes,  Isabel,  Matilda,  and  Sibil,  among  whom  the 
county  was  divided.  Agnes,  the  eldest,  married  William  de 
Vesci.  Accordingly  we  find  a  state  document  of  a.d.  1272,' 
giving  the  division  of  William  Earl  Marshall's  lands  among 
his  heirs,  and  assigning  to  William  de  Yescy,  among  other 
lots,  ''Karbereye  worth  £60  195.  8e/." 

In  1276,  we  have  three  payments  to  Iter  de  Bloun,  constable 
of  the  Castle  of  Karbri,  for  horses  bought  of  him  or  lost  by  him 
in  the  king's  service,  and  for  other  expenses.' 

In  1282,  William  De  Mohun,  who  had  married  another 
heiress  of  Marshall,  is  returned  as  having  died  seised  of  Carbury. 
This  document  is  instructive,  as  it  shows  us  the  nominal  value  of 
land  at  that  time  in  Ireland,  and  how  much  it  was  actually 
worth  to  its  English  proprietors.  I  quote  it,  therefore,  at  greater 
length  : — "  Carbury,  there  are  3^  carucates  (=  430  acres,  temp. 
Ed.  II.)  of  land  in  demesne  name  Fychbow,  Gfilcaskyn,  and 
Clonken  (Clonkeen),  whereof  2^  lie  uncultivated  on  account  of 
the  war  with  the  Irish.  In  time  of  peace  they  were  worth  £10, 
but  they  are  now  worth  nothing.  Henry,  son  of  Riry,  holds 
Clonken,  with  a  mill  there,  for  100«.  a-year." 

In  1284,  an  inquisition,  held  in  Kildare,  reports  ''that 
William  De  Mohun  held  6^  cantreds,  as  well  in  demesne  as  in 
seignory  in  Carbury.  .  .  .  The  land  in  Carbury  is  worth  in 
peace  £17  3«.  4r/.,  in  all  issues,  and  now  nothing,  because  the 
land  is  destroyed  by  the  Irish  of  Offaly." 

Again,  an  inquisition,  held  in  Kildare  in  1284,  reports  '^  that 
William  De  Mohun  died  holding  6^  cantreds  as  well  in  de- 
mesne as  in  seignory  in  Carbury,"  and  adds:  ''  the  land  in  Car- 
bury is  worth  in  peace  £17  3^.  \d.  in  all  issues,  and  now  nothings 
because  the  land  is  destroyed  by  the  Irish  of  Ophaly."^ 


1  Cal.  State  Doo.,  2989. 

>  Cal.  State  Doo.  Ireland,  vol.  ii.,  No.  933. 

>  State  Doo.,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  236-7.         *  Ibid.,  No.  2324. 


96  CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS*  COUNTRY. 

Nevertlieless,  I  believe  the  castle  to  have  remained  in  the 
possession  of  the  De  Vesoy  family. 

From  a  state  document  of  1272,^  we  learn  that  on  the 
death  of  Margaret  Countess  of  Lincoln,  who  had  been 
assigned  the  Co.  Kildare  as  her  dower,  Agnes  De  Vescy  had 
taken  possession  of  it,  and  of  all  the  profits  arising  from 
pleas,  and  of  tlie  seal  and  appointment  of  bailiffs.  Tiiis  act 
was  contested  by  the  other  heiresses.  But,  in  1278,  the 
king  directed  full  possession  to  be  given  to  Agnes;'  and,  in 
1283,  again  wrote  directing  the  Treasurer  of  Ireland  to  carry 
out  his  writ  in  favour  of  her.  In  1290,  William  de  Vescy, 
the  grandson  of  Agnes,  was  Viceroy  of  Ireland,  and  held  his 
Cliancery  in  Kildare,  of  which  he  was  lord.  John  FitzThomas 
Fitz  Gerald  of  Offally  accused  liim  of  treason,  and  offered  to 
maintain  his  charge  by  wager  of  battle.  Edward  i .  summoned 
botli  to  Westminster,  and  De  Vescy  came  mounted  and  fully 
aimed  for  the  combat.  Fitz  Tlionias  did  not  appear,  but  was 
exonerated,  and  a  compromise  effected.  De  Vescy  surrendered  his 
Irish  estates  to  the  king,  having  secured  his  Northimiberland 

Property  for  his  illegitimate  son,  '^  the  Master  of  Kildare."  His 
rish  estates  were  divided  between  William  de  Wellesly  and 
FitzThomas,  who  soon  after  was  created  Earl  of  Kildare,  a.d. 
1316.'  Another  version,  much  more  popular  in  Ireland,  makes 
De  Vescy  shirk  the  combat  and  fly  into  France,  whereupon  the 
king  declared  Fitz  Thomas  innocent,  and,  saying,  "  Aloeit  De 
Vescy  conveyed  his  person  into  France,  he  left  his  lands  behind 
him  in  Ireland,"  granted  them  to  the  baron  of  Offaly.* 

On  the  death  of  De  Vescy  an  inquisition  of  his  lands  was 
taken  with  a  view  to  granting  Isabella,  his  widow,  "  her  dower 
thereout,  according  to  that  extent,  and  according  to  the  law 
and  custom  of  Ireland."*  In  1297,  the  jurors  report  that, 
among  other  places  he  held,  "at  Alwyn  (Allen),  51  acres  of 
arable  land  in  the  March  of  Offaly,  which  were  wont  to  be 
worth  34«.  a  year,  but  now  lie  uncultivated,  owing  to  the 
war  of  the  men  of  Offaly,  and  render  nothing  ;  at  Thurgeg  (P) 
in  Carbury,  in  the  same  March,  four  score  acres  which  were 
wont  to  be  worth  53«.  id.  a  year,  but  now  lie  uncultivated, 
owing  to  the  same  war,  and  render  nothing."*  This  not  very 
profitable  property  was,  however,  assigned  to  De  Vescy's  deso- 
late widow.' 


1  Cal,  Stat.  Doc.,  vol.  ii.,  936.        »  Ibid.,  1603. 

»  GUbert,  **  Viceroys,"  pp.  Ill,  112,  136. 

*  "  Earls  of  Kildare,"  p.  24.        »  Cal.  State  Doc.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  481. 

6  llnd.        '  Ibid.f  p.  226. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BTRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.  97 

The  next  great  family  we  find  connected  with  this  district 
is  that  of  the  fie  Birminghams.  They  came  from  the  town  of 
Binningham  in  England,  and  two  of  the  name  joined  Strong- 
how  in  his  invasion  of  Ireland.^  Their  names  were  Robert  and 
William.  William,  according  to  Lodge,'  was  the  founder  of 
the  Athenry  branch  of  the  family.  Robert  alone  is  mentioned 
in  the  cotemporary  Anglo-Norman  poem  on  the  Conquest, 
and  was  the  first  of  the  Leinster  Birminghams.  The  poet 
says — 

''To  Robert  de  Benniofifham  (Strongbow  gave) 
Offaly  to  tbe  west  of  Oflfelan." 

The  country  of  Offaly  was  the  territory  of  the  O'Connors 
Faly,  and  comprised  the  baronies  of  E.  and  W.  Offaly  in  the 
Co.  Kildare,  the  baronies  of  Portnahinch  and  Tinnehinch  in 
the  Queen's  County,  and  that  portion  of  the  King's  County 
now  in  tlie  diocese  of  Kildare.' 

The  portion  of  the  King's  County  comprised  the  present 
baronies  of  Warrenstown  and  Coolestown,  Philipstown  and 
Geashill. 

But  we  must  here  note  that  the  Birminghams  had  never 
possession  of  such  an  immense  territory.  With  the  exception 
of  four  baronies,  the  O'Connors  retained  their  territory  until 
the  reign  of  Philip  and  Mary. 

Again  we  find  tliat  the  Geraldines  were  granted  Ophaly  by 
Strongbow,^  and  that  as  early  as  1205  Gerald  sat  in  parliament 
as  Baron  of  Offaly. 

These  grants  of  Ophaly  to  different  lords  have  been  a 
puzzle  to  many  writers.  Mr.  Orpen,  who  has  reoently  edited 
the  poem  on  the  Conquest  with  very  accurate  and  valuable 
notes,  says  :  "  The  Earls  of  Kildare  afterwards  supplanted  the 
Birminghams  in  the  English  Offaly,  while  the  barony  of 
Carbury  became  the  property  of  the  Birmingliams  of  the  Pale,"* 
and  in  a  previous  note  suggests  that  the  Birminghams  may 
have  exchanged  their  territory  witli  Meiler  Fitz  Henry,  who 
originally  had  Carbury.^  As  a  matter  of  fact  tliere  is  no  record 
of  any  such  exchange  or  of  any  connection  of  the  Birminghams 
with  Carbury  before  the  fourteenth  century.  Nor  does  the 
Anglo-Norman  poet  create  any  difficulty,  if  we  weigh  his  words. 
He  does  not  say  that  Strongbow  gave  to  Birmingham  Offaly 


»  Lodge's  **  Peerage,"  vol.  iv.,  p.  2.        '  **  Peerage,"  vol.  iv. 

'  O'Donovan  on  '^  Topographical  Poem,"  n.  486. 

*  "  Earls  of  Kildare,'^  pp.  8,  9. 

« •*  Song  of  Dermot  and  the  Earl,"  p.  306,  note.      •  IbiiL,  pp.  304,  305. 


98  CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

whole  and  entire,  but  "  Offaly  to  the  tcest  of  Offelan  "  (viz.  that 
part  of  OfPaly  lying  west  of  Offelan). 

The  territory  of  Offelan  comprised  the  baronies  of  Ikeathy 
and  Oughteranny,  Clane,  N.  and  8.  Salt,  N.  Naas,  and  the 
northern  part  of  Conall.*  The  portion  of  Ophaly  lying  west  of 
this  district  would  he  the  original  Birminghams'  country. 

The  only  portion  of  Offelan  bordering  on  Offaly  is  that 
now  represented  by  the  northern  half  of  the  barony  of  Gonnall. 
The  southern  half  of  that  barony  is  part  of  the  ancient 
territory  of  Omurethu  A  line  drawn  west  from  the  hill  of 
Allen  would  be  the  southern  limit  of  Offaly  to  the  west  of  Offelan? 
South  of  this  line  would  lie  Bathangan  and  the  baronies  of  east 
and  west  Offaly.  This  latter  district,  according  to  Holinshed, 
was  the  part  of  Offaly  granted  to  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald  by 
Strongbow  in  1176.  He  was  granted,  Holinshed  tells  us, 
Offaly  in  which  is  Bathangan,  but  not  the  town  of  Kildare.' 
This  southern  limit  corresponds  with  tlie  boundary  of  the  present 
barony  of  Coolestown  in  King's  County,  and  with  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  ancient  territory  of  Tuath  da  Muighe^  anglicised 
Thetmoy,  **thecantred  of  the  two  plains."*  Its  western  boiind- 
ary  is  indicated  in  a  State  paper  written  by  Alen  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.,  a.d.  1537,  when  the  Birminghams  were  established 
in  Carbury.  This  paper  suggests  that  "  the  hither  {i.e.  eastern) 
part  of  that  country  (Offaly)  until  Tower  Trowan,  ichich  of  old 
time  teas  inhabited  hy  the  Brymminiames,  shall  be  restored  unto 
them  again."* 

If  we  can  identify  Tower  Trowan^  we  shall  easily  strike  the 
line  of  their  western  border.  But  it  is  not  easy  to  do  so.  The 
name,  as  it  is  written  in  the  publislied  volume  of  the  State 
papers,  is  not  to  be  found,  as  far  as  I  know,  on  any  map  or  in 
any  State  document,  or  in  any  of  the  Irish  annals.  I  have 
consulted,  among  many  others,  the  parish  priests  of  Carbury 
and  Ballyna,  and  they  can  find  no  trace  of  any  name  corre- 
sponding to  it  in  that  country.  I  conclude,  therefore,  that  it 
is  a  corruption.  The  nearest  resemblance  to  it  would  be  Tower ^ 
or  Toghery  Croghan,  It  is  easy  to  conceive  an  English  clerk 
unequal  to  the  expression  of  the  Irish  guttural ;  and  a  slip  of 
pen  would  give  us  IVowan  for  (^rowan.  Just  at  tlie  western 
border  of  ancient  Thetmoy  is  a  townland  called  now  Togher^ 
that  derives  its  name  from  a  togher,  or  pass,  through  the  bog, 

1  "  Song  of  Dermot  and  the  Earl,"  p.  324. 

*  O'Donovan's  note,  "  Book  of  Rights,"  p.  210. 

3  •*  Earls  of  Kildare,"  p.  9.        *  **  Top.  Poems,"  Lr,  413. 

«  *'  State  Papers,  Hen.  VlII.,"  vol  iii.,  p.  446. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS*  COUNTRY.    99 

near  Croghan  hill.  In  an  old  map  of  Leix  and  Offaly,  a  fao- 
simile  of  which  is  published  in  tlie  "  Transactions  of  the 
Kilkenny  AroheBological  Society."^  This  togher  is  traced  with  a 
tower  built  on  it  to  guard  it,  and  the  tower  is  on  the  very 
boundary  line  separating  Thetmoy  from  the  western  division  of 
Offaly. 

Again,  as  far  back  as  1234,  that  is  about  sixty  years  after 
Strongbow's  grant  to  Robert  de  Birmingham,  we  have  the 
following  mandate  from  the  King  to  the  Justiciary :  "  Being 
informed  tliat  homicides  and  other  grievous  crimes  arise  from 
disputes  concerning  boundaries  between  the  laud  of  Peter  de 
Birmingham  in  Totemoy^  and  the  land  of  Maurice  Comyn  in 
Kaniedkediwhy  the  King  commands  the  Justiciary  that  if  either 
party  bring  a  plea  before  him  he  administer  justice  according 
to  the  King's  writ,  de  dicisu  fnciendis^  and  according  to  the 
custom  of  England.'"  Now  Karnaked^tch  has  been  identified 
with  the  present  parish  of  Castlejordan.' 

We  have  already  seen  that  in  that  very  year  1234  the 
castle  of  Carbury  was  held  by  Gilbert,  Earl  Marshall,  and 
we  have  thus  found  that  the  original  country  of  the  Birming- 
hams  was  west  of  Carbury,  south  of  Castlejordan,  north  of 
Bathangan,  and  west  of  the  Togher  of  Croghan  ;  in  short,  that 
it  was  practically  the  present  baronies  of  Warrenstown  and 
Coolestown  in  the   King's  County. 

In  1289,  John  de  Saundford,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and 
keeper  of  Ireland,  "ordered  that  Sir  Geoffrey  de  Geneville 
should  guard  the  marches  of  Athlone,  as  far  as  Totemayy  for  a 
sum  to  be  received  out  of  liis  service  due  to  the  king,  Sir  Peter 
de  Bermingham  junior,  the  marches  from  Totemoy  to  Rathan- 
gan,  and  John  FitzMaurice  the  marches  of  Itathangan  to 
Ballymadan,"  now  Maddenstown,  two  miles  south-east  of 
Kildare.* 

In  1295,  Peter  Baron  of  Thetmoy  is  eighth  on  the  Parliament 
roll  of  Barons.  In  the  next  century,  we  find  the  Birminghams 
in  the  barony  of  Carbury.  In  1306,  Sir  Piers  de  Birmingham 
held  the  castle,  not  of  Carbury  but  of  Carrick,  or  Carrick-Oris — 
Oris  being  the  Irish  for  Piers.  He  is  known  to  history  as  the 
"  treacherous  Baron."  In  that  year  he  invited  some  of  the 
O'Connors  of  Offaly  to  dine  with  him  on  Trinity  Sunday,  which, 
on  account  of  Trinity  Well,  has  always  been  a  great  festival  in 
that  district,  and,  just  when  they  rose  from  table,  had  them 

»  Vol.  iv.,  N.8.,  p.  344.        « «'  Cal.  State  Doc.,"  No.  2232. 
'  O'Donovan'a  note  on  **  Top.  Poems,"  p.  iii. 
*  "  CaL  State  Doc.,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  268. 

VOL.  II.,   PA&T  II*  I 


loo        CAR6URV  AND  THE  BIRMlNGttAMS*  COUNTRY. 

murdered  to  the  number  of  twenty-six.  The  Irish  ohieftains 
mention  this  act  of  treachery  in  their  remonstrance  addressed 
to  Pope  John  XXII.  in  1315,  and  add  that,  when  complaint  was 
made  to  the  En&;lish  King,  no  redress  could  be  found.  It  is  also 
mentioned  by  the  "  Four  Masters,"  the  "  Book  of  Howth,"  and 
most  of  the  Irish  Annalists.  Thady  Dowling,  the  Protestant 
Chancellor  of  the  Diocese  of  Leighfin,  in  his  "  Annals  of  Ire- 
land," writes  :—*'  a.d.  1^04.  Murtagh  O'Connor,  King  of  Off  aly, 
and  Calcaghi  his  brother,  were  killed  in  the  Court  of  Peter 
Bremyngham  at  Carrig  in  Carbery,  by  Jordan  Comyn,  son  of 
Archbishop  Comyn,  vide  supra.  Bishops  did  not  then  marry, 
yet  had  children."  As  Archbishop  Comyn  died  in  1212,* 
the  assassin  of  the  O'Connors,  if  his  son,  must  have  been  nearly 
100  years  old  when  tliis  terrible  deed  was  done  by  him. 

This  'treacherous  baron"  had  served  with  the  King  in 
Scotland.  One  of  the  earliest  specimens  of  Anglo-Irish  poetry 
is  a  lament  for  his  death,  and  is  printed  by  Dr.  Gilbert  in  his 
"  National  MSS."*  In  it  he  is  described  as  an  intrepid  and  un- 
relenting foe  of  the  Irisli,  whom  he  hunted  out  ''as  hunter  hunteth 
hare."  Their  hostility  to  him  was  not  less  fierce,  and  he  had  to 
obtain  400  men  at  arms  from  the  goveinment  to  defend  his 
frontiers.^  He  died  in  1 308./  His  son  Sir  John  de  Bermingham 
is  well  known  in  history  as  the  conqueror  of  Edward  Bruce,  at 
the  battle  of  Faughard,  near  Dundalk,  in  1318.  Thoueli  Bruce 
had  been  then  three  years  in  Ireland,  it  seems  that  Sir  John  had 
never  seen  him,  and,  on  the  day  before  the  battle,  wlien  both 
armies  were  encamped  near  Dundalk,  determined  at  any  risk  to 
get  a  look  at  him.  No  doubt  he  wished  to  recognize  him  in  the 
shock  of  battle,  and  to  have  the  glory  of  meeting  him  in  single 
combat.  The  "  Book  of  Howth "  (p.  144)  describes  nis 
dangerous  adventure  in  these  words:— "The  day  before  the 
battle.  Lord  John  Bremyngham,  cliief  tain  of  the  English  battle, 
was  desirous  to  see  Bruce,  the  Scots'  captain,  and  apparelled 
himself  in  a  friar's  weed  and  came  to  Bruce,  being  upon  his 
knees  at  Mass,  and  his  book  of  devotion  before  him,  and  asked 
his  alms.  Bruce,  being  occupied  with  his  book,  did  not  make 
answer,  nor  did  not  hold  up  his  head;  the  other,  being  desirous 
of  his  desired  purpose,  never  gave  over  of  craving,  Bruce  looked 
up,  and  said  to  those  that  stood  by,  'Serve  this  saucy  and 
importunate  friar  with  somewhat ;  he  doth  disturb  me  in  ray 
service.'     '  And  even  so  doth  I  mean,  unless  I  have  my  desired 


i  Harris  and  Dalton.  '  Vol.  iii.,  No.  4. 

»  Gilbert,  "  Viceroys,'*  p.  144. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.         lOl 

purpose/  said  Sir  J.  Bermingham,  and  so  departed.      After 

Mass  was  done,  said  Bruce,  *  I  pray  you,  sirs,  where  is  tlus 

bold  friar  that  hath  thus  disturbed  me,  for,  I  assure  you,  since  I 

saw  his  face  my  heart  was  not  in  quiet.'  This  friar  was  sought  for, 

and  ooidd  not  be  found.     *  No  ?  '  said  Bruce ;  *  cannot  be  had  P 

My  heart  tells  me  that  this  friar  is  Bremyngham.'      When 

tlie  battle  was  set,  and  ready  on  both  sides  to  have  fought.  Lord 

John    Bremyngham  said   these    words:     *My    fellows    and 

friends,  all  you  shall  understand  that,  in  this  hope  of  battle, 

this  is  necessary  to  be  remembered :  first,  the  cause  of  battle 

which,  in  our  side,  is  right  for  us  to  defend  our  country,  for  so, 

saith  the  Bible,  we  may.     The  second  is,  we  arc  fresh  and  lusty 

soldiers,  not  wearied  in  the  wars  with  travail  and  pesterous  spoil, 

coveting  notliing  but  that  that  is  our  lands,  goods,  and  friends, 

not  desirous  of  uo  man's  else ;  we  are  to  serve  a  worthy  prince, 

our  king  and  master,  which  if  we  do  well ....  we  shall  so 

receive  such  reward  that  all  our  friends  shall  rejoice  thereat. 

Nowy  valiant  stomachs,  set  forward  in  the  name  of  God  and  our  king  J 

In  that  desperate  battle,  iu  which  Bruce  engaged  against  the  best 

advice  and  against  fearful  odds.  Lord  Allen  Steward  acted  as 

General  of  the  Scots,  and,  according  to  the  English  account,  was 

as  active  and  intrepid  as  Birmingham.  Birmingham  saw  this,  and 

met  him  on  the  field,  and  after  a  desperate  hand-to-hand  combat 

at  length  slew  the  Scottish  Lord.     But  he  failed  to  meet  the 

Bruce.     The  latter  was  charged  by  Sir  John  De  Maupas  of 

Drogheda,   who  slew  him,  but  whose  dead  body  *'  was  found 

lying  on  the  said  body  of  Bruce."  ^    Birmingliam  had  the  dead 

body  of  Bruce  cut  into  quarters,  which  were  set  up  as  trophies 

in  the  chief  towns  of  the  English  Pale,  and  sent  the  head 

salted  in  a  chest  to  London,  to  be  laid  before  Edward  II.    The 

English  King  conferred  on  him  the  Earldom  of  Louth  in 

i-eward  of  his  services. 

In  1325,  he  founded  the  Franciscan  Monastery  of  Thetmoy, 
known  as  Monaster  Phaoris,  the  monastery  of  Pheorais,  or  Piers, 
so-called  from  the  patronymic  of  the  founder,  the  sou  of  Piers, 
Mac  Pheorais. 

He  was  now  deservedly  the  foremost  man  among  the  Anglo- 
Norman  settlers  in  Ireland,  whom  the  victory  of  Faughard  had 
saved  from  annihilation.  But  the  sins  of  his  father  seem  to 
have  been  visited  on  him. 

In  1329,  he  made  a  successful  foray  on  the  M'Mahons  of 
Uriel,  and,  as  they  were  dangerous  neighbours  to  the  English  of 


1  "  Book  of  Howth,"  p.  145. 
12 


102        CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

Louth,  proposed  that  the  captains  of  their  country  should 
abandon  it,  and  receive  lands  in  England  in  exchange.  A  day 
was  given  to  tliem  to  come  into  the  English  Pale,  and  make 
final  arrangements  with  Birmingham.  But  in  the  meantime 
the  English  families  of  the  district,  especially  the  Yerdons  and 
G-ernons,  had  grown  jealous  of  him,  and  determined  to 
exterminate  his  family.  They  invited  him  and  several  of  his 
kinsfolk  to  a  banquet  at  Bragganstown,  near  Drogheda,  while 
he  awaited  the  approach  of  the  M'Mahons.  In  the  cellars  of 
the  castle,  they  had  placed  men  fully  armed,  and  at  a  given 
signal  tlie  assassins  entered  the  banquet-hall,  and  slew  the 
conqueror  of  Bruce  with  his  brothers  kinsfolk  and  retainers,  to 
the  number  of  160.  But  one  of  the  Birminghams  present 
escaped.  This  was  a  child  whom  his  nurse  wrapped  up  in 
a  mantle,  and  passed  out  by  the  porter  of  the  castle  to  some 
friends.  He  was  brought  up  in  the  barony  of  Balrothery, 
county  Dublin,  and  ''both  he  and  his  proved  men  of  great 
worship"  * 

'  ^  Ireland,  in  the  fourteenth  century,  was  in  a  more  disturbed 
state  than  probably  at  any  other  period,  either  since  or  before. 
The  settlers  who  seized  on  Irish  lands  now  turned  on  one 
another,  and  resisted  any  effort  of  the  English  government  to 
restore  order  and  law  in  the  land. 

After  the  murder  of  Lord  Louth,  the  English  of  Meath, 
under  Sir  Simon  Geneville,  marched  into  Carbury,  but  were 
driven  back  by  the  Birminghams,  and  left  seventy-six  men 
dead  on  the  field.'  The  published  BroUs  give  evidence  of  the 
tumult  that  raged  around  Carbury. 

In  1312  there  is  a  grant  of  £6  16«.  to  David  Le  Mazener, 
Vicar  of  Kildare,  which  sum  he  had  paid  to  John  Fitz  Thomas 
''for  his  expenses  in  crushing  the  malice  of  the  felons  of 
Carbury."'  In  1325,  among  others  appointed  custodians  of  the 
peace  in  Co.  Kildare  was  "  Richard  de  Berminghara  of  Bally- 
coghlan  for  the  district  of  Carbury.*'*  In  1326  we  have  a 
grant  of  £10  to  Simon  de  Qeneville,  to  help  him  to  repair  the 
Castle  of  Carmecanestown  in  the  march  of  Carbury,  recently 
besieged,  taken,  and  burned  by  the  king's  felons*  of  the  said 
march." 

In  1333,  "  The  Breminghams  of  Carbre  did  take  a  great 
prey  of  2000  kine  or  more  of  O'Conogher."' 


1 "  Book  of  Howth,"  pp.  152-3.  Mao  Geoghegan's  **  History  of  Ireland,** 
p.  322.  3  Mac  Geoghegan,  p.  322. 

'  Close  Roll,  5  Ed.  II.  19.  *  Pat.  RoU,  19  Ed.  II.  80.  82. 

»  Close  RoU,  20  Ed.  II.  23.        •  **  Book  of  Howth,"  p.  159. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.         103 

About  the  middle  of  this  oentury  there  came  a  turning 
point  in  the  history  of  this  warlike  family.  Hitherto  sturdy 
champions  of  the  Anglo-Norman  supremacy^  they  now  become 
ffradually  transformed  into  "enemies  and  rebels."  In  1361 
Walter  Birmingham  of  Castleoarbury  died,  leaving  his  pro- 
perty to  his  sisters.  One  of  the  latter  had  been  married  to 
Hobert  Preston,  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer,  and  to  her  had 
been  left  the  castle  of  Carbury.  She  died,  however,  in  the 
same  year  as  her  brother,  and  Preston  proceeded  to  occupy 
the  castle.  Thereupon  the  Birmingliams  rose  against  him, 
ravaged  his  lands  in  Meath,  united  with  their  old  enemies  the 
O'Connors,  and  began  to  wage  a  deadly  and  destructive  war 
on  the  English  of  the  Pale.  Preston,  however,  "  kept  a  great 
ward  in  Carbre,  and  bestowed  much  thereon,  and  defended  the 
right  of  his  wife."* 

In  1368,  Thomas  Borley,  Chancellor  of  Ireland  and  Prior  of 
Ealmainham,  with  a  large  force,  proceeded  against  the  Birming- 
hams.  After  a  parley  between  the  two  sides  the  Birminghams 
took  the  Chancellor  prisoner,  and  with  him  John  Fitz  Roger, 
Sheriff  of  Meath,  Bobert  Tyrrell,  Baron  of  Castleknock,  and 
many  others.  The  Chancellor  was  released  in  exchange  for 
James  Birmingham,  then  a  prisoner  in  the  Castle  of  Trim. 
The  other  captives  were  ransomed.' 

In  1374  a  grant  of  40m.  was  given  to  "  Edward  Berle  for 
his  laudable  service  in  the  reformation  of  the  peace  in  Meath  in 
company  of  Friar  Thos.  Burley,  late  Chancellor  of  Ireland, 
where  he  was  taken  wounded  and  imprisoned  by  the  men  of 
Carbury."*  Another  grant  gives  to  Richard  Crenys  &  Nicholas 
Waffre  20  m.,  "  because  of  their  exertions  in  company  of  Thos, 
Burley  . . .  then,  for  the  good  of  the  peace  in  Carbury,  where  by 
the  Birminghams,  enemies  and  rebels,  they  were  taken 
wounded  and  detained  in  prison  until  they  paid  a  fine  of  10  m., 
1  hauberk,  and  1  palet  worth  5m."* 

Bobei-t  Tyrrell,  the  Baron  of  Castleknock,  we  are  told,  had 
to  **'  pay  a  ransom  both  in  pence  and  in  horses  and  armour  to 
tothe  value  of  £100."* 

The  castle  seems,  however,  to  have  been  held  for  the 
English.  In  1380  Cornelius  de  Cloim  was  ^'  Constable  of  the 
king's  Castle  of  Carbury."* 

in  1381,  "  the  King  appoints  William  Wellesly  custodian 


1  •'  Book  of  Howth/'  pp.  167, 168,       » Ibid.,  p.  168. 
»  Close  Roll,  48  Ed.  III.  6.  *  Ibid.,  No.  16. 

»  Ibid.,  48  Ed.  III.  76.  •  Close  EoU,  4  Rich.  II. 


I04        CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

and  governor  of  the  oastle,  lands,  and  demesnes  of  Carbury  and 
of  the  lands  and  demesnes  of  Totemoy  and  Kernegedaoh  "  ;^  and 
in  1384  he  was  allowed  a  salary  of  200m.* 

In  1384  Maurice  Fitz  Eustace  was  appointed  in  his  place ;' 
and  in  1386  he  was  replaced  by  Walter,  son  of  James 
Delahide.^  From  the  published  Bolls,  therefore,  it  seems  that 
the  Castle  of  Carbury,  either  by  the  feudal  right  of  wai-dship 
or  by  confiscation,  had  now  reverted  to  the  king. 

But  the  war  of  the  Birminghams  and  O'Connors  against 
the  English  still  went  on.  A  patent  Boll  of  tlie  year  1421 
recites  that  Bichard  Nugent,  Baron  of  Delvin,*  and  others  of 
tlie  Co.  Meath,  "  considering  the  ruin  and  final  destruction  of 
the  Co.  Meath,  wrought  by  O'Connor  of  Ophaly  and  Meiler 
Birmingham,  brought  James  Earl  of  Desmond  from  Munster 
with  a  great  multitude  of  horse  and  foot,  to  the  number  of  5000, 
into  the  said  district  of  Carbury,  where  they  burned  and  destroyed 
the  standing  corn  of  the  said  Meiler,  and  remained  thirteen  days 
in  the  said  county  of  Meath  for  the  protection  of  the  whole 
people."* 

In  the  meantime  some  of  the  Birminghams  seem  to  have 
been  bought  over  by  the  English.  There  is  a  grant  of  the 
year  1424  in  which  the  "king  in  consideration  of  the  service 
rendered  by  William,  son  of  John  Birmingham,  in  the  wars 
against  the  rebels  and  marauders,  called  Bermynghames,  gives 
him  four  messuages,  and  80  acres  of  arable  land,  8  acres  of 
meadow,  and  20  of  pasture,  and  20  of  wood,  in  Beynoldstown, 
alias,  Paynescastell,  hard  by  the  Castle  of  Carbury  in  the  Co. 
Kildare.  To  be  held  from  the  king  at  Soccage,  to  the  value  of 
om.  per  annum,  by  him  and  the  heira  male  of  his  body.  .  .  . 
Bnt  if  he  die  without  heirs  male,  they  are  then  to  revert  to 
John  Bermyuham,  brotlier  of  the  said  William  and  to  his  heirs 
male."* 

In  1443,  however,  the  whole  family  were  once  more  in 
revolt.  In  that  year  the  son  of  the  cliief  Birmingham  entered 
the  town  of  Trim  under  a  safe  conduct  of  the  Earl  of  Ormonde. 
One  of  the  Bamewalls,  Treasurer  of  Trim,  contemptuously 
gave  him  a  stroke  of  his  finger  on  tlie  nose.  Thereupon  young 
Birmingham  left  the  town,  and  went  straiglit  to  O'Connor  of 
Offaly.  The  two  families  once  more  united,  and  war  against 
the  Pale  was  again  declared.      This  war  was  called  by  the 


1  Pat.  Roll,  5  Rich.  II.  69.         >  Close  Roll,  8  Rich.  II.  16. 
'  Pat.  Roll,  8  Rich.  II.  69.         *  Pat.  Roll,  10  Rich.  II,  147. 
» Pat.  RoU,  1  Hen.  VI.  118.       «  Pat.  Roll,  3  Hen.  VI.  14. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIKMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.         1 03 

Irish  Oogadh  an  Caimifiy  or  tlie  war  of  Caimin^  Oaimin  being 
traoBlated  a  '^  filip  in  the  nose."^ 

The  Birminghams  now  dropped  their  English  name,  called 
themselves  Mac  Pheorais  [i.e.  son  of  Pierce,  their  ancestor),  and 
became  more  Irish  than  the  Irish  themselves. 

About  this  time  the  Castle  of  Carbury  was  dismantled,  no 
doubt  by  the  Birminghams  and  their  allies,  the  O'Connors. 
For  when  the  great  John  Talbot,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  well- 
known  to  readers  of  Shakespeare  as  the  "  scourge  of  France  " 
"  and  terror  of  the  French,"  who  met  Joan  of  Arc  in  single 
combat/  was  in  the  73rd  year  of  his  age  appointed  Viceroy  of 
Ireland,  he  brought  over  a  company  of  English  troops,  and 
rebuilt  tlie  Castle  of  Cnrhury  to  defend  his  estates  in  the  county  of 
Meath  against  the  Birminghams  and  O'Connors.' 

In  1466,  Teigiie  O'Connor  of  Offaly  defeated  the  Earl  of 
Desmond,  then  Deputy  Oovernor  of  Ireland,  and  imprisoned 
him  in  the  Castle  of  Carbury,  together  with  several  of  the 
English  nobles  and  ecclesiastics. 

In  1475,  Meath  was  laid  waste,  by  Red  Hugh  O'Donnell, 
who  ''demolished  and  burned  Castle  Carbury  and  Ballymeiler" 
(Mylerstown).*  As  he  made  this  foray  at  the  invitation  of 
O'Connor,  then  at  war  withthegoveniment,  we  must  presume  that, 
at  this  period,  the  castle  was  in  the  possession  of  the  English.  But 
tlie  Birminghams  still  gave  trouble,  and  further  measures  were 
deemed  necessary  to  overawe  them.  An  Act  of  the  Parliament 
held  at  Naas  in  1480  recites  that  "  it  is  very  necessary,  beneficial, 
and  expedient  that  a  tower  or  pile  of  the  new  fashion  should  be 
built  at  Eesshbaigne  (Kishawanny),  on  the  extreme  frontier  of 
the  old  march^  not  only  in  resistance  of  O'Conchir  (O'Connor), 
but  also  for  the  chastisement  of  the  Birmingliams  ";  and  enacts 
that  forty  pence  be  assessed  on  every  plough  land  in  the  Co. 
Meath  for  that  purpose.'^ 

In  1537,  King  Henry  VIII.  sent  Commissioners  to  Ireland, 
*'  for  the  reducing  of  the  said  land  to  civilitie  and  obedience 
and  the  advancement  of  the  publique  weal  of  the  same."  The 
commissioners  proceeded  to  the  county  of  Eildare ;  and  among 
many  other  reports  presented  to  them  was  that  of  Oliver  Sutton  of 
Bichardstown.  In  this  he  complains  of  the  oppression  of  the 
English  landholders  by  William  Brmycham  of  Carbery.      This 


1  Dudly  Mao  Firbis,  "  Annals,*'  and  Wilde's  **  Boyne  and  Blaokwater,'* 
36.  *  Fir»t  Hen,  VI,,  Act  i.,  sc.  v. 

»  Gilbert's  "  Viceroys,"  p.  348,  a.d.  1447. 

•  An.  Four  Masters,  an.  1475. 

*  Hardimon,  ♦•  Statute  of  Kilkenny,"  p.  83,  note 


I06        CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS*  COUNTRY. 

William,  living  like  an  Irish  chieftain,  had  exacted  coyne  and 
livery  (free  quarters  for  man  and  horse),  as  well  upon  the  king's 
lands  as  upon  other  gentlemen's  lands,  and  all  manner  of  works 
upon  the  tenants  upon  their  own  charges,  bad  made  his  tenants 

five  him  sixteen  quarts  to  the  gallon,  whether  it  be  of  ale  or 
utter,  and  liad  a  gallon  of  butter  upon  every  cow  in  his  lord- 
ship. This  curious  document  proceeds:  ''Item,  he  giveth 
commandment  and  maketh  it  for  a  lawe  throweout  the  barony 
of  Carbre,  called  the  B/ymycham  country,  that  no  man  shall 
[bring]  any  manner  of  thinge  that  they  have  to  any  market, 
but  onely  to  his  wif,  and  she  to  make  the  price." 

''  Item,  William  Brymycham  taketh  theves,  and  letteth  them 
goo  at  his  pleasure,  so  as  they  fyne  with  him  {i,e.  they  paid 
fines  for  their  release) .  Item,  nowe  of  late  there  was  two  stronge 
theves  taken  by  the  king's  tenants  in  harvest,  of  which  one  of 
them  is  nowe  with  my  Lord  Deputie,  and  the  other,  the 
strongest  thief  and  a  gentylman  borne,  which  William  Brymy- 
cham sent  for  him  and  let  him  goo,  because  he  was  Gayre 
Occoner's  servant. 

''  Item,  the  said  William  keepeth  of  the  Connors  with  hym, 
which  be  better  spies  in  this  countrey  {i,e.  the  English  Pale) 
than  they  that  be  borne  here."* 

However,  other  advisers  of  the  king  and  of  his  com- 
missioners thought  it  more  politic  to  gain  over  Birmingham 
to  their  side.  In  the  year  1537,  Robert  Cowley  wrote  to 
Cromwell  suggestions  for  the  commissioners.  He  points  out  the 
absolutely  defenceless  and  devastated  condition  of  the  English 
borderlands,  and  urges  that  such  lands  should  be  given  only  to 
such  as  are  ''  marchers,  men  of  war,  having  good  retinues." 
Having  given  details  of  various  castles  then  abandoned  or 
captured  by  the  Irish,  he  writes :  ^^  Tliere  are  likewise  certain 
piles  bordering  on  O'Connor's  country,  which  were  the  Earl  of 
Kildare's  and  Delahide's,  and  are  likewise  a  great  defence  to 
the  marches  of  the  English  Pale,  and  now  for  the  more  part 
waste.  The  Butlers,  the  Baron  of  Delvyn  and  his  sons,  and 
William  Brymeghame  are  most  worthy,  for  their  truth,  power, 
and  ability  of  any  in  that  land,  to  be  put  in  such  places  and 
marches  of  danger." ' 

Again  in  the  same  year,  1537,  John  Allen,  wrote  to  St. 
Leger,  the  head  of  the  king's  commissioners,  as  follows' : — 
"Item,  whereas  the  country  of  Offaly,  called  O'Connor's  country, 

^  See  Annuaiy  of  the  Royal  Hist,  and  Aroh.  Association  of  Ireland  for 
the  years  1868  and  1869. 

»  State  Papers,  Hen.  VIII.,  vol.  ii.  p.  3.        » Ibid.,  p.  485. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.         107 

hath  of  long  time  been  the  door  whereby  much  war  and 
misohief  hath  entered  among  the  king's  subjects;  it  shall  be 
necessary  now  that  we  have  it  at  the  king's  commandment,  to 
take  such  an  order  therewith,  that  hereafter  it  shall  no  more  so 
grieve  us.  Wherefore,  if  seemeth  it  were  expedient  that  the 
hither  part  of  that  country  until  Tower  Trowan,  which  of  old 
time  was  inhabited  by  the  Brymminiames  shall  be  restored  to 
them  again,  and  William  Brymmiame,  because  of  his  activity,  to  be 
Lord  tnereof  and  have  the  same  for  him  and  his  heirs  for  ever, 
giving  some  chief  [rent]  yearly  out  of  it,  as  shall  seem  to  your 
discretions ;  and  the  rest  of  Off aly  to  be  given  wholly  to  Kayre 
O'Connor  for  him,  and  his  heirs  for  ever,  he  to  be  named  Baron 
of  Offaly,  paying  likewise  some  chief  rent  to  our  Sovereign 
Lord,  and  both  the  said  Brymminiame,  and  he  to  be  made  Lord^ 
of  the  Parliament." 

For  more  than  200  years  the  Birminghams  and  the 
O'Connors  had  been  in  alliance  against  the  English  colony, 
and  now  we  find  the  shrewdest  and  wisest  counsellors  of  the 
strongest  monarch  of  the  Tudor  line  advising  him  to  buy 
them  over  to  his  side,  to  bestow  on  them  lands  and  titles,  and 
to  confide  to  these  desperate  and  dauntless  chieftains  the  safe 
keeping  of  his  Irish  frontiers. 

The  advice  was  only  partially  adopted.  The  Birminghams 
were  detached  from  the  O'Connors,  and  the  latter  had  now  to 
face  a  combination  of  the  English  Qovernment  with  their  old 
allies.  In  the  following  year  (1538),  LordD.  Gray  writes  to 
King  Henry  VIII. : — "  Pleaseth  your  Grace  to  be  advertised 
that  since  my  last  letter  sent  unto  your  Grace,  I  have  cut  three 
pacys  (passes)  in  the  county  of  Kildare  adjoining  to  the 
borders  of  Offaly,  two  in  Brymingham's  country,  whereof 
some  of  the  said  passes  be  a  mile  in  length  cut,  and  so  broad 
cut,  that  4  or  5  carts  one  by  another  may  easily  pass."*  .  .  . 
These  passes  were  necessary,  to  enable  the  English  troops  to 
penetrate  the  woods  that  were  a  natural  defence  to  the  frontiers 
of  Offaly.  In  1540,  we  find  the  O'Connors  devastating  the 
lands  of  the  Birminghams,  now  their  enemies. 

The  event  is  thus  described  by  Brereton,  writing  from 
Dublin  in  that  year: — "O'Connor,  with  a  great  number  of 
horsemen,  gallowglasses,  and  kerne,  burned  the  Bremyngham's 
country."  The  Lord  Chancellor  and  the  Treasurer  were  then 
in  the  county  of  Kildare  raising  the  county  afi^ainst  the 
O'Tooles,  Kavanaghs,  and  O'Connors,  "  and  they  then  seeing 


'  State  Papers,  Henry  VIII.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  3. 


Ip8        CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

the  said  Brymingham's  country  afire  went  with  as  many  men 
as  they  had  then  with  them  into  O'Connor's  country^  and  there 
burned  diverse  towns  and  brought  with  tliem  certain  kine  and 
other  cattle,  which  burning  caused  the  said  O'Connor  to  turn 
backy  so  that  it  is  thought  that  if  the  said  burning  had  not 
been  he  had  done  more  harm  to  the  English  pale  than  he 
did/'* 

The  frontiers  of  Carbury  were  still  a  cause  of  grave  anxiety 
to  the  Government.  In  this  same  year  the  Council  of  Ireland 
writes  to  King  Henry  VIII. : — "  Having  further  aid  of  £200 
from  your  Majesty,  we  intend  to  erect  and  build  one  tower 
at  Kynnafad,  another  at  Castell  Jourdan,  which  in  this  war 
was  prostrated  by  the  said  O'Connor,  and  to  reedify  Kyshevan 
(Ki8hawanny)and  Ballanower(Ballynure),  being  tlie  frontiersof 
tlie  said  O'Connor  and  the  only  passages  where  he  must  enter 
within  your  pale,  which  places  being  so  builded,  shall  not 
only  be  a  preparation  to  banish  the  said  O'Connor,  if  he  be 
set  to  upon  his  next  breach,  but  also  be  a  stop  to  keep  him 
and  all  the  Irishmen  behind  him  from  invading  your  pale 
with  any  horsemen,  as  my  Lord  of  Norfolk  doth  right  well 
know.'" 

In  1542  Henry  VIII.  granted  to  Sir  William  Birmingham 
and  the  heirs  male  of  his  body  the  title  of  Baron  of  Carbury, 
with  a  grant  of  the  site  of  the  late  priory  of  Ballyboggan  and 
the  late  abbey  of  Clonard,  with  all  the  messuages  adjacent.' 
But  this  title  had  already  been  conferred  on  him  by  the  Irish 
Depiity,  and  by  his  summons  to  the  celebrated  Parliament  held 
in  Dublin  in  the  previous  year.* 

Sir  William  went  to  that  Parliament  as  Baron  of  Carbury, 
assisted  with  the  other  magnates  at  solemn  High  Mass  on 
Corpus  Christi  Day,  rode  in  the  procession  to  the  Parliament 
House,  and  voted,  with  the  others  for  the  abolition  of  the 
Papal  jurisdiction  within  these  realms,  and  for  the  transfer 
of  thai  jurisdiction  to  King  Henry  VIII.*  There  were  great 
rejoicings  in  Dublin  on  this  occasion.  Bonfires  and  illumi- 
nations blazed  through  the  city ;  wine  was  freely  distributed 
to  the  people,  and  a  general  amnesty  granted  by  the  King 
gave  freedom  to  all  persons  confined  in  gaol. 

The  Baron  of  Carbury  was  now  appointed  arbitrator 
between  Bernard  O'Connor,  chief  of  his  nation,  and  Cahir 
O'Connor,  his  brother  ;  and  with  him  were  associated  David 

*  State  Papers,  Henry  VIII.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  205.        «  Ibid,,  p.  241. 

>  Pat.  Roll,  33  Hen.  VlII.,  June  17th,  1542. 

«  Stote  Papers,  Henry  VIII.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  295.        *  iWrf.,  p.  804. 


CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY.    109 

Sattouy  of  GonnaU,  and  James  FitzQerald,  of  Osbardstown.^ 
He  was  also  one  of  the  arbitrators  in  a  dispute  between  the 
O'Neills  of  Ulster.' 

He  was  married  (I)  to  Rose,  daughter  of  Gerald  Fitz- 
Gbrald  of  Blackwood,  by  whom  he  liad  no  issue,  and  (2)  to 
Anne,  daughter  of  Sir  «fohn  Plunket,  of  Beaulieu.  He  died 
at  Dunfiertli  in  1548,  leaving  one  son,  Edward,  then  but 
two  years  old. 

As  Edward  died  without  issue  the  lands  granted  by  patent 
reverted  to  the  Crown.  Elizabeth  granted  Castle  Carbery  to 
Sir  Henry  CoUey  in  1562.  Sir  William  Birmingham,  Baron 
of  Carbury,  was  buried  in  the  Mortuary  Chapel  of  his  family 
at  Dunfierth,  where  his  reoumbent  effigy  may  still  be  seen. 
The  chapel  and  the  tombstone  have  been  fully  described  by 
Lord  Walter  FitzGerald  in  the  "  Journal  of  the  Society  for 
the  Preservation  of  Memorials  of  the  dead  in  Ireland  "  (1895), 
and  I  must  refer  you  to  it  for  further  details. 

The  otiier  members  of  the  family  do  not  appear  to  have 
been  so  loyal  as  William.  We  find  Elizabeth  writing  thus  to 
the  Council  in  1699  :  •*  What  will  be  the  answer  of  the  traitor 
(O'Neill}  for  the  last  treason  of  the  bridge  where  Esmond's 
company  was  defeated,  and  what  reason  will  he  yield  for 
usurping  so  unjustly  in  the  time  of  the  cessation  to  place 
Bermingham  in  the  county  of  KildareP"  '  When  the  last  of 
the  Barons  passed  away,  the  Manor  of  Dunfierth  devolved 
on  Walter  Birmingliam,  of  Meilerstown,  nephew  of  Baron 
William,  and  tlie  Birminghams  continued  for  many  years  to 
hold  a  high  position  in  the  county.  In  1608,  "  the  Jurors 
of  our  Lo^  the  King,"  in  the  Barony  of  Carbury,  were  all 
Birminghams  : — John  Birmingham,  of  Dun  port  (Dunfierth), 
Richard  of  Muclane  (Mucklands),  Piers  of  Gavisker  (Qtirrisker), 
Thomas  of  Longwood,  liichard  of  Russelswood/ 

During  the  reign  of  James  I.  and  the  early  part  of  the 
reign  of  Charles  I.,  Ireland  was  in  a  state  of  comparative 
tranquillity,  and  there  were  no  wars  or  border  forays  in  which 
the  Birminghams  could  distinguish  themselves.  But  when 
the  trumpet  sounded  in  1641,  they  '^  knew  the  battle's  din 
afar,  and  joyed  to  hear  it  swell."  In  the  attainders  of  the 
following  year  we  find  prescribed  :  "  William  Birmingham  of 
Ballinamallough,  John  Birmingham  of  Baheen  (Rahin)  and 
Muckland,  Piers  and  Gerald  Birmingham  of  Ballinakill,  Luke 
of  Parsonstown,  and  Gerald  of  Dunfierth,  Clerk." 

"  State  Papers,  Henry  VIII.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  216,  note.    «  Carew  MS8. 
» Hogan'a  "  Ireland,"  p.  45,  note.        *  Carew  MSS.,  p.  25. 


no    CARBURY  AND  THE  BIRMINGHAMS'  COUNTRY. 

Again,  in  the  Jacobite  wars,  they  appear  fighting  for 
James  II.,  and  seem  to  have  lost  everything. 

The  attainders  of  1691  present  the  names  of  Piers 
Birmingham  of  Donadea,  Andrew  of  Carrisborough,  and 
Garret  of  Oarriek,  in   the  county  Kildare. 

Of  all  these  branches  the  Birminghams  of  Dunfierth  seem 
to  have  been  the  most  important,  and  the  nearest  in  blood  to 
William,  Baron  of  Carbury. 

In  1638,  Walter  Birmingham  of  Dunfierth  died,  leaving  two 
sons,  John  and  Thomas,  and  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Anne. 
The  sons  died  without  issue,  and  thus  the  male  line  of  this  family 
became  extinct.  Mary  was  married  to  John,  the  first  Loni 
Bellew ;  •  and  Anne,  to  Maximilian  O'Dempsey,  the  last 
Viscount  Clanmftliere.  These  two  ladies  were  coheiresses  to  a 
property  worth  £1500  a  year.  Mary  lies  buried  with  her 
husband  in  the  south  isles  of  Duleek  Church,  interred  in  a 
large  tomb,  with  the  following  inscription : — 

This  tomb  hath  been  repaired  and  the  vault  made  by 
Dame  Mary  Bermingham  of    Dunfert,   wife  to  John  Lord 

Bellew,  who  was  shot  in  the  belly  in  Aughrim  fight 
The   12th   of  July,    1691.      As  soon  as  he    found  himself 

able  to  undertake  a  journey,  he  went  with  his  Lady  to 
London,   where  he  died,   the   12th  of  January,    1692.      He 
was  laid  in  a  Tault  in  Westminster,  till  the  April  follow- 
ing, his  corpse  was  brought  hither. 

I  regret  that  this  quaint  inscription  is  the  last  quotation  I 
can  find  throwing  any  light  on  the  history  of  this  remarkable 
Anglo -Irish  sept.  We  can  trace  their  story  no  further,  and 
their  name  is  no  longer  found  in  the  pages  of  our  Annals. 
They  were  eminently  "  men  of  war,"  and  for  500  years  held 
their  ground  against  all  comers  in  the  County  of  Kildare  and 
its  borders,  but  in  the  terrible  confiscations  of  the  17th  century 
tliey  lost  all  they  had,  and  the  places  that  once  knew  them 
know  them  now  no  more. 


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TUB  MOAT  AT  RATHMORK,  CO.  KILDARB. 

RATH  MO  RE    {THE    BIG  RATH). 

Br  THE  EARL  OF  MAYO,  Pkesident. 

[Read  at  Naas,  February  5, 1896,] 

THIS  rath  is  situated  in  the  barony  of  North  Naas,  in  a 
townland  of  the  same  name.  It  stands  a  few  perolies 
north-east  of  the  present  Protestant  church. 

Before  giving  an  account  of  Rathmore,  I  shall  draw  atten- 
tion to  what  is  known  of  Irish  raths  in  general.  My  authority 
is  Dr.  Petrie.  He  says,  in  "An  Essay  on  Military  Architec- 
ture in  Ireland  previous  to  the  English  Invasion,"  rath  and 
lios  are  synonymous,  and  are  applied  to  designate  an  earthen 
mound  or  flat  enclosure,  with  one  or  more  fosses  or  ramparts. 
The  word  signifies  "  security."  A  volume  of  authorities  might 
be  adduced  to  prove  that  this  class  of  fortress  was  raised  by  the 
Irish  previous  to  the  Norwegian  and  Danish  invasion. 

The  "Annals  of  the  Four  Masters"  gives  a  list  of  twenty- 
eight  raths  which  existed  in  Ireland  anterior  to  that  time. 
Kinfala,  called  the  learned,  of  Derryloran,  in  Tyrone,  a  poet 
of  the  seventh  century,  states,  in  a  poem  describing  tlie  coming 
of  the  Milesians  from  Spain  into  Ireland,  that  Kath  Eighbaird 
was  dug.  The  situation  of  this  fort  can  be  learned  from  a 
passage  in  Tirechan's  "  Life  of  St.  Patrick." 


RATHMORE.  I13 

It  is  now  called  Rath  Righy  and  is  situated  on  the  northern 
extremity  of  Knocknavea,  in  the  county  of  Sligo.  Dr.  Petrie 
also  states  a  curious  fact.  In  one  of  the  ^'Lives''  of  St. 
Patrick,  in  the  Book  of  Armagh,  an  undoubted  MS.  of  the 
seventh  century,  it  is  stated  that  St.  Patrick,  as  he  was  resting 
one  Sunday,  at  a  place  not  far  from  Drumboe^  to  the  north, 
heard  tlie  immoderate  noise  of  the  pagans  making  a  rath. 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  these  raths  are  of  Milesian 
origin.  The  Milesians  appeared  in  Ireland  •  o/rm  B.C.  100 ; 
therefore  the  approximate  age  of  the  first  Irish  raths  is 
nearly  two  thousand  years. 

Baths  had  often  within  them  galleries  of  stone  and  hiding- 
places  constructed  without  cement.  They  were  originally  sur- 
rounded with  wooden  pallisades,  enclosing  houses  of  the  same 
material.     They  occasionally  present  walls  of  stone. 

As  to  Bathmore,  the  subject  of  my  Paper :  in  consequence 
of  the  road-contractors  having  for  many  years  made  use  of  the 
gravel  composing  the  mound  for  mending  the  adjacent  high- 
ways, nearly  half  of  this  fine  rath  has  been  removed.  The 
gravel  being  taken  from  the  base,  a  face  has  been  created  on 
the  rath,  which  is  ever  slipping  down.  Some  three  years  ago, 
at  the  north  end  of  this  face,  a  number  of  human  skeletons — 
some  full-grown,  others  of  children — were  found.  These  re- 
mains were  buried  inside  a  ring  of  roundish  undressed  lime- 
stones. 

The  most  interesting  discovery,  however,  as  yet  made  came 
to  light  by  the  slipping  of  the  upper  part  of  the  south  face  of 
the  rath.  This  occuiTed  after  heavy  rains  during  the  summer 
of  1894.  A  chamber  lined,  roofed,  and  floored  with  naturally 
flat-shaped  green  limestone  was  exposed.  In  this  chamber 
rested  a  large  skeleton.  I  did  not  see  the  chamber  till  the 
autumn  of  that  year.  Some  of  the  bones  were  still  there. 
This  cist,  or  kistvaen,  measured  18  inches  in  width  and  18 
inches  in  depth,  and  was  over  5  feet  long.  Mr.  Sargeant,  a 
farmer  who  grazes  his  cattle  on  the  rath,  saw  the  skeleton  when 
first  exposed.  He  told  me  the  skull  was  sunk  into  the  gravel 
under  the  stone  that  formed  the  end  of  the  kistvaen.  The 
skeleton  lay  with  its  feet  to  the  east.  The  floor  of  the  kistvaen 
was  exactly  20  feet  below  the  present  grass-grown  surface  of 
the  rath,  and  is  nearly  in  the  centre  of  the  exposed  gravel  face. 
I  may  mention  that  the  stones  lining  the  kistvaen  had  been 
made  more  suitable  to  their  purpose  by  rough  chipping.   I  could 

^  Drumboe,  Upper  and  Lower,  in  Co.  DonegaL 


114  RATHMORE. 

liear  of  nothing  being  found  in  the  kistvaeu  but  the  skeleton. 
Those  who  saw  the  remains  seemed  struck  with  the  size  of  the 
bones.  Ferguson,  in  his  "  Eude  Stone  Monuments,"  chap.  II., 
p.  43,  says :  "  We  have  no  diflSculty  in  beginning  our  history 
of  megalithio  remains  with  rude  stone  cists,  generally  called 
kistvaens,  or  stone-boxes.  These  kistvaeus  are  found  in  sepul- 
cliral  tumuli,  and  consist  of  only  four,  but  generally  of  six  or 
more,  stones,  set  edgeways,  and  covered  by  a  capstone,  to  pro- 
tect the  body  from  being  crushed."  In  our  case  at  Rathmore 
several  stones  were  used  as  the  cover,  or  cap.  The  exposed 
face  of  the  ratli,  on  close  inspection,  shows  some  interesting 
features. 

On  the  north  end  of  the  face,  at  the  same  level  as  the  kist- 
vaen,  i.e.  20  feet  below  the  existing  top  of  the  rath,  there  can 
be  distinctly  seen  a  black  stratum  or  line,  which  has  been 
created  by  an  accumulation  of  wood  ashes ;  most  likely  from 
the  fires  by  which  food  was  cooked.  I  also  found  in  this  part 
of  the  rath,  in  a  bluish  sort  of  clay,  which,  in  wet  weather, 
smelt  nasty,  the  broken  horns  of  deer,  the  bones  of  oxen,  sheep, 
and  pigs.  This  clay  is  fire-dried  mud,  and  is  so  distinct  from 
the  limestone  gravel  the  rath  is  made  of,  that  it  is  readily  noticed. 
This  was  most  probably  the  kitchen-midden  of  the  rath.  It 
lies  in  broken,  irregular  lumps,  as  it  fell  from  the  rain-washed 
face  of  the  big  rath,  bits  of  bones  of  all  sorts  showing  on  the 
lumps.  A  little  above  this  there  seems  to  he  another  stratum 
or  floor,  which  contains  wood-ashes  and  bones,  as  if  a  later 
generation  had  lived,  eaten,  and  warmed  themselves  at  their 
fires  on  the  rath.  What  years  have  rolled  by  !  Yet  the  ashes 
of  the  fires  remain  as  if  extinguished  but  yesterday.  What 
generations  must  have  come  and  gone  while  the  traces  of  the 
ancient  rath-dwellers  were  being  obliterated,  little  by  little, 
under  the  green  grass  which  clothes  the  summit  of  Kathmore. 

In  these  lumps  of  clay  or  mud,  and  indeed  lying  loose 
amongst  the  fallen  gravel,  I  found  many  pieces  of  white  quartz, 
which  gives  out  sparks  when  struck  with  a  steel.  This  quartz 
does  not,  as  a  rule,  occur  in  limestone  gravel  or  sand  formation, 
and  must  have  been  brought  from  the  Wicklow  hills  close  by. 

Mr.  Wood-Martin,  in  his  "  llude  Stone  Monuments  of  Ire- 
land," says :  "  It  is  remarkable  that  fragments  of  quartz 
accompanied  almost  every  interment  in  Carrowmore,  &c."  In 
short,  quartz  was  found  in  almost  every  interment,  more  espe- 
cially in  those  which  appear  to  have  been  but  little  disturbed. 
These  quartz-stones  serve  to  identify  the  human  remains  as 
belonging  to  a  veiy  ancient  period  of  interment.  A  consider- 
able number  of  similar  pebbles  of  white  quartz  have  recently 


RATHMORE.  1 15 

been  found  in  various  old  British  tombs  in  the  Isle  of  Man. 
These  pebbles  were  also  found  in  most  of  the  old  tombs  re- 
cently excavated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dundee. 

The  white  stones  were  probably  to  the  ancient  pagan  mind 
emblematic  of  some  religious  idea,  at  present  a  mystery  to  the 
antiquary.  It  will  be  remembered  it  was  at  this  part  of  the 
rath  that  a  number  of  skeletons  were  found. 

The  road-contractors  will  no  doubt,  as  long  as  material  re- 
mains, continue  using  Rathmore  as  their  quarry ;  and  I  have 
brought  these  few  notes  before  the  Society  because  it  is  so 
seldom  that  a  rath  is,  so  to  speak,  sliced  in  half,  the  supersti- 
tion of  the  country  people  making  it  difficult  to  explore  these 
dwellings  of  the  prehistoric  Iiish. 


VOL    II.,   PART  n. 


I 


Gerald  thb  8th  Eaiil  of  Kildarb's  Arms, 

Oa  his  Tomb,  formerly  in  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Christ  Church  Cathedral,  Dublin. 

The  Dcxtrr  Shield  bears  the  Fitz  Gerald  and  Eustace  Arms  impaled. 
Hie  Sinister  Shield  the  Fits  Gerald  and  St.  John  Anns. 


(  117  )  ^< 


INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE, 
EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILDARE. 

By  LORD  WALTER  FITZ  GERALD. 

[Read  at  Naas,  January  24, 1895.] 

GKKALD  FitzGkrald,  Oil  tliG  death  of  Ills  father  Thomas,  in 
the  year  1477,  became  the  eighth  Earl  of  Kildare.  He 
was  known  among  the  Irish  as  "Garrett  More,"  or 
Gerald  the  Great,  being  "  of  tall  stature  and  goodlie  presence," 
oud,  according  to  the  "Annals  of  the  Four  Masters/'  "he  was 
a  Knight  in  valour,  and  princely  and  religious  in  his  words 
and  judgments.'' 

In  1478y  in  consequence  of  tlie  feuds  between  the  Geraldines 
and  the  Butlers,  the  Bishop  of  Meath^  was  deputed  by  the 
Parliament  to  inform  King  Edward  IV.  as  to  the  state  of  the 
country.  As  the  Bishop  was  an  enemy  of  the  Geraldines,  the 
Earl  sent  some  of  his  friends  to  explain  his  case  to  the  King, 
and  this  they  did  so  successfully  that  he  was  appointed  in  this 
year  Lord  Deputy.  Shortly  afterwards  the  King  wishing  to 
set  aside  both  these  rival  factions,  cancelled  the  appointment, 
and  sent  over  Henry  Lord  Grey,  of  Codnor,  as  Lord  Deputy. 
Tlie  Earl  refused  to  accept  his  /dismissal  from  office,  and 
eventually  the  King  summoned  both  him  and  Lord  Grey  to 
appear  before  him,  when  the  latter,  tired  of  these  proceedings, 
resigned  his  office,  and  the  Earl  was  re-appointed  Lord  Deputy 
to  Kichard,  Duke  of  Gloucester. 

Just  about  this  time  the  coins,  groats  and  half-groals,  issued 
from  the  mint  bore  the  Earl's  arms  (a  saltire)  on  a  little  shield 
placed  on  either  side  of  the  shield  bearing  the  royal  arms.  In 
volume  XIX.  of  the  "  Transactions  of  the  lioyal  Irish  Academy  " 
is  a  paper,  read  in  November,  1839,  by  Aquilla  Smith,  m.d., 
on  the  Irish  coins  of  Edward  IV.  Describing  the  coins  issued 
duriug  the  last  five  years  of  this  King's  reign,  he  says  the 
groats,  &c.,  were  of  two  varieties : — 

(1)  One  has  on  the  obveise  a  shield  bearing  the  Arms  of  England  and 
France,  quartered  bv  a  cross ;  the  extremities  of  which  are  terminated  each 
by  three  pellets,  and  the  shield  is  within  a  circle  of  pellets.     On  the  reverse 

'  William  Shirwood. 
K2 


v^ 


1 18  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE, 

are  three  crowns  in  pale,  on  a  similar  cross ;  while  the  mint  marks  are  a 
trefoil,  rose,  and  fleur-de-lis. 

(2)  The  other  Tariety  has  a  like  shield  quartered  by  a  cross  whose  arms 
are  terminated  each  by  three  annulets ;  at  each  side  of  the  shield  is  a 
smaller  one  hearing  a  sal  tire,  the  arms  of  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald,  Earl  of 
Kildare  and  Lord  Justice  of  Ireland  in  1479,  all  within  a  plain  circle.  The 
crowns  on  the  reverse  are  closer  and  of  a  more  regular  form  than  those  of 
the  first  variety,  and  are  within  a  double  tressure  of  eight,  or  more, 
generally  nine,  arches  ;  they  invariably  have  a  fleur-de-lis  on  one  or  both 
sides,  in  some  part  of  the  legend,  which  is  rarely  found  on  the  pieces  of  the 
first  variety. 


The  legend  on  the  groats,  bearing  the  FitzGerald  arms  as 
a  rule,  runs  thus  (with  slight  diflEerenoes  on  others) : — 


Obverse, 
Groats,      .     .    REX  AN  LIE  FRA 

(i.e.  King  of  England  and  France). 

Half  Groats,  .     DOMINOS. 


jReverte. 
DOMINOS   YBERNIE 

{i.e.  Lord  of  Ireland). 

DOMINOS. 


These  ooins,  Dr.  Smith  considers,  were  struck  in  the  mint  in 
the  Castle  of  Trim,  in  the  year  1479.  The  three  crowns  on 
the  reverse,  he  came  to  the  conclusion,  were  the  old  arms  of 
Ireland  before  the  harp  was  adopted  in  Henry  VIII.'s  reign, 
as  that  King,  after  the  Reformation,  considered  the  thJee 
crowns  resembled  too  closely  the  Papal  tiara,  hence  the  harp, 
which  was  still  in  use  on  William  IV. 's  coinage. 

In  1486  a  report  reached  Ireland  that  Edward,  Earl  of 
Warwick,  son  of  George,  Duke  of  Clarence,  and  the  last  male 
Plantagenet,  had  made  his  escape  from  imprisonment  in  the 
Tower  of  London ;  and  in  the  following  year  the  famous 
impostor  Lambert  Simnel,  who  represented  himself  to  be  the 
young  Prince,  at  the  instigation  of  Margaret,  widow  of  Charles, 
Duke  of  Burgundy,  and  sister  of  King  Edward  IV.,  landed  in 
Ireland  with  a  large  force,  and  was  acknowledged  by  the  Earl. 
His  example  was  followed  by  the  rest  of  the  nobles  of  the 
Pale,  and  they  proclaimed  him  King  in  Christ  Church  Cajthedral, 


EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILDARE.  1 1 9 

crowning  him  with  a  orown  borrowed  from  the  statue  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  in  St.  Mary's  Church. 

In  June,  1478,  the  invasion  of  England  was  decided  on, 
and  on  the  6th  of  the  month  the  impostor's  fate  was  decided 
by  the  battle  of  Stoke  in  Nottinghamshire,  in  which  he  was 
taken  prisoner;  the  Earl  of  Lincoln,  Lord  Lovell,  and  Sir 
Thomas  FitzGerald  of  Lackagh,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland, 
and  the  Earl's  brother,  being  among  the  slain.  The  Earl  and 
the  other  lords  of  the  Pale,  acknowledging  their  crime,  implored 
the  King's  pardon,  which  was  granted,  and  not  only  that,  but 
the  Earl  was  actually  retained  in  office  owing  to  his  great 
influence  over  the  Irish  Chiefs.  In  the  following  year  Sir 
Richard  Edgecomb  was  sent  over  to  Ireland  by  the  King  to 
receive  the  oaths  of  allegiance  from  the  lords  of  the  Pale. 
This,  he  with  some  difficulty  and  delay  accomplished  on 
the  21st  of  July  in  "the  Kings'  Chamber"  of  St.  Thomas' 
Abbey,  commonly  called  Thomas  Court,  the  Lord  Deputy's 
residence. 

Under  the  year  1488,  the  "Annals  of  the  Four  Masters" 
notify  the  destruction  of  the  Castle  of  Balrath,  Co.  Westmeath, 
belonging  to  the  sons  of  Murtagh  MacGeoghegan,  by  a  plunder- 
ing army  under  the  Earl,  who  brought  ordnance  to  bear  against 
it.  This  is  the  first  allusion  to  the  use  of  cannon  in  the  Annals. 
About  this  time,  too,  a  present  of  six  hand-guns  was  sent  to 
tlie  Earl  from  Germany,  and  as  this  weapon  was  all  but 
unknown  in  Ireland,  the  sentries  over  the  Earl's  residence  at 
Thomas  Court  armed  with  them  caused  much  astonishment  to 
the  passers-by. 

In  1489,  the  Earl's  enemies  in  Ireland  petitioned  the  King 
to  grant  them  preferment  in  order  to  counterbalance  his 
influence.  The  King  in  consequence  summoned  all  the  lords 
of  Ireland  to  his  Court  at  Greenwich  and  gave  the  Earl  prece- 
dence ;  he  received  them  all  graciously,  but  among  other  things 
remarked  of  those  who  had  supported  Simnel,  that "  they  would 
at  last  orown  apes,  should  he  be  long  absent."  Afterwards  he 
entertained  them  at  a  splendid  banquet,  where  he  caused 
Simnel  to  wait  upon  them  as  butler.^ 

In  the  year  1492,  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters"  record 
the  death  of  Con,  the  son  of  Art,  the  son  of  Con  O'Conor,  who 
was  slain  by  the  Earl's  people  for  having  in  jest  thrown  a  pole 
at  him,  they  apparently  mistaking  his  action. 

The  Earl  was  at  this  time  removed  from  the  office  of  Lord 
Deputy  being  suspected  of  plotting  against  the  King. 

*  Ware's  Annals. 


1 20  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE, 

In  thia  same  year  (1492)  a  curious  incident  took  place  in 
St.  Patrick's  Cathedral,  Dublin,  whicli  arose  out  of  the  feud 
between  the  Geraldines  and  Butlers.  It  is  related  by  Staui- 
hurst,  and  is  to  be  found  on  pages  82  and  83  of  the  2nd  vol.  of 
llolinshed's  "Chronicles"  of  the  edition  published  in  black 
letter  in  1586 ;  the  story  there  given  is  as  follows : — 

"  The  plot  of  the  mutuall  grudge  was  grounded  upon  the  factious  dissen- 
tion  that  was  raised  in  England  betweene  the  houses  of  Yorke  and  Lancaster, 
Kildare  cleaving  to  Yorke,  and  Ormond  relieing  to  Lancaster.  To  the 
upholding  of  which  discord,  both  these  noblemen  laboured  with  tooth  and 
naile  to  overcrow  and  consequentlie  to  overthrow  one  the  other.  And  for 
so  much  as  they  were  in  honour  peeres,  they  wrought  by  hooke  and  by 
crooke  to  be  in  authoritie  superiours.  The  Government  therefore  in  the 
reigne  of  Henrie  the  seventh,  being  cast  on  the  house  of  Kildare,  James 
Earle  of  Ormond  a  deepe  and  farre  reaching  man,  giving  backe  like  a 
butting  ram  to  strike  the  harder  push,  devised  to  inveigle  his  adversarie  by 
submission  and  courtesie,  being  not  then  able  to  overmatch  him  with  stout- 
nesse  or  prehiminence.  Whereupon  Ormond  addressed  his  letters  to  the 
deputie,  speciiieing  a  slander  raised  on  him  and  his,  that  he  purposed  to 
deface  his  government  and  to  withstand  his  authoritie.  And  for  tlie  cleering 
of  himselfe  and  his  adherents,  so  it  stood  with  the  deputie  liis  pleasure,  he 
would  make  his  speedie  repuire  to  Dublin,  and  there  in  an  open  audience 
would  purge  himselfe  of  all  such  odious  crimes  of  which  he  was  wrongfully 
suspected. 

'*  To  this  reasonable  request  had  the  lord  deputie  no  sooner  condescended, 
than  Ormond  with  a  puisant  armie  marched  towards  Dublin,  encamping  in 
an  abbie  in  the  suburbs  of  the  citie,  named  Saint  Thomas  Court.  The 
approaching  of  so  great  an  armie  of  the  citizens  suspected,  and  also  of 
Kildare's  councillors  greatlie  disliked,  lastlie  the  extortion  that  the  lawlesse 
souldiers  used  in  the  pale  by  severall  complaints  detected :  these  three 
points,  with  diverse  other  suspicious  circumstances  laid  and  put  together, 
did  minister  occasion  rather  of  further  discord,  than  of  anie  present  agree- 
ment. 

**  Ormond  persisting  still  in  his  humble  sute,  sent  his  messenger  to  the 
lord  deputie,  aeclaring  that  he  was  prest  and  readie  to  accomplish  the 
tenour  of  his  letters,  and  there  did  attend  (as  become  him)  his  lordship  his 
pleasure.  And  as  for  the  companie  he  brought  with  him  from  Mounster, 
ableit  suspicious  braines  did  rather  of  a  malicious  oraftinesse  surmise 
the  worst,  than  of  charitable  wisdome  did  judge  the  best ;  yet  notwith- 
standing, upon  conference  had  with  his  lordship,  he  would  not  doubt  to 
satisHe  him  at  full  in  all  points,  wherewith  he  could  be  with  anie  colour 
charged,  and  so  to  stop  up  the  spring  from  whense  all  the  envious  suspicions 
gushed. 

**  Kildare,  with  this  mild  message  intreated,  appointed  the  meeting  to 
be  at  St.  Patricke  his  church  :  where  they  were  ripping  up  one  to  another 
their  mutuall  quarrels,  rather  recounting  the  damages  they  susteiued  than 
acknowledging  the  injuries  they  offered  ;  the  citizens  and  Ormond  his  ai*mie 
fell  at  some  jar,  for  the  oppression  and  exaction  with  which  the  souldiers 
surcharged  them.  With  whom  as  part  of  the  citizens  bickered,  so  a  round 
knot  of  archers  rushed  into  the  church,  meaning  to  have  murthered  Ormond, 
as  the  capteine  and  belwedder  of  all  these  lawlesse  rabble. 

**  The  Earle  of  Ormond  suspecting  that  he  had  beene  betraied,  fled  to 
the  Chapiter  House,  put  to  the  doore,  sparring  it  with  might  and  manie. 


EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILDARE.  1 2 1 

The  citizens  in  their  Rage  imagining  that  evrie  post  in  the  chnrch  had 
beene  one  of  the  soldiers,  shot  hab  or  nab  at  random  up  to  the  roodloft  and 
to  the  chancellf  leaving  some  of  their  arrowes  sticking  in  the  imnges. 

**  Kildare  pursuing  Ormond  to  the  Chapiter  House  doore,  undertooke  on 
his  honour  that  he  should  receive  no  viUanie.  Whereupon  the  recluse 
craving  his  lordship's  hand  to  assure  him  his  life,  there  was  a  clift  in  the 
chapiter  house  doore  pearsed  at  a  trise,  to  the  end  both  the  Earles  should 
have  shaken  hands  and  be  reconciled.  But  Ormond  surmising  that  this 
drift  was  intended  for  some  further  treacherie,  that  if  lie  would  stretch  out 
his  hand,  it  had  beene  percase  chopt  off,  refused  that  proffer ;  untill 
Eildare  stretched  in  his  hand  to  him,  and  so  the  doore  was  opened,  they 
both  imbraced,  the  storme  appeased,  and  all  their  quarrels  for  that  present 
ended. 

"  In  this  garboile  one  of  the  citizens  sumamed  Blanchfield  was  slaine. 

"Ormond  bearing  in  mind  the  treacherie  of  the  Dublinians  procured 
such  as  were  the  gravest  prelates  of  his  dergie  to  intimate  to  the  Court  of 
Rome  the  heathenish  riot  of  the  citizens  of  Dublin,  in  rushing  into  the 
church  armed,  polluting  with  slaughter  the  consecrated  place,  defacing  the 
images,  prostrating  the  reliks,  rasing  down  altars,  with  oarbarous  outcries, 
moie  like  miscreant  Saracens  than  Christian  Catholicks.  Whereupon  a 
legat  was  posted  to  Ireland  bending  his  course  to  Dublin  where,  soone  after 
bee  was  solemnelie  received  by  Walter  Fitz  Simons,*  Archbishop  of  Dublin. 
Tlie  Legat  upon  his  arrival!  indicted  the  citie  for  his  execrable  offense  ;  but 
at  length,  by  the  procurement  as  well  of  the  Archbishop  as  of  all  the 
clearp^ie,  he  was  weighed  to  gpve  the  citizens  absolution  with  this  caveat, 
that  in  detestation  of  so  horrible  a  fact,  and  *  Ad  perpetuam  rei  memoriam,' 
the  major  of  Dublin  should  go  barefooted  thoroughout  the  citie  in  open 
procession  before  the  Sacrament  on  Corpus  Christie  daie :  which  penitent 
satisfaction  was  after  in  everie  such  procession  duly  accomplished." 

Tlie  Chapter  House  door,  referred  to  in  the  above  adven- 
ture, is  still  in  existence,  and  can  be  seen  at  any  time  leaning 
against  the  wall  of  the  north  aisle  in  the  Cathedral;  it  is 
covered  with  a  coat  of  red-brown  paint,  and  at  various  times 
has  been  strengthened  with  boards  laid  on  horizontally  at  the 
back,  as  shown  in  the  section  to  the  sketch.  The  aperture  in  it 
is  now  a  regular  oblong :  this  was  probably  done  in  order  to 
neatly  repair  the  cleft  hacked  through  it  at  the  time  of  the 
"  ruction."  Until  about  twenty  years  ago  the  piece  of  board 
with  which  it  was  repaired  was  in  its  place ;  but  it  was  then 
removed  and  is  now  lying  with  odds  and  ends  in  a  recess  of  the 
baptistery.  When  comparing  the  sketch  with  the  original 
door  in  June  last  the  verger,  Mr.  Lambert,  very  obligingly 
showed  me  this  piece,  and  related  how  he  remembered  seeing  it 
fixed  in  the  aperture.  The  sketch  given  on  next  page  is  a 
faithful  representation  of  the  old  door,  and  was  carefully  drawn 
to  scale  by  Mr.  W.  F.  Wakeman,  whose  pen  has  done  so  much 


'  He  succeeded  John  Walton  in  the  Archbishopric  of  Dublin  in  1484, 
anddied  14th  May,  1511. 


EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILD ARE.  1 2  3 

to  illustrate  the  "  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries 
of  Ireland." 

In  1493,  it  having  been  reported  that  the  Earls  of  Kildare 
and  Desmond  were  in  correspondence  with  Perkin  Warbeck, 
another  impostor  whom  the  Duchess  of  Burgundy  was  again 
trying  to  bring  forward  as  Richard,  Duke  of  York,  the  second 
son  of  Edward  IV.,  and  so  heir  to  the  throne,  the  former  Earl 
hastened  to  England  to  rebut  the  charge;  but  Henry  VII., 
not  being  satisfied,  informed  him  that  Sir  Edward  Foynings 
would  be  sent  over  as  Lord  Deputy.  In  September  of  the 
following  year  Sir  Edward  arrived  in  Dublin  and  proceeded 
against  the  northern  Irish,  accompanied  by  the  Earl,  who  was 
anxious  to  remove  any  suspicion  against  himself.  However,  it 
came  to  Sir  Edward's  ears  that  the  Earl  and  O'Hanlon,  in 
whose  country  they  were,  had  formed  a  conspiracy  to  assassinate 
him,  and  at  the  same  time  news  was  brought  to  him  that  the 
Earl's  brother,  James  Fitz  Gerald,  had  risen  in  rebellion  and 
had  seized  Carlow  Castle  ;  the  Deputy,  therefore,  turued  south- 
wards, laid  siege  to  Carlow  Castle,  and  captured  it  in  ten  days. 

He  then  determined  to  act  vigorously  against  the  Qeral- 
dines,  and  summoned  a  parliament  at  Drogheda  in  1495,  in 
which  was  passed  an  Act  for  attainting  the  Earl  and  his  ad- 
herents, and  another  to  abolish  his  war-cry  of  "  Crom-a-boo," 
with  those  of  other  great  families. 

The  origin  of  this  war-cry  dates  from  about  the  thirteenth 
oentury,  when  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald,  the  ancestor  of  the  Irish 
Geraldines,  was  granted  the  district  of  Cromadh,  Crom,  or 
Groom,  which  lies  in  the  county  Limerick.  As  the  surrounding 
territory  belonged  to  the  O'Briens  of  Thomond,  the  castle 
erected  by  the  Fitz  Geralds  there  was  frequently  attacked  by 
them,  and  on  these  occasions  the  defenders  would  shout  "  Crom- 
a-boo,"  or  "  Crom  for  ever,"  in  opposition  to  the  war-cry  of 
the  O'Briens,  which  was  "  Lamh  laidher-a-boo,"  or  "  The  strong 
hand  for  ever."  "  Crom-a-boo  "  afterwards  became,  and  still 
is,  the  family  motto.  A  portion  of  the  Act  abolishing  these 
war-cries,  owing  to  the  disturbance  created  by  the  gathering 
of  the  factions  on  the  cry  or  slogan  being  raised,  is  thus 
worded :  — 

'*  Therefore  be  it  enacted  and  established  by  the  Commons  in  the  present 
Parliament  assembled,  that  no  person  nor  persons  of  whatsoever  estate, 
condition,  or  degree  he  or  they  may  be  of,  take  part  with  any  lord  or  gentle- 
man, or  uphold  any  such  variances  or  comparisons  in  word  or  deed,  as  in 
using  these  words  :  Crom-a-bo  and  Butler-a-bo,  or  any  words  like  or  con- 
trary to  the  King's  Laws,  his  crown  and  dignity  and  peace,  but  to  call  only 
on  St.  Georp^e,  or  the  name  of  his  Sovereign  Lord  the  King  of  England  for 
the  time  bemg,  &c." 


124  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE, 

The  punishment  was  imprisonment  and  fine.  In  spite  of 
the  above  Act  the  war-cry  was  still  made  use  of ;  and,  when 
carved  on  stone  or  tile  of  this  period,  the  following  prefix  in 
old  Norman  French  was  defiantly  added :  "  Si  Dieu  Plot " — 
Grom-abo;  and  as  such  it  appears  (1)  on  some  encaustic  pavement 
tiles  from  Bective  Abbey,  county  Meath,  dating  from  the 
latter  end  of  the  fifteenth  to  the  commencement  of  the  six- 
teenth century ;  (2)  on  a  stone  table  which  formerly  stood  in  "  the 


PAVEMENT  TILE  FROM   BECTIVE  ABBEY,  CO.  MBATH, 

Bearing  Gerald  the  8th  Earl  of  Kildaro's  Arms  and  Motto  (circa  1500). 

Council  House "  of  Maynooth  Castle,  and  is  now  at  Carton, 
dated  15315;  and  (3)  on  a  stone  chimney-piece  in  Kilkea  Castle 
bearing  the  date  1573.  Strange  to  say,  the  Act  abolishing  the 
war-cry  was  revoked  only  within  the  last  few  years. 

After  his  attainder  the  Earl  lost  much  of  his  power  and 
many  of  his  followers.  Being  at  feud  with  Plunket  of  Rath- 
more,  he  was  defeated  by  him  in  several  skirmishes,  and  at 
last  hardly  dared  show  himself  in  the  county  Meath,  nor  could 


EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILDARE.  1 25 

he  with  safety  remain  three  nights  running  in  the  same  honse 
in  his  own  county.  At  length,  while  travelling  with  twelve 
horsemen  near  Trim,  he  encountered  Plunket  with  an  escort  of 
twenty,  and,  so  furious  was  the  charge  he  made  on  them,  that 
Plunket  and  most  of  his  men  fell. 

The  Earl  also  had  a  quarrel  with  his  former  friend  John 
Pain,  Bishop  of  Meath,  and  one  day  pursued  him  into  a  church 
where  he  had  fled  for  sanctuary.  The  Earl  ordered  him  to 
come  out,  and  on  his  refusal  entered,  sword  in  hand,  and 
going  to  where  the  fiishop  was  kneeling  in  the  chancel,  swore : 
"  By  St.  Bride !  were  it  not  he  knew  his  Prince  would  be 
o£Fended  with  him,  he  could  find  it  in  his  heart  to  lay  his 
sword  on  his  shaven  crown."  The  Earl  then  dragged  him 
from  the  church  and  kept  him  prisoner  until  the  Lord  Deputy 
demanded  his  release. 

There  was  another  ecclesiastic  with  whom  the  Earl  was  on 
bad  terms,  and  that  was  David  Creagh,  Bishop  of  Oashel,  whose 
cathedral  church  on  the  Bock  of  Oashel  he  burnt  on  one 
occasion.     But  he  restored  it  in  or  about  the  year  1496. 

Having  been  promised  a  pardon  for  these  and  other  offences, 
the  Earl  went  to  Dublin,  but  was  arrested  in  the  evening,  and 
sent  in  a  bark,  which  had  been  kept  in  readiness,  to  England, 
the  Deputy  not  wishing  to  pass  judgment  on  him  himself.  For 
two  years  he  was  kept  prisoner  in  the  Tower  of  London.  His 
wife,  Alison,  daughter  of  Sir  Rowland  Eustace  of  Harristown, 
Baron  of  Portlester,  died  of  fi;rief  in  consequence  on  the  22n(l 
of  November,  1494,  and  was  buried  in  the  New  Abbey  at  Kil- 
ouUen  Bridge,  which  her  father  had  founded.  By  his  marriage 
the  Earl  acquired  the  Manors  of  Ardglass  and  Strangford  in 
the  county  Down,  as  his  wife  was  co-heiress  of  her  mother, 
Margaret  Lady  Portlester,  who  was  co-heiress  of  Janico 
D'Artois,  Lord  of  Ardglass.  This  property  is  still  in  the  pos- 
session of  a  branch  of  the  FitzQerald  family  which  has  assumed 
the  name  of  De  Bos,  from  Lord  Henry  FitzG-erald's  marriage 
with  Charlotte,  Baronesse  De  Bos,  in  1791. 

The  Earl  was  at  length  brought  for  trial  before  King 
Henry  VII.  and  his  Council.  He  found  confronting  him  the 
Bishops  of  Meath  and  Cashel  and  a  host  of  hostile  witnesses. 
An  account  of  this  trial  is  given  at  length  in  a  ms.  of  the 
sixteenth  century  in  the  Lambeth  Library,  known  as  "The 
Book  of  Howth,"  as  well  as  in  Holinshed's  "Chronicles  of 
Ireland";  from  these  sources  the  following  details  have  been 
extracted : — 

The  Bishop  of  Meath  commenced  by  accusing  the  Earl  of 
sundry  ofienoes,  and  amongst  others  of  forcing  him  from  the 


128  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE, 

laud,  by  Pliilip  Flattesbury,  of  JohnstowOy  near  Naas,  a.d. 
1517,  and  in  the  ninth  year  of  King  Henry  Vlllth." 

These  chronicles  are  quoted  by  Stanihurst  and  Campion  in 
their  Histories  of  Ireland. 

In  1504,  XJlick  M'William  Burke,  Lord  of  Clanricarde, 
who  had  married  Lady  Eustaoia,  daughter  of  the  Earl,  formed 
a  confederacy  with  several  Irish  Chiefs  to  oppose  the  authority 
of  the  King.  The  Earl  in  consequence  assembled  a  large  force, 
and  in  August  marched  into  Connauglit.  With  Clanricarde 
were  the  following  native  chiefs : — O'Brien  of  Thomond, 
MacNamara,  O'Connor  of  Coniiaught,  and  O'Carroll.  On  the 
Earl's  side  were  several  of  the  Lords  of  the  Pale,  besides 
O'Neill,  M*Dermott  of  Moylurg,  Mugennis  of  Iveagh, 
O'Farrell,  M'Mahon,  O'Haulon,  O'Reilly,  O'Kelly,  O'Conor 
Faly,  and  the  Burkes  of  Mayo.  The  two  armies  met  on  the 
19th  at  Cnock  Tungh,  i.e.,  the  Hill  of  the  Battleaxes,  now 
Knockdoe,  about  seven  miles  from  Galway,  and  a  fierce  and 
hard  fought  conflict  ensued  in  which  both  sides  suffered  heavy 
losses  till  at  last  the  Connatight  army  broke  and  fled.  The 
Annals  say  that  since  the  time  of  the  Conquest  in  1170  no 
such  battle  had  been  fought  in  Ireland,  as  regards  the 
numbers  engaged  or  the  multitudes  slain.  The  result  of  this 
battle  had  the  effect  of  breaking  the  strength  of  the  western 
septs,  and  it  was  considered  of  such  importance  by  the  King, 
that  when  the  news  of  the  victory  was  brought  to  him  by 
Walter'  FitzSimon,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  he  created  the  Earl 
a  Knighi  of  the  Garter.  The  Earl  was  installed  at  Windsor, 
on  the  4th  of  May,  1505,  by  his  proxy,  Sir  John  Williams. 

About  this  period  the  Earl  rebuilt  several  castles  to 
strengthen  the  possessions  of  the  Crown,  and  among  others  the 
White  Castle  of  Athy,  and  those  of  Castledermot,  and  Bath- 
villy,  the  latter  in  the  Co.  Carlow. 

In  the  year  1507,  the  Earl  wrote  a  remarkable  letter  from 
his  Castle  in  Castledermot,  to  Florence,  in  which  he  makes 
inquiries  as  to  the  family  of  Gherardini  (here,  from  whom  his 
ancestor  "  Domiuus  Otho,"  the  first  of  the  family  to  reside  in 
England,  and  great-grandfather  to  Maurice  FitzGerald,  the  first 
of  the  Irish  Geraldines,  was  sprung,  close  on  five  hundred  years 
before.  This  letter  is  amongst  the  Gherardini  papers,  and  was 
worded  thus : — 

To  be  given  to  all  the  family  of  Gherardini,  noble  in  fame  and  virtue, 
dwelling  in  Florence,  our  beloved  brethern  in  Florence,  Gerald,  Eurl  of 
Kildare,  Lord  Deputy  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  sends  greeting  to  all  the 
Family  of  Gherafdini  dwelling  in  Florence.  Most  grateful  to  uh  have  been 
your  letters  to  us,  most  illustrious  men.     From  them  we  have  learned  to 


EIGHTH  EARL  OF  KILDARE.  129 

know  the  favour  of  the  fraternal  love  that  you  bare  to  your  own  blood.  But 
in  order  to  increase  your  joy  still  more,  I  will  briefly  inform  you  of  the  state 
of  your  relations  in  these  parts.  Enow,  then,  that  my  predecessors  and 
ancestors  passed  from  France  into  England,  and  having  remained  there  for 
some  time,  tbey,  in  the  year  1140,^  arrived  in  this  island  of  Ireland,  and  by 
their  swords  obtained  great  possessions,  and  achieved  great  feats  of  arms ; 
and  up  to  the  present  day  have  increased  and  multiplied  into  manv  branches 
and  families,  insomuch  that  I,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  possess  by  Iiereditary 
right  the  Earldom,  and  am  Earl  of  Kildare,  holding  diverse  castles  and 
manors,  and  by  the  liberality  of  our  most  serene  Lord  the  King  of  England, 
I  am  now  his  Deputy  in  the  whole  of  Ireland,  during  the  pleasure  of  his 
majesty,  an  honour  frequently  obtained  heretofore  by  my  father  and  my 
predecessors.  There  is  also  a  relation  of  ours  in  these  parts  called  the  Karl 
of  Desmond,*  under  whose  lordship  there  are  100  miles,  in  length  of  country. 
Our  house  has  increased  beyond  measure,  in  a  multitude  of  barons,  knight^, 
and  noble  persons,  holding  many  possessions,  and  having  under  their 
command  many  persons.  We  are  most  desirous  to  know  the  deeds  of  your 
anoe!»tors,  so  that  if  you  have  in  your  possession  any  history,  werecjuest  you 
to  communicate  it  to  us.  We  wish  to  know  the  origin  of  our  house,  and 
their  numbers,  and  the  names  of  our  ancestors ;  whether  there  are  any  of 
them  settled  in  France,  and  who  of  our  family  inhabit  the  Roman  territory. 
I  also  wish  to  know  the  transactions  of  the  present  time,  for  it  gives  me 
great  joy  always  to  hear  news  of  our  house.  If  there  is  anything  we  can 
procure  tor  you  through  our  labour  and  industry,  or  anything  that  you  have 
not  got,  such  as  hawks,  falcons,  horses,  or  dogs  for  the  chnse,  I  beg  you  will 
inforiu  me  of  it,  us  I  shall,  in  every  possible  way,  endeavour  to  obey  your 
wishes.  God  be  with  you,  and  do  you  love  us  in  return.  From  our  Castle 
of  Caatledermot,  27th  day  of  May,  1507. 

GERALD, 

Chief  in  Ireland  of  the  family  of  the 
Geraldines,  Karl  of  Kildare,  I»rd 
Deputy  of  the  Most  Serene  King  of 
England  in  Ireland. 

On  tlie  succession  of  Henry  VIII.  in  April,  1509,  the  Earl 
was  reappointed  Lord  Justice,  and  in  the  following  year  Lord 
Deputy.  In  this  and  the  next  two  years  he  again  made  expe- 
ditions to  the  north  and  in  the  south,  as  related  in  the 
"Annals  of  the  Four  Masters." 

In  1513  the  Earl  was  on  his  way  to  the  (present)  King's 
County  to  reduce  a  castle  of  the  O'CarroU's  called  Lemy  vannau, 
i.e.  O'Banan's  Leap,  but  now  known  under  the  translated  name 
of  "Leap  Castle."  He  had  got  as  far  as  Kilkea,  and  was 
watering  his  horse  in  the  river  Greese,  when  he  was  fired  at  by 
a  party  of  the  O'Mores  and  was  badly  wounded.      By  slow 

iRecte,  1170. 

^The  Earldom  of  Kildare  was  created  in  1316,  and  that  of  Desmond  in 
1329 ;  The  former  was  given  to  John,  third  in  descent  from  Gerald,  the 
eldest  son  of  Maurice  FitsOerald  who  died  in  1177  ;  the  latter  was  given  to 
Maurice,  fourth  in  descent  from  Thomas,  the  third  son  of  the  ahove  Maurice 
FitzGerald*    The  latter  title  became  extinct  in  the  year  1608. 


Gbkald  thk  8tu  Earl  of  Kildaii£*8  Tomb, 

Erected  in  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Christ  Church  Cathedral,  Dublin,  about  the  year^rsoj  : 
destroyed  about  the'end  of  the  17th  century. 

Taken  from  "  Mooumenta  Eblanx,"  a  MS.  volume  of  Sketches  of  Dublin  Tombs,  in  Ulster's  Office. 


Gerald  thb  8th  Ea&l  of  Eildaub's  Tomb, 

Erected  in  St.  Mary's  Cbapcl,  Christ  Church  Cathedral,  Dublin,  about  the  year  1503 : 

destroyed  about  the  end  of  the  17th  century. 

Taken  from  "  Monumenta  Eblanx,"  a  ms.  volume  of  Sketches  of  Dublin  Tombs, 

in  Ulster's  OflBce. 

VOL.  II.,  PT.  II.  L 


132  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  GARRETT  MORE. 

stages  he  was  moved  to  Athy  and  thence  to  Kildare,  where, 
after  lingering  for  a  few  days  more,  he  died  on  the  «3rd  of 
September.  His  body  was  taken  to  Dublin,  and  on  the  16tli 
of  October  bnried  with  great  pomp  before  the  high  altar  of 
..St.  Mary's  Chapel  which  he  had  himself  built  in  1503,  in  the 
choir  of  Christ  Church.  The  interior  of  this  chapel  was  richly 
ornamented  with  the  Earl's  arms  within  the  Garter,  and  those 
of  his  wife,  with  the  arms  of  many  of  his  predecessors  and  suc- 
cessor, but  they  were  all  defaced  by  William  Moreton,  Bishop 
of  Kildare  and  Dean  of  Christ  Church,  when  he  repaired  the 
church  between  the  years  1677  and  1705.  The  site  of  St. 
Mary's  Chapel  is  now  occupied  by  buildings  connected  with 
the  Cathedral. 

The  Earl's  character  is  thus  described  by  Stanihurst : — 
'*  Kildare  was  open  and  plaine,  hardlie  able  to  rule  himselfe 
when  he  were  moved  to  anger,  not  so  sharpe  as  short,  being 
easily  displeased  and  sooner  appeased.  Being  in  a  rage  with 
certeine  of  his  servants  for  faults  they  committed,  one  of  his 
horsemen  offered  Master  Boice  (a  gentleman  that  reteined  to 
him)  an  Irish  hobbie,  on  condition  that  lie  would  plucke  an 
haire  from  the  Earle  his  beard.  Boice  taking  the  proffer  at 
rebound,  stept  to  the  Earle  (with  whose  good  nature  he  was 
thoroughlie  acquainted)  parching  in  the  heat  of  his  choler,  and 
said  :  *  So  it  is,  and  if  it  like  your  lordship,  one  of  your  horse- 
men promised  me  a  choice  horse  if  I  snip  one  haire  from  your 
beard.'  *  Well,'  quoth  the  Earle,  *  I  agree  thereto,  but  if  thou 
plucke  anie  more  than  one,  I  promise  thee  to  bring  my  fist 
from  thine  eare.'  " 

The  Master  Boice  mentioned  in  the  above  anecdote  was 
Governor  of  Maynooth  Castle  in  the  year  1535,  but  resigned 
the  post  on  the  breaking  out  of  the  Silken  Thomas's  Rebellion, 
and  was  succeeded  by  Christopher  Pares,  the  latter's  foster- 
brother.  His  Christian  name  was  James.  It  was  he  who, 
standing  by,  made  the  remark  in  Irish,  **  Antrah  "  {i,e.  too 
late),  on  Pares  saying  to  the  Lord  Deputy,  Sir  William 
Skeffigton,  that  he  would  not  have  betrayed  the  Castle  if  he 
had  known  that  he  was  to  be  paid  the  blood-money  and  hanged 
afterwards;  hence  arose  what  became  a  proverb  in  Irish  of 
"  Too  late  quoth  Boice,''  which  is  equivalent  to  the  English  one 
of  "  You've  arrived  a  day  late  for  the  fair." 


AT  CLOHAUGH,  CO.  KILDARB. 


.     JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH,  CO.  KILDAR%. 

By  rev.  E.  O^^LEART,  P.P. 
[Read  at  Naas,  February  5,  1896.] 

JOHN  Lye  himself  and  Clonaugb,  where  his  castle  stood,  are 
subjects  of  interest  to  the  students  of  the  history  of  our 
county;  and  in  the  following  Paper  I  shall  endeavour 
f o  give  what  information  I  could  obtain  about  them  from  the 
sources  within  my  reach. 

John  Lye  played  a  deep  and  important  part  in  the  political 
history  of  Ireland  during  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  at 
a  time  when  the  Government  of  the  Pale  was  trembling  in  the 
balance.  The  Irish  chieftains  of  the  north  were  surrounding 
the  Pale  with  a  ring  of  fire,  and  the  Anglo-Norman  Barons 
were  becoming  almost  as  hostile.  It  was  in  these  troubled 
times  that  John  Lye  appeared  in  the  political  arena.  His 
duty  was  to  go  as  envoy  between  the  Government  and  the 
great  native  chiefs  and  princes,  to  attend  at  Dublin  Castle  on 
all  occasions  when  an  interpreter  was  needed,  and  even  to 
attend  the  State  trials  in  London,  and  interpret  between  the 
Court  and  the  prisoners.  "John  Lye,  as  Interpreter  to  the 
State,  an  important  functionary  during  the  disturbed  reign  of 
Elizabeth,  is  frequently  noticed  in  our  public  records,  and 
correspondence,  and  his  services  obtained  rewards,  conjointly 
with  services  afterwards  loyally  rendered  by  one  of  his  descen- 
dants to*  Charles  II.,  which  placed  his  posterity  high  among 
our  landed  gentry."^  His  father  was  Francis  Lasighsigh, 
Francis  Mac  Laoighsigh,  Mac  Lysach,  or  I^e,  who  married  a 
daughter  of  John  O'Carroll,  of  Killeigh,  ^ng's  County.     He 


vy 


*  In  TransaotioDs  of  Kilkenny  Arch.  Society — H.  F.  Hoare,  Esq. 

L2  133 


134  JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 

had  issue,  John  the  Interpreter,  Emery,  Arthur,  mentioned  in 
John's  will,  Francis  in  the  array,  and  Henry.  These  facts  we 
learn  from  Burke's  "Landed  Gentry,"  which  tells  us  that 
Francis  MacLysach,  of  Killeagh,  petitioned  in  1551  for  a  lease 
of  the  dissolved  monastery,  town,  and  lands  of  the  Holy  Cross, 
Killeagh,  and  obtained  a  lease  of  them  next  year.  Two 
months  later,  Nov.  30,  1582,  he  obtained  a  grant  of  English 
liberty  to  enable  him  to  hold  lands.  He  was  dead  in  1573, 
and  his  lands  were  in  possession  of  his  eldest  son,  John  Lye 
the  Interpreter. 

In  Brewer's  "  Calendar  of  Carew  Manuscripts,"  under  date 
17th  Feb.,  1579,  there  is  mention  of  a  feofment  made  by  Sir 
William  O'CarroU,  of  Lemyvannon,  in  Elye,  to  John  Aley 
(Lye),  of  Clonaglie,  Co.  Kildare,  and  to  Arthur  Aley,  of  the 
same,  of  all  his  lands  and  possessions  in  Ireland,  for  the  use  of 
Sir  William,  and  for  his  sons  Shawn  and  Callough."* 

John  Lye  or  Ly  had  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  English 
language  as  well  as  the  Irish,  was  appointed  Interpreter  to  the 
State,  and  was  granted  for  his  services  as  Interpreter,  by  patent 
dated  9th  May,  1584,  the  fee  of  the  Monastery  of  Killeagh, 
which  he  then  held  under  the  lease  made  to  his  father,  and 
obtained  a  grant  of  Bathbride,  Co.  Kildare,  dated  1st  June, 
1591.  He  married  Amy,  daughter  of  George  Fitzgerald  of 
Tecroghan,  Co.  Meath,  and  sister  of  Sir  Edward  Fitzgerald, 
knt.,  of  the  same  place,  and  had  issue,  John,  his  heir,  Andrew, 
a  minor  in  1612,  Katherine,  m.  James  Fitzgerald  of  Osbalds- 
town,  or  Osbertstown,  Co.  Kildare,  Mabel,  Mary,  Margaret, 
Bridget,  Amy,  and  Ellinor. 

In  1571,  John  Lye  received  Clonaugh  as  a  reward  for  his 
services,  as  appears  from  a  State  paper,  which  contains  the 
entry  :  "  at  the  suit  of  John  Alee,  a  messenger  to  ye  dangerous 
places."  Clonaugh  is  a  townland  in  the  extreme  north  of  the 
Co.  Kildare,  about  one  mile  from  the  borders  of  Co.  Meath, 
and  is  in  the  old  pre-Beformation  parish  of  Cadamstown. 
There  is  an  entry  in  the  Council  Book  of  a  freedom  of 
40  marks  to  John  I^ye,  the  Interpreter,  in  respect  of  maintaining 
a  bridge  upon  the  Blackwater,  Co.  Kildare.  This  Blackwater 
bridge  is  only  a  mile .  from  Clonaugh,  and  its  mention  here 
tempts  me  to  make  a  digression. 

The  old  coach-road  from  Dublin  to  Galway  crosses  the 
Blackwater  at  this  spot.  There  are  two  Blackwaters  flowing 
into  the  Boyne.     But  with  the  larger  and  more  famous,  which 


»  Brewer 8  "Calendar  of  Carew  MSS.,"  vol.  for  1575-78,  p.  485,  17th 
Feb.,  1579. 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH.  1^5 

flows  south,  and  joins  the  fioyue  at  Navan,  we  are  not  oon- 
cemed.  The  Co.  Kildare  Blaokwater  flows  north  from  the 
bog  of  Allen,  through  Johnstownbridge,  by  Longwood,  and 
joins  the  fioyne  at  Castleriokard.  At  the  point  on  the  Black- 
water,  where  John  Lye  was  paid  to  keep  the  bridge,  a  very 
peculiar  and  famous  race-meeting  used  to  be  held  one  hundred 
years  ago.  In  those  days  this  river  was  undrained,  as  the 
upper  reaches  of  the  Barrow  are  at  present,  with  the  result  that 
the  country  was  flooded  in  rainy  seasons.  A  great  crowd 
gathered  on  the  day  of  the  races,  with  music  and  dancing,  and 
booths  ou  the  green ;  but  the  races  had  come  off  at  an  early 
hour  in  the  morning,  for  the  proper  and  becoming  reason,  that 
the  races  were  swimmiug  contests  of  the  horses  down  the  flood, 
guided  by  scantily  clad  jockeys.  A  great  multitude  assembled, 
during  the  day,  to  celebrate  the  victories  of  the  morning. 
There  is  now,  and  has  been  for  at  least  two  hundred  years,  a 
good  stone  bridge  in  the  place.  These  horse-swimming  races, 
or  contests,  must  have  lapsed  a  century  ago,  for  their  memory 
is  a  mere  tradition,  but  what  must  have  been  their  origin  P 
The  following  is  a  probable  explanation.  The  times  we  speak 
of  were  but  a  century  removed  from  the  rebellion  of  1641,  and 
the  Blackwater  bridge  is  but  half  a  mile  from  Balyna,  the 
castle  of  Koger  O'More,  "  the  great  rebel,"  who,  after  Owen 
Boe  O'Neill,  was  the  ablest  of  the  Irish  leaders.  Tlie  clearing 
is  still  pointed  out  in  the  woods  at  Balyna,  where  O'More 
drilled  his  soldiers.  But  a  most  important  detail  of  military 
drill  must  have  been  to  train  iiis  horse-soldiers  to  cross  the 
swollen  floods  in  a  country  where  there  were  not  yet  either 
roads  or  bridges.  What  more  likely,  than  that  a  military 
leader  of  genius,  like  O'More,  should  have  established  these 
swimming  contests,  and  have  given  prizes  for  skill  in  this 
important  item  of  militaxy  drill? 

And  now  to  return  to  Joim  Lye.  In  the  townland  of 
Clonaugh,  say  the  Ordnance  Survey  papers,  is  a  piece  of 
ground,  containing  an  acre,  which  is  surrounded  by  a  ditch. 
At  the  time  of  the  general  suppression,  there  was  here  a 
religious  house,  or  chapel,  dedicated  to  St.  Fynian,  with  the 
townlands  adjoining.  This  was  a  burial-place  of  note,  and  in 
war-time  the  circumadjacent  inliabitants  were  exempt  from  all 
the  customary  burdens  of  the  country.  In  the  centre  of  the 
circle  was  a  stone  cross  and  two  yew  trees,  from  one  of  which 
hung  a  bell.  Adjacent  to  the  east  side  of  the  chapel  was  a 
smaU  close  appertaining  thereto,  all  of  the  annual  value,  besides 
reprises,  of  &i.  {vide^  Chief  Remembrancer).  In  an  Inquisition, 
held  at  Naas  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  1608,  we  find  that  John 


136 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 


Lye  of  Batlibride,  gent.,  being  seized  of  divers  lands  in  the 
said  townland  of  Clonaugh,  levelled  the  tenements,  bounds,  and 
limits  of  the  said  religious  house,  threw  down  and  destroyed 
the  cross  and  trees,  and  erected  a  tower,  or  small  castle,  with 
other  buildings.  All  these  said  premises  were,  for  a  long 
time,  concealed  from  the  king.^    The  reason  for  concealing  this 


"--Ti     ^ 


i 


I        'If  \% 


JOHN   LYK's   arms, 

On  a  stone  from  Clonaugb  Castle,  Co.  Kildare,  now  built  into  the  porch  of  a 
farm-bouse  in  that  neighbourhood.         (20  in.  x  zi  in.) 

Clonaugh  property  from  the  king  will  appear  further  on.  By 
an  Inquisition  taken  at  Naas,  1612,  it  appears  that  John  Lye 
was  seized  of  certain  tenements  and  J300  acres  of  land  in 
Tichnevin,  Ballybrack,  Ballinakill,  Kilpatrick,  Kilcaskin,  and 
Kilmorebranagh.     And  the  said  John  Lye  was  also  seized  of 

^  Inquisiition  held  at  Naas,  1608. 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 


137 


20  acres,  along  with  common  pasturage  in  the  townland  of 
Clonaugh,  held  by  Thomas  Birmingham,  and  a  chapel  called 
the  chapel  of  St.  Finnan,  in  the  townland  of  Clonaugh, 
together  with  9  messuages,  2  enclosures,  and  an  orchard 
belonging  to  the  said  chapel.^ 

From  the  '^  Monast.  Hib.,"  we  learn  that  the  priests  of 
Clonaugh  had  procured  for  themselves  and  their  successors 
certain  lands  in  perpetuitywithout  having  obtained  the  king's 
consent,  contrary  to  the  Statute  of  Mortmain.  A  vague  tra- 
dition still  lin&^ers  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  priests  who 
taught  school  there,  but  whether  they  were  religious  or  secular 
is  not  known.  There  is  scarcely  a  stone  at  present  to  point  out 
the  site  of  Clonaugh,  but  a  few  hundred  yards  away  there  is  an 
amphitheatre  of  low  green  sandhills  which  stand  mute  sentinels 
round  the  spot,  and  carry  the  imagination  back  to  other  times 
and  other  scenes,  when  crowds  of  students  flocked  to  the  sunny 
slopes  of  these  green  sandhills  to  be  taught  by  the  priests  under 
the  blue  vault  of  heaven. 


SSSJ*** if  •'Si?*£lin*3!'3^^»-^"**      |-  -. .  .  tm^ti*^^^ 


AT  JOHNSTOWNBRIDCK,  CU.   KiLDARK. 

John  Lye  had  his  castle  built  at  Clonaugh  in  1578,  for  a 
sculptured  stone,  with  his  coat  of  arms,  attests  it.  This  stone 
is  there  to  the  present  day,  built  into  the  porch  of  the  thatched 
dwelling-house  of  Mary  Ennis  hard  by.  A  few  inches  of  the 
right  side  of  the  stone  are  cut  off,  and  in  its  present  state  it 
measures  20  inches  high,  and  11  inches  wide.  Below  the  arms 
on  the  dexter  side  is  the  date  1578,  and  below  this  again  a 
broken  inscription,  by  reason  of  the  stone  being  cut  away,  from 
which  the  following  words  can  be  read : —  • 

"  IHON.    LY    BILDED  THIS  T    .    .    ." 

Above  the  shield  is  a  crest  now  indistinguishable ;  but  Burke 
*  Chanoery  Inquisition  taken  »t  Naas,  1612. 


^    — .  .    tmu 


"^i-*  ^nii    je*-"aine  )f  :iie  -nine  ir:?s  -viiicii  Jjim  Ljre  threw 

-^  •>     i  r  itr5rrn^<^t-  t  ^'^^    ^"^  ^  ^*^7  portioa  remaining  ? 

-  -ifsp  3.     Ai  ne  •▼'^^  li  --♦^  Tuio^re  or  Johostownbridge 

^  3Bniaiiabie  jbeiiaK  'ir  pier  b«iilc  on  the  roadie  of 

nawmg:  3  Jffl^  zivm.     P^e  large  atone  is  rery  like 

ff  1  imm   It »  •  »-^  ^1^  ^^  iuclies  long  at  top,  and 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 


139 


2  feet  at  the  base.  There  is  a  socket  in  the  upper  surface,  14 
inches  loDg,  and  8  inches  wide.  The  present  cross  is  only  4 
inches  wide  ;  it  is  16  inches  high,  and  though  it  widens  out  to 
a  base  of  8  inches  as  shown  in  the  sketch,  it  does  not  half  fill 
the  socket,  and  is  wedged  in  there  with  other  bits  of  stone ;  so 
that  this  base  and  this  cross  were  never  intended  for  each  other. 
The  history  of  this  cross  and  base  is  buried  in  obscurity.  The 
common  tradition  is  that  they  belonged  to  a  religious  house 
which  formerly  existed  at  Johnstown  bridge,  but  there  is  no 


GKRALD  THB   XITH   EARL  OP   KILDARB's  ARMS, 

On  a  stone  from  Clonaugh  Castle,  now  in  the  village  of  Johnstownbridge,  Co.  Kildare. 
(About  ao  inches  square.) 

record  of  any  such  religious  house  in  the  "  Monast.  Hib."  or 
any  other  authority  that  I  could  find.  There  is  no  record  of 
how  long  they  are  up  in  their  present  position,  but  tradition 
gives  it  that  they  were  so  placed  by  one  of  the  ancestors  of  Mr. 
More  O'Ferrally  the  landlord  of  the  place.    But  I  think  there 


140  JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 

can  be  little  doubt  but  that  they  both  came  from  Glonaugh,  and 
are  the  remains  of  John  Lye's  iconoclasm. 

There  are  two  other  sculptured  stones  in  the  village  of 
Johnstownbridge  which  certainly  came  from  Glonaugh,  and 
one  of  which  Mr.  Arthur  Vicars  has  kindly  undertaken  to 
describe,  at  the  end  of  this  Paper. 

John  Lye,  the  Interpreter,  was  evidently  a  man  to  make  the 
most  of  his  opportunities,  and  to  get  the  best  value  he  could  for 
his  services.  In  1 682,  we  find  John  and  his  brother  Emery  in 
the  rdle  of  what  at  the  present  day  would  be  called  land- 
grabbers.  O'More  was  transplanted  from  Leix  to  Balyna 
about  this  time,  and  soon  we  find  John  and  Emery  casting 
covetous  eyes  on  Balyna,  for  in  1692,  in  the  State  Papers,*  we 
find  the  petition  of  Emery  Lee  and  John  Lee,  his  brother,  to 
the  Privy  Council,  for  further  interest  in  the  castle  of  Ballyna, 
&c.,  and  that  Calagh  O'More  shall  be  made  to  choose  other 
lands,  or  that  they  may  have  others  of  like  value.  But  the 
lands  of  Balyna  are  neither  rich  or  productive,  and  so  the  Lees 
soon  found  out,  and  turned  their  eyes  to  search  for  good  land 
in  some  other  direction. 

"  Gerald  Sutton,  of  Castletown,  in  the  Co.  of  Kildare,  gent., 
closed  his  last  day  on  the  18th  February,  1674."  At  the  time 
of  his  death,  he  was  seized  in  fee  of  the  town  of  Castletown,  in 
the  said  county,  containing  a  castle  with  200  acres  of  land, 
also  of  the  town  of  Ilathbride,  in  the  said  county,  containing 
200  acres  of  land ;  also  the  town  of  Ballycrotan  containing  40 
acres  &c. ;  his  son  and  heir  is  Gerald  Sutton,  of  full  age 
in  1574.  The  wife  of  Gerald  Sutton  was  Jennetta  Eustace, 
(and  after  Gerald's  death)  she  was  married  to  Maurice  Fitz  James 
(Fitz Gerald),  of  Osberstown  in  the  Co.  Kildare.*  David  Sutton 
was  attainted  of  high  treason  in  20th  November,  1680.'  Here 
was  land  worth  looking  for.  So,  in  1686,  we  have  the  Queen 
writing  to  Sir  John  Perrott,  Lord  Deputy,  and  the  Council  of 
Ireland,  directing  that  John  Lye,  of  Clonaugh  in  the  Co. 
Kildare,  should  have  a  lease  of  the  lauds  of  Hathbride,  Morris- 
town-biller,  Croatanstown,  for  sixty  years  without  a  fine,  in 
reversion  or  possession,  *'  on  consideration  of  the  general  testi- 
mony delivered  by  the  deputy  under  the  hands  of  the  council, 
and  by  a  particular  letter  from  the  lord  deputy  to  the  secretary 
Walshingham,  in  commendation  of  the  said  John  Lye,  both  for 


»  Hamilton's  "  Calendar  of  State  Papers,"  vol.  for  1574-86,  11th  May, 
1682. 

•  •*  Exchequer  Inquisitions,"  ^'o.  8  of  Elizabeth. 
3  "  Ihid.;'  No.  23  of  Elizabeth. 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH.  141 

his  own  servioe,  and  for  that  of  bis  ancestors,  and  the  charges 
he  sustained  in  building  a  castle  and  bawn  upon  the  farm  called 
Clonaugh,  but  which  farm  he  was  about  to  surrender  in  conse- 
quence of  a  grant  in  reversion  of  it  being  passed  away  to  one 
Callagh  O'More.^ 

Thus  he  got  a  lease  of  the  coveted  lands,  and  next  year  he 
wants  the  fee-farm  of  them :  "  The  petition  of  John  Lye 
of  Clonaugh  to  Queen  Elizabeth.  His  farm  of  Clonaugh 
passes  away  in  fee- farm  to  Calagh  O'More,  prays  for  the  fee- 
farm  of  Rathbride,  &c.  Lye  being  an  Englishman  is  very 
perfect  in  the  Irish  tongue."'  Here  we  have  Lye  saying 
the  thing  that  was  not.  He  did  not  give  up  Clonaugii  to 
O'More,  but  held  it  himself,  and  kept  the  transaction  con- 
cealed from  the  king,  for  in  tlie  inquisition  taken  twenty  years 
after,  and  already  referred  to,  ^'  John  Lye  was  seized  of  divers 
lands  in  the  townland  of  Clonaugh,  levelled  the  tenements, 
bounds  and  limits  of  said  religious  house,  threw  down  and 
destroyed  the  cross  and  trees,  and  erected  a  tower  or  small 
castle  with  other  buildings.  AH  these  said  premises  were  for 
a  long  time  concealed  from  the  king.  His  descendants  held 
Clonaugh  for  100  years  afterwards,  but  finally  lost  them  in 
the  Williamite  wars." 

Lye  has  not  yet  got  the  fee-farm  of  llathbride^  and  so, 
next  year,  1587,  we  find  him  applying  for  an  increase  of 
wages.  John  Lye,  junior,  prays  enrollment  of  the  following : — 
^*  For  as  much  as  it  is  verie  requisite  and  necessarie  to  the  State 
of  this  realme,  in  consideration  of  the  day  lie  resorte  of  the  Irishe 
gentlemen  and  others  of  this  realme  for  their  severale  affayres 
to  the  same,  to  have  and  use  an  iuterpretere  for  the  better 
understandinge  of  their  greves,  and  redresses  of  their  causes : 
and  for  that  we  have  had  a  long  tryall  and  experience  of  our 
servant,  John  Alio,  whom  we  have  used  in  tiiat  service,  and 
he  being  a  person  most  meeke  and  convenyent  for  sondrye 
respects  and  good  consideration  to  serve  the  Lordes  Justices 
iu  our  absence.  We,  the  Lord  Deputie  and  Counsell^  have 
condescended  and  agreed  that  he  and  the  said  John  Alie,  as 
interpretere  to  the  State  of  this  realme,  shall  have  and  receave 
the  fee  of  twelve  pence  Inshe  per  diem,  and  require  you  the 
Threasoreror  Vice-Threasorer  f or  the  tyme  being,  upon  sight  or 
registere  of  these  our  letters  to  be  made  paye  unto  him  the  said 


^  Morrill's  '*  Calendar  of  Patent  and  Close  Rolls  of  Chancery,  Ireland," 
vol.  ii.,  24th  July,  1586,  p.  117. 

*  Hamilton's  «'  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ireland,"  vol.  for  1586-8,  Jan. 
6th,  1587,  p.  244. 


142  JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 

fee  of  xii(/.  Irisbe  per  diem  as  the  same  shall  termlie  grow 
unto  him,  taking  his  bill  testifying  the  receipt  thereof  shall  be 
yeure  sufficient  warrant  in  that  behalfe.  Griven  at  Garlingford, 
the  xiii  d.  of  September,  1687. 

•*  Hknky  Sydney. 

"  Robert  Weston,  &c.,  &o. 

"  To  our  trustie,  &o.,  Sir  Wm.  Fitzwilliam,  Kut., 
"  Vioe-Threas.,  &c.,  at  Wars,  &c."» 

We  learn  from  Stowe  that,  in  1591,  John  Lye  acted  as 
interpreter  in  London  at  one  of  the  most  noted  State  trials  of 
the  time — that  of  Sir  Bryan  O'Eoarke,  of  Lough  Gill,  for  high 
treason.  Dr.  O'Donovan  refers  to  a  manuscript  in  the  Boyal 
Irish  Academy,  which  gives  an  accouut  of  this  trial,  and,  at 
p.  462,  narrates : — •*  Bryan  O'Roarke,  the  Irish  potentate,  being 
thus  by  the  King  of  the  Scots  sent  into  England,  was  arraigued 
at  Westminster  Uall.  His  indictments  were,  that  he  had 
stirred  Alexander  McDonnell  and  others;  had  scornfully 
dragged  the  Queen's  picture  at  a  horse  taiie,  and  disgracefully 
cut  the  same  in  pieces ;  giving  the  Spaniards  entertainment 
against  a  proclamation ;  tier'd  many  houses,  &c.  This  being 
told  by  an  interpreter  (John  Lye)^  for  he  understood  noe 
English,  he  said  he  would  not  submit  himself  to  a  tryall  of 
twelue  men,  nor  make  answer,  except  the  Queen  satt  in  person 
to  judge  him.  The  Lord  Chief  Justice  made  answer  againe, 
by  an  interpreter,  that  whethet  he  would  submit  himself  or  not 
to  a  tryall  by  a  jury  of  twelve  men,  he  should  be  judged  by 
law,  according  to  the  particulars  alleged,  whereto  he  replied 
nothiug,  byt  4f  it  must  be  soe  let  it  be  soe.'  Being  con- 
demned to  die  he  was  shortly  after  carried  into  Tyburn,  to  be 
executed  as  a  traitor,  whereat  he  seemed  to  be  nothing  moved, 
scorning  the  Archbishop  of  Caishill  (Miler  Magrath),  who  was 
there  to  counsel  him  for  his  soul's  health,  because  he  had  broken 
his  vow  from  a  Franciscan,  changing  his  religion."  In  the 
life  of  Charles  O'Connor,  of  Balanagare,  we  have  the  following 
reference  to  this  trial,  at  p.  112: — "The  only  crime  which 
O'lioarke  could  be  accused  of  was  his  having  received  under 
his  roof  some  shipwrecked  Spaniards,  men  whom  the  most 
hardened  barbarity  would  scarcely  consider  as  enemies."  A 
little  before  his  execution  Miler  Magrath,  appointed  Arch- 
bishop of  Cashel,  was  sent  to  him  to  prevail  on  him  to  con- 
form.    "  No,"  said   O'Eoarke,    "  but  do  you  remember  the 

1  *<  Memorandum  Koll  of  the  £xchequer,"  9  Elizabeth. 


JOHN  LYK,  OF  CLONAUGH.  1 43 

dignity  from  which  you  have  fallen  P  Return  into  the 
bosom  of  the  ancient  church,  and  learn  from  my  fortitude 
that  lesson  which  you  ought  to  have  been  the  last  on  earth  to 
disavow.' " 

In  1591,  we  hear  of  John  Lye  in  a  new  r61e — that  of  Land 
Leaguer — complaining  that  the  rent  is  too  high.  At  this  date 
the  Queen  again  writes  to  the  Ijord  Deputy  and  Council  of 
Ireland.  She  refers  to  her  letter  of  1686,  granting  John  Lye, 
^*  our  good  and  faithful  subject,  a  lease  for  60  years,  without 
fine,  of  Itathbride,  Morristownbiller,  and  Croatanstown,"  and 
she  says : — *'  Lye  complains  that  the  rent  charged  for  them  is 
too  high,  so  that  he  can't  live  on  them,  much  less  defend  them 
against  evil  disposed  persons,  which,  he  says,  are  in  that  part 
very  numerous."^  The  Queen  now,  therefore,  orders  that  these 
lands  be  resurveyed,  so  that  the  same  may  be  reasonably 
rented ;  and  that  he  may  reap  the  benefit  she  graciously  means 
to  him,  in  order  to  make  up  the  full  value  of  £50  sterling, 
such  other  lands  that  may  come  to  the  Crown  by  attainder, 
escheat,  ontrusion,  or  concealment,  whereof  he  shall  give  notice, 
are  to  be  set  to  him  and  to  his  assigns  for  60  years,  without 
fine.  This  was  a  most  important  document  for  John  Lye. 
He  is  the  State  servant,  and  he  is  promised  all  the  forfeited 
lands  of  his  unfortunate  neighbours,  of  which  he  shall  give 
notice.  Mark  the  result.  A  few  miles  to  the  south  of 
Clonaugh,  and  on  the  road  to  Bathbride,  we  find  a  whole 
colony  of  Ketons,  or  Eeatings.  Ticknevin  belonged  to  Qerald 
FitzQ-erald  Eeaton,  Kilpatrick  to  Qerald  FitzEdmond  Keton, 
and  Ballinakill  Ballybrack  to  Edmund  FitzMyler  Keton,  and 
Ballinakill  to  Thomas  Eeton.  All  these  unfortunate  people 
are  attainted  of  high  treason,  and  lose  their  lands,  which  at 
once  slip  quietly  into  the  possession  of  John  Lye.'  There  is 
an  old  laneway,  blotted  out  in  many  places,  but  still  quite 
traceable,  which  passes  Clonaugh,  and  goes  its  winding  way 
south  to  Kilpatrick,  Ticknevin,  then  via  Lullymore,  across  the 
bog  of  Allen,  and  on  to  the  open  country  towards  Itathbride. 
Most  likely  this  laneway  was  constructed  by  John  Lye. 
Another  windfall  comes  to  John  at  this  time  also — Ealmore- 
branagh.  It  is  only  half  a  mile  north-east  from  Clonaugh, 
and  belonged  to  James  Walshe,  brother  and  heir  to  Jonn 
FitzPhilip  Walshe.  This  James  Walshe  was  attainted  of  high 
treason,  and  Kilmorebranagh  is  enfeoffed  to  John  Lye,  of 

1  Morrin's  '*  Calendar  of  Patent  and  Close  Rolls  of  Chanoery,  Ireland/' 
vol.  ii.,  2l8t  Feb.,  1591,  p.  228. 

'  **  £xcheqaer  Inquisitions,"  No.  2  Elizabeth, 


144 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 


Clonaugh,  gent.^  There  are  many  respected  descendants  of 
this  old  Irish  family  still  living  in  the  same  neighbourhood, 
the  present  representative  being  the  Rev.  Edward  Walshe, 
P.P.,  ClonbuUogue,  King's  Co. 

In  1692,  John  Lye,  an  in- 
terpreter of  the  Irish  tongue, 
was  recommended  from  the 
Lord  Deputy  and  Council  for 
his  good  service.' 

1596.  In  the  list  of  the 
principal  inhabitants  of  the 
English  Pale,  given  by  coun- 
ties, in  this  year,  the  name 
appears  of  John  Alee,  of  Eath- 
bride,  Co.  Kildare.' 

In  1600,  John  Lye  was 
made  a  pensioner.  In  Eussell's 
State  Papers,*  giving  a  list  of 
such  pensioners  as  are  payable 
out  of  His  Highness's  Trea- 
sury coming  out  of  England. 
Amongst  the  names  occurs  that 
of  John  Lye,  entered  by  war- 
rant of  the  Lord  Deputy  (the 
Earl  of  Essex),  dated  the  22nd 
December,  1600,  by  direction 
out  of  England  at  2s.  6rf.  per 
day  ;    and  per  annum,    £50 

After  the  death  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  we  find  John  Lye 
looking  for  a  new  lease  of  his 
lands  immediately  after  James 
I.  came  to  the  throne.*  He 
got  it,  too,  and  additional  lands 
as  well.  In  the  State  Papers 
we  find  a  letter  from  James  I. 
to  the  Lord  Deputy  of  Ireland,  granting  a  lease,  in  reversion 
for  sixty  years,  to  John  Lye  and  his  son,  of  the  castle,  town, 

*  **  Exchequer  Inquisitions,"  No.  29  Elizabeth. 

2  Hamilton's  <<  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ireland,  1588-92,"  p.  456; 
25th  Jan.,  1592. 

»  Brewer's  **  Calendar  of  Carew  M88.,"  p.  191. 

*  Russell's  "  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ireland,  1603-6,"  p.  128. 

*  Ibid.,  p.  184, 


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TOMB  OP  JOHN   LYB, 

In  the  grounds  of  St.  Brigid's  CatbedmL 
Kildare. 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH  1 45 

and  lands  of  Rathbride,  Relockstowne,  Momstownbiller,  Croat- 
enstowne,  and  Little  Morristowne,  in  the  County  Kildare,  and 
the  moiety  of  the  village  of  Kilraorey,  in  the  County  Meath, 
now  in  the  tenure  of  the  said  John  Lye,  dated  19th  July,  1604. 
John  Lye  died  on  the  7th  May,  1612,  and  was  buried  at 
the  Cathedral  of  Kildare,  where  his  tombstone  still  remains, 
and  bears  the  following  inscription  : — 

OBATE  +  PBO  +  ANIHABUS  +  lOHANNIS  +  LY  +  DE  +  BABBm  + 
ABKIOEBO  +  ET  +  AMY  +  FITZGEBALD  +  VXOBIS  +  EIVS  4  C0MMENDAMV8  + 
ANUfAS  +  N08TBA8  +  IN  +  MANVS  +  SALVATOBIS  +  DOMINI  +  N08TBI  + 
lESV  +  CHBISTI  +  NIGOIX  +  HELI  +  DATVM  +  VH  +  DIB  +  MAY  4  1612  + 
lOHANNIS  +  U  +  INBI. 

The  tomb  is  in  good  preservation,  and  the  inscription  is 
very  legible.  It  lies  one  foot  above  the  surface  of  the  grave- 
yard, and  is  incased  in  a  frame  of  granite  slabs,  which  are 
secured  at  the  comers  by  iron  straps  leaded  into  the  granite. 
The  tomb,  which  is  of  limestone,  is  7  ft.  6  in.  long,  and  2  ft. 
7  in.  across  the  head,  but  tapers  to  1  ft.  9  in.  at  the  foot.  The 
only  carvings  on  the  tomb  are  the  inscription,  which  runs  round 
the  margin  in  raised  letters,  and  an  incised  cross  which  occupies 
the  centre,  and  is  5  ft.  4  in.  long,  by  6  in.  wide.     (See  sketch.) 

Extracts  from  John  Lye's  Will. 

{Original  in    the  Record   Office^  Dublin.) 

It  commences : — 

"  In  the  name  of  God,  Amen,  I,  John  Lye  of  Rathbryde,  in  tlie 
Countye  of  Kildare,  Gent.,  being  in  goode  and  perfect  memory  and 
unterstanding,  thanks  be  given  to  Q(A,  do  ordaine  and  make  this  my 
laste  will  and  testament,  in  manner  and  forme  following :  I  comment 
my  soule  into  the  hands  of  my  Lorde  and  Savioar  Jesus  Christe,  and 
my  body  to  be  buried  in  y«  Lady  Chappell  in  the  Church  of  Kildare." 

His  possessions  are  enumerated  as  consisting  of : — 

In  the    King*8  Co, — Killigh,  ffentyor,  and  Downaffiegh. 

„     Co.  JTiVr/rtrtf.— Teknivan,  Bally bracke,  Kilpatrick,  Ballyna- 

killigh,  Kilcaskin,  and  KilmoreBranagh. 
,,     Co.  Meath. — Kilmory. 

These  possessions  he  willed  in  remainder  as  follows  : — 

1.  To  the  nse  and  behoofe  of  my  eldest  son  John  Lye,  and  the  heirs  males 

of  his  bodye  lawfully  begotten ;  and 
for  want  of  such  issue — 

2.  ,,  „  ,,  second  son  Andrew  Lye,  and  the  heirs 

males  of  his  bodye  lawfully  begotten ; 
and  for  want  of  such  issue —  ^ 

3.  ^,  ,,  ,»  wife  Amy  fitz  Geralde  for  and  during  the 

terme  of  her  naturall  Lyffe. 


146  JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUOH. 

4.  And  after  to  the  use  of  the  said  Mabell  Lye  my  daughter,  and  the 

heires  of  her  boddye  lawfully  begotten  ;  and  for  want  of  such  issue — 

5.  To  the  use  of  the  said  Mary  Lye,  my  daughter,  and  the  heires  of  her 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

6.  „        „  „  Margaret  Lye,  my  daughter,  and  the  heires  of 

her  boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for 
want  of  such  issue — 

7.  „        ,,  ,,  Bridget  Lye,  ray  daughter,  and  the  heires  of  her 

boddye  lawfSly  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

8.  „  ,,        „  Amy  Lye,  my  daughter,  and  the  heires  of  her 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

9.  ,,  ,,        ,,  EUinor  Lye.  ray  daughter,  and  the  heires  of  her 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

10.  „  ,,    of  my  reputed  son  Edward  Lye  and  the  heires  males  of  his 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

11.  ,,  ,,    of  my  brother  Arthur  Lye  and  the  heires  males  of  his 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

12.  „  „    of  my  brother  Henry  Lye  and  the  heires  males  of  his 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

13.  ,,  „    of  my  daughter  Eatlierin  Lye  and  the  heires  males  of  her 

boddye  lawfully  begotten ;  and  for  want 
of  such  issue — 

14.  ,,  „   of  my  welbeloved  brother-in-law  Sr.  Edward  fitzGerralde, 

Knight,  and  his  heires  for  ever. 

His  Executors  are — 

His  wife  and  his  unmarried  children. 

The  overseers  to  the  will  are — 

His   welbeloved  brother-in-law,   Sr.   Edward    fitz  Gerralde,    of 

Tecroegan,  in  the  County  of  Meath,  Ent. 
His  welbeloved  sister-in-law  Mabell  fitz  Gerralde  (sister  of  Sir 

Edward's,  and  of  Amy  his  wife). 
His  Goshipp  Christopher  Lynce,  of  Croboy,  in  the  County  of  Meath, 

gent. 
"  My  fPather  "  Owein  Doyne.^ 
His  son-in-law  James  fitz  Gerralde  of  Obsbaldstowne  in  the  County 

of  Eildare.  gent.,  and 
Katherin  Lye  his  wife. 

The  will  ends  thus : — 

"  In  witness  whereof  I,  the  said  John  Lye,  have  hereunto  putt 
my  hande  and  scale,  the  fifth  daye  of  July  in  the  yeare  of  the 
Raigne  of  our  most  gratious  Soveraigne  Lord  King  James  of 
England  fironoe  and  Lreland  the  Eigth,  and  of  Scotland  the 
forteeth  three.  •*  John  Ltk." 

^  His  chaplain  or  his  foster-father. 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH.  1 47 

In  preparing  this  paper,  I  have  to  thankfully  acknowledge 
the  valuable  help  received  from  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  who 
supplied  me  with  copious  and  valuable  notes;  and  also  from 
Mr.  M.  Brophy,  of  Carlow,  who  has  published  all  the  informa- 
tion he  could  glean  about  John  Lye,  including  the  reproduction 
of  Mr.  Hoare^s  paper. 

In  discussing  the  nationality  of  John  Lye,  both  Mr.  Hoare 
and  Mr.  Brophy  incline  to  the  belief  that  he  was  an  Irishman, 
and  dei^cended  from  the  MacLaighids,  or  O'Lees,  who  were 
hereditary  physicians  in  West  Connaught.  Mr.  Brophy  gives 
the  following  evidence  to  corroborate  his  opinion,  and  states 
that,  in  the  possession  of  Sir  Thomas  Echlin,  Bart.,  B..I.G. 
Depot,  Phoenix  Park,  tliere  are  amongst  the  records  of  the 
family  property  of  the  Echlins,  documents  which  show  that 
Sir  Henry  Echlin,  a  remote  ancestor  of  the  present  Sergeant 
Baronet,  purchased  Glonaugh  Castle,  its  appurtenances  and 
lands,  part  of  which  lay  in  Galway,  from  the  trustees  of  the 
forfeited  estates.  And  he  argues  that,  as  the  lands  of  Glonaugh 
were  part  of  a  Galway  estate,  we  may  infer  a  connection 
between  the  Lyes  of  Clonaugh,  and  the  O'Lees,  or  MacLaighids 
of  Galway,  and  that  John  Lye  was  most  probably  descended 
from  the  MacLaighids  of  Galway,  and  of  course  an  Irishman. 
But  I  submit  that  the  connection  between  Clonaugh  and 
Galway  arises  from  another  source.  In  the  inquisition  already 
mentioned,  taken  at  Naas  in  1612,  which  recounts  the  various 
properties  in  land  held  by  John  Lye,  it  states  of  Clonaugh, 
that  these  lauds  came  into  his  hands  from  Thomas  Bir- 
mingham— "  qui  tenentur  de  Tho.  Birmingham."  Now, 
when  it  is  remembered  that  the  Birminghams  of  Kildare 
were  a  branch  of  the  great  Anglo-Norman  family  of  the  De 
Birminghams  of  Galway,  we  see  at  once  that  the  connection 
between  Clonaugh  and  Galway  is  due  to  the  Birminghams, 
and  therefore  can  prove  nothing  as  regards  the  Lees. 

Other  competent  authorities,  having  duly  considered  the 
matter,  incline  to  the  opposite  opinion,  that  the  Lees  were 
English,  or  of  English  descent,  for  the  following  reasons : — 
First,  their  Christian  names  are  English,  and  none  of  them 
Irish ;  second,  the  coat-of-arms  is  the  same  as  that  of  one  or  two 
of  the  English  Leghs ;  third,  in  one  of  his  petitions,  John  Lye 
calls  himself  dn  Englishman  very  perfect  in  the  Irish  tongue. 

In  the  troubled  times  which  followed  the  death  of  John 
Lye,  his  descendants  remained  faithful  followers  of  the 
Stuarts  ;  and  Clonaugh,  with  the  other  Kildare  property, 
continued  in  their  possession  till  the  fall  of  James  II.,  when 
they  lost  everything.     Clonaugh  at  that  time  passed  into  the 

VOL.  U.,  PT.  II.  M 


14^ 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 


hands  of  the  Echlins,  as  we  have  seea ;  and  I  hope  in  a 
future  paper  to  conclude  the  history  of  Clonaugh,  and  of  its 
owners,  both  the  Lees  and  the  Echlins. 


The  following  description  is  contributed  by  Arthur  Vicars, 
Ulster  :— 

This  is  the  atcliievement  of  Sir  Henry  Sidney,  K.G. 


SIR  HENRY  Sidney's  coat  of  arms, 

On  a  stone  from  Clonaugh  Castle,  now  in  the  village  of  Johnstownbridge,  Co.  Kildare. 

(About  20  inches  square.) 

From  a  rubbing  taken  by  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  in  1894. 

The  Arras  on  the  slab  might  be  heraldically  blazoned  as 
follows  : — Quarterly  of  Eight. 

Ist  Or,  a  pheon  azure  (Sidney). 

2nd  Argent,  two  bars  and  in  chief  three  escocheons  sable  (Clumford). 

3rd  Argent,  three  chevronels  gules,  a  label  of  three  points  azure 
(Barrington). 

4th  Argent,  on  a  bend  gules,  three  lozenges  of  the  field  (Mercye). 

5th  Quarterly  or  and  gules,  an  escarbuncle  sable  (Mandeville}. 

6th  Azure,  a  chevron  between  3  mullets  or  (Chetwynd). 

7th  Argent,  three  lions  rampant  gules,  armed  azure  (Bellowse). 

8th  Barry  of  ten  argent  ana  gules,  a  lion  rampant  or,  ducally  crowned 
per  pale  of  the  2nd  and  1st  (Brandon). 


JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 
Tlie  Shield  encircled  with  the  Garter. 


149 


Crest, — On  a  wreath  of  the  Coloars  a  Porcupine  azure,  quills  or,  collared 
and  chained  of  the  last. 

Supporters, — Dexter,  a  Porcupine  azure,  quills  or,  collared  and  chained 
of  the  last. 

Sinister,  a  Lion  rampant  (?). 


A  TRACING  ("in*  TRICK ")  OF  SIR  HENRY  SIDNEY'S  COAT  OF  ARMS, 

From  a  16th-century  MS.  in  Ulster's  Office. 

Sir  Henry's  great-great-great-grandmother  being  a  Clum- 
ford  heiress,  those  aims  are  quartered  by  the  descendants. 

His  great-grandfather,  William  Sidney,  married  Thomasine, 
daughter  and  heir  of  John  Barington,  and  this  marriage  thus 
brings  in  the  Barrington  Arms,  along  with  the  4th,  5th,  6th, 
and  7th  quarterings,  which  tlie  Barringtons  were  entitled  to. 

Sir  Henry's  grandfather,  Nicholas  Sidney,  having  married 
Ann,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Sir  William  Brandon,  Kt.,  the 
Brandon  Coat  thus  comes  into  the  Sidney  atchievement,  and  is 
the  8th  and  last  quartering  on  the  stone  slab. 


ISO  JOHN  LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH. 

The  representation  "in  trick"  of  Sir  Henry  Sidney's  arms  is 
here  given  from  a  MS.  in  Ulster's  OflBoe,  entitled : — 

''This  is  an  Heraldic  Collection  of  the  Arms  of  Sovereigns,  Princes, 
Kingdoms,  and  states  in  Europe  ;  together  with  the  Arms  of  English  Peers, 
Knights  of  the  Garter,  and  the  chief  of  the  old  Historic  English  families ; 
together  with  a  sketch  of  a  Glassory  and  a  List  of  all  Dukes,  Marquises, 
Earls,  Viscounts,  and  Barons  created  from  the  Conquest  down  to  1574, 
collected  hv  William  Jenyns  or  Jennings,  Lancaster  Herald  temp.  Henry 
VIIL»'    [rect§  to  Elizaheth.] 

Tills  sketch  will  show  how  very  wide  of  the  mark  the  Irish 
stone-carvers  were  in  their  endeavours  to  represent  Heraldry. 
Their  inaccuracy  is  quite  extraordinary  at  times,  and  I  would 
warn  all  Antiquaries  not  to  put  too  much  reliance  on  the 
correctness  of  Arms  so  depicted  on  Monuments  in  Ireland.  For 
instance,  the  supporters  here  given  do  not  agree  with  those  as 
represented  in  the  MS,  mentioned  above,  as  the  Porcupine 
should  be  to  the  sinister,  and  also  collared  and  chained,  and  the 
Lion  rampant  should  be  the  dexter  supporter,  and  be  collared 
and  chained  too. 


(     151     ) 


IRISH  PLACE-NAMES  AND  LOCAL  FOLK- 
LORE. 

By  M.  DARBY,  Esq.,  M.D. 

IF  Monasterevan  had  not  a  better  name  of  its  own  it  might 
with  justice  be  called  the  town  of  bridges  as  there  are 
twenty-six  of  them  within  a  quarter  mile  radius.  The  oldest 
and  most  interesting  of  those  is  Ballagh,  or  Pass  Bridge,  very 
narrow,  with  recesses  on  one  side  to  enable  pedestrians  to  evade 
vehicular  traffic.  It  spans  the  river  Barrow  where  the  Earl  of 
Essex  crossed  in  1599,  in  his  march  northwards,  after  escaping 
destruction  by  the  O'Moores  in  the  Pass  of  Plumes.  Tradition 
says  that,  for  the  assistance  rendered  him  by  the  inhabitants 
on  that  occasion,  he  granted  them  a  ^^  right  of  way  "  of  ten 
yards  in  width  along  either  bank  for  a  considerable  distance, 
presumably  for  tlie  purpose  of  fishing.  Here  also  Cromwell's 
army  crossed  before  battering  down  the  fine  old  castle  of  Lioa, 
the  principal  stronghold  of  Silken  Thomas.  Some  of  Crom- 
well's admirers  here  had  the  bridge  photographed*  under  the 
erroneous  impression  that  it  was  built  by  him,  when  there  was 
question  of  its  removal  for  the  Barrow  drainage.  An  old  man 
named  Whelan,  who  lived  close  by,  and  who  died  a  few  years 
ago  aged  98,  was  told  by  his  father  that  he,  the  latter,  often  saw 
as  many  as  thirty  members  of  the  old  Irish  Houses  of  Commons 
and  Lords  stop  at  a  hotel  beside  the  bridge,  all  riding  on  their 
way  to  or  from  a  Parliamentary  Session.  They  travelled  together 
for  obvious  reasons.  The  hotel  was  kept  by  an  ancestor  of  the 
late  Dr.  Dudley  White,  city  coroner.  On  one  side  of  this  bridge 
lies  the  townland  of  Goolnafera  (the  men's  comer;  it  may 
also  mean  the  "grassy  corner")  ornamented  with  the  inevitable 
cock-pit.  Here  the  natives  assembled  for  athletic  exercises, 
&c.  In  the  bog  close  by  were  found  some  years  ago  a  quantity 
of  butter  and  a  long  earthenware  jar,  full  of  fluid,  which  to 
the  disgust  of  the  finders,  was  as  tasteless  as  the  bog-water. 
All  trace  of  the  jar  has  been  lost  as  the  discoverers  have  long 
since  emigrated. 

Passing  up  the  Black  river,  formed  by  the  confluence  of 
the  Slate,  Figile,  and  Cushina,  we  meet  the  fine  old  dun  of 


152  IRISH  PLACE-NAMES 

Goul-na-Graigue,  "  the  fork  of  the  village,"  where,  acccordiug 
to  many  of  the  neighbours,  little  men  are  acoustomed  to  play 
at  hurley,  but  they  will  not  allow  of  close  inspection. 

A  short  distance  up  the  eastern  bank,  we  come  on  the 
Tew-tree  grave-yard.  Here  was  a  branch  of  St.  Evan's 
Monastery,  whose  first  monks  were,  like  himself,  Munster 
men,  and  hence  the  place  was  called  Ologheen  na  Monia,  the 
stony  place  or  little  stone  fort  of  the  Munster  men,  or  Clocain 
na  Monia,  "  the  bell  of  the  Munster  men."  The  latter,  I 
believe,  to  be  the  proper  name,  as  there  exists  no  remnant  of 
a  stone  fort,  nor  is  it  a  stony  place.  Moreover,  there  is  another 
clogheen  further  down  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  Here 
was  kept  St.  Evan's  bell  as  a  swearing  relic  for  the  surround- 
ing tribes — notably  the  O'Dempseys  and  O'Connors.  It  now 
lies  in  a  particular  spot  in  the  adjacent  river  called  the  *'  Bell 
Hole."  The  story  that  the  bell  of  its  own  accord  rolled 
down  to  the  river,  on  a  false  oath  having  been  taken  on  it, 
may  be  passed  over,  as  it  is  not  likely  that  this  was  the  first 
false  oath  taken  on  it  during  several  centuries.  The  more  pro- 
bable tradition  is,  that  in  one  of  the  Danish  incursions  the 
person  in  charge  of  the  bell  threw  it  into  the  river  for  safety, 
and  was  either  killed  or  unable  to  find  it  afterwards.  How- 
ever there  it  lies  in  ten  centuries  of  mud  awaiting  its  resurrec- 
tion (apparently  as  far  off  as  the  general  one)  at  the  hands  of 
the  BaiTOW  Drainage.  The  bog  adjoining  is  known  as  Derry- 
managh,  "  the  oak  wood  of  the  monks."  It  was  here  that  a 
young  man  named  Connor  found  about  two  years  ago  a  large 
cylinder  of  butter  about  ten  feet  below  the  surface,  placed 
there  for  security  or  to  preserve  it  from  rancidity.  It  was 
covered  with  leaves  and  the  remains  of  a  firkin,  and  is  now  at 
Braganza  House,  Carlow.  It  would  not  be  possible  to  tell, 
with  any  degree  of  certainty,  when  it  was  placed  there,  as  it 
would  sink  by  its  own  weight,  and  this  bog  is  subject  to  frequent 
moyements  owing  to  the  swelling  of  the  soomaiies  or  under- 
ground waters. 

This  locality  was  the  nursery  and  hotbed  of  the  Whitefeet. 

On  the  opposite  or  Queen's  county  side  of  the  river  is 
Inchacooly,  "  the  river  meadow  in  the  angle  or  corner."  Here 
one  summer's  day,  nearly  seventy  years  ago,  a  local  farmer,  F., 
was  engaged  in  mowing,  and  was  in  the  act  of  eating  his 
dinner  just  brought  him  by  his  wife,  when  a  man  from  a 
neighbouring  village  presented  a  pistol  at  him.  His  wife  tried 
to  dodge  between  them,  but  the  would-be  assassin  succeeded 
in  putting  a  bullet  through  F.'s  chest.  He  was  brought  into 
Monasterevan  in  a  boat ;  recovered,  and  died  only  last  year  at 


AND  LOCAL  FOLK-LORE.  1 53 

the  age  of  92.  He  was  more  fortunate  than  his  neighbour, 
Eilmurrj,  who  had  his  tongue  cut  out  to  prevent  further 
blabbing,  and  died  from  the  injury.  His  supposed  mutilator, 
Farrelly  after  many  hair-breadth  escapes,  got  away  to  Dublin, 
as  part  of  a  load  of  bog  deal,  and  n>om  thence  to  America. 
Some  of  their  savagery,  however,  was  tinged  with  a  little  fun 
as  follows : — A  servant  man,  near  Bathangan,  ran  away  with, 
and  married,  the  daughter  of  a  ''  strong  "  farmer  who  refused 
his  son-in-law  any  fortune.  The  latter  applied  to  the  "  boys  " 
for  redress.  Accordingly,  they  visited  the  farmer  one  night, 
and,  after  two  sittings  on  a  hot  griddle,  succeeded  in  extorting 
the  fortune  from  him.  They  must  have  pocketed  some  of 
the  booty,  as,  on  their  way  home,  they  put  up  at  a  cabin  in 
Ummeras  Bog,  owned  by  a  man,  named  Peyton,  sent  into 
Monasterevan  for  a  barrel  of  whiskey,  got  very  drunk  and 
set  fire  to  the  hut.  The  least  intoxicated  of  the  party  dragged 
out  the  others,  but  forgot  the  whiskey,  ammunition,  and  loaded 
firearms,  when,  to  use  the  words  of  an  eye-witness,  a  review 
ou  a  small  scale  took  place  in  the  bog.  One  of  the  head- 
centres  of  this  society  still  lives  in  good  health,  but  blind. 

Around  this  locality,  on  the  borders  of  .the  Eang's  County, 
there  liyed  about  this  time  several  families,  named  M^Qrogh- 
than,  anglice  Grnttan,  who  were  men  of  almost  superhuman 
strength.  One  of  them,  with  a  comrade  named  Connor,  stole 
a  vicious  bull  from  a  neighbouring  farmer  in  the  King's 
County  named  M*Evoy,  for  the  purpose  of  fip^hting  him 
against  an  equally  pugnacious  one  in  Kildare.  When  they 
got  him  as  far  as  the  bridge  over  the  Slate,  they  found  to 
their  dismay  that  it  had  been  carried  away  by  the  flood. 
Unwilling  to  be  deprived  of  their  sport  they  took  the  bull,  not 
by  the  horns,  but  on  their  shoulders,  carried  him  through  the 
flood  oyer  a  plank  across  the  broken  bridge,  only  to  be  killed 
on  the  other  side  by  his  Kildare  antagonist.  The  racial 
characteristic  appears  to  have  taken  a  mental  tendency  in  the 
celebrated  Henry  of  that  ilk. 

A  little  farther  on  in  the  King's  County,  just  oflP  the  road 
leading  from  Brackna  to  llathangan,  are  the  ruins  of  an  old 
chapel  called  Ballinoulart,  "  the  town  of  the  orchard."  This, 
like  many  others  of  its  time,  was  thatched.  About  one  hundred 
and  sixty  years  ago  two  brothers,  named  Cordugan  lived  in 
the  neighbourhood,  one  a  Protestant,  the  other  a  Catholic.  The 
former,  according  to  the  law  and  custom  of  the  time,  seized  on 
the  property  belonging  equally  to  both.  Still  not  feeling 
secure  as  long  as  the  brother  lived,  he  procured  a  company  of 
soldiers,  went  to  the  chapel  on   Sunday  during  Mass  time, 


154         IRISH  PLACE-NAMES  AND  LOCAL  FOLK-LORE. 

demanded  his  brother  from  the  congregation,  and  was  refused. 
He  then  had  the  doors  fastened  on  the  outside,  set  fire  to  the 
thatoh,  and  burned  all  the  worshippers,  except  one,  Shawn 
Kelly,  who,  escaped  somehow,  and  ran  for  his  life.  The  first  stop 
he  made  to  look  back  was  at  a  cross  roads  in  the  Bathangau 
direction,  which  is  called,  in  consequence,  Ballyshawn,  ^*  the 
town  of  Jack,"  to  this  day.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  is 
a  farm-house,  called  Ballinrahau,  ^Ulie  town  of  the  ferns." 
Here  lived  a  substantial  farmer,  in  the  early  years  of  the 
present  century,  named  Morrin.  Having  sold  one  market  day 
in  Edeuderry  (''  the  hill  brow  of  the  oak  wood  ")  some  of  the 
produce  of  the  farm,  he  was  informed  by  the  innkeeper  where 
he  put  up  that  he  was  being  watched  by  a  highwayman. 
Availing  himself  of  the  tip,  he  mounted  his  horse  and  galloped 
home,  closely  followed  by  the  robber  also  well  mounted.  Com- 
ing opposite  his  house  he  jumped  off,  ran  to  it  by  a  short  cut, 
and  let  the  horse  find  his  way  home  by  the  usual  route,  the 
noise  of  whose  hoofs  guided  his  pursuer.  By  the  time  the 
robber  aiiived,  Morrin  had  the  lower  part  of  the  house 
barricaded,  so  the  former  got  a  ladder,  put  it  up  to  a  window 
in  the  gable,  and  was  about  to  effect  an  entrance  when  the 
latter  shot  him  dead,  buried  him  in  the  garden,  and  took 
possession  of  his  horse.  I  am  quite  aware  that  the  above 
stories  are  very  commonplace,  and,  to  many,  uninteresting, 
but  they  faithfully  reflect  the  dark  side  of  the  habits  and 
customs  of  the  times  of  which  they  treat.  The  evil  men  do 
lives  after  them — the  good  is  often  buried  with  their  bones: 
a  strange  commentary  on  that  oft-repeated  precept,  ^^  Nihil  de 
mortuis  nisi  bouumJ^ 


(     155     ) 


The  HillB,  Eire  and  Alba. — In  reference  to  the  identification  of 
two  liills,  Eire  and  Alha,  somewhere  in  the  Co.  Eildure  (mentioDed 
on  p.  343,  vol.  i.,  of  the  Journal),  Dr.  P.  W.  Joyce  contribntes  the 
following  additional  piece  of  information  relating  to  this  subject.  He 
writes : — •*  The  account  of  Laegbaire's  death  given  in  the  *  Book  of 
Leinster '  is  this : — '  At  the  end  of  two  and  a  half  years  [after  he  had 
been  taken  prisoner  and  released  by  the  Leinstermen]  he  came  [in 
violation  of  his  oath]  and  took  a  prey  of  kine  at  Sfd  Nccbtain, 
Whereupon  tbe  elements  [by  which  lie  had  sworn]  dealt  out  death  to 
Laeghaire  by  the  side  of  Cass,  that  is,  the  earth  swallowed  him,  the 
sun  scorched  him,  and  the  wind  {i.e.  his  breath)  forsook  him'  {vide 
'Book  of  Leinster,'  p.  299,  at  the  bottom  of  the  second  column). 
This  shows  that  Laeghaire  was  killed  near  the  hill  of  Carbury,  of 
which  the  old  name  was  Sid  Nechtain — Nechtain's  Shee,  or  fairy 
hill.  I  now  think  that  *  Cass '  (which  means  crooked,  or  winding) 
was  the  name  of  a  riyer." 


Lord  Edward  Titz  Gerald's  Bag-pipe8.^The  following  extract 
from  the  Register,  vol.  i.,  of  the  Museum  of  the  Koyal  Irish  Academy 
is  contributed  by  Mr.  J.  Casimir  O'Meagher : — **  These  Bag-pipes, 
consisting  of  a  leather  bag  with  bellows  attached,  three  ivory  Drones 
mounted  in  silver,  a  Trumpet  of  the  same  metal,  a  '  Begulator '  with 
fire  silver  keys,  and  a  box-wood  brass  bound  Chanter  with  ivory 
circlets  (said  by  the  Vendor  to  have  been  portion  of  the  instrument). 
On  the  ivory  band  portion  of  the  stock  is  engraved — Egait,  and  on 
the  silver  band  is  the  following  Coat-of-Arms^  :— 

**  Quarterly,  Ist  and  4th,  Gules,  a  tower  argent  between  two 
men  in  armour,  each  holding  a  halbert,  proper. 
2nd  and  3rd.     Or,  on  a  bend  azure,  three  plates. 

Crest — ^A  tower  surmounted  by  a  demi  man  in  armour 
grasping  in  the  dexter  hand  a  halbert,  proper. 

Motto — Fortitude  et  Pradentia. 

The  inscription,  '  Lord  Edward  Eitz  Gerald,  1768,'  is  also  engraved 
on  the  silver  band. 

"  The  Bellows  are  of  mahogany  with  marquetery  border,  and  a 
shell  ornament  in  an  oyal  green  ground.  On  the  upper  side  in  the 
latter  there  are  two  iyory  perforations. 

'*  Purchased  from  George  Tuke,  of  5,  Merrion-place,  for  £6,  on 
tbe  27th  March,  1876,  who  stated  that  these  Pipes  were  given  to  his 

1  This  Coat-of-Arms  has  not  been  identified. 

TOL.  n.,  PT.  IX.  N 


156  MISCELLANEA. 

mother  by  a  member  of  the  Duke  of  Leinster's  family  in  which  she 
lived  for  many  years  as  a  domestic.  Tuke,  foimerly  a  hackney-car 
driver,  is  now  in  his  80th  year.  His  mother  died  at  an  advanced 
age  ;  and  he  asserts  that  since  her  death  this  instrument  has  always 
been  in  his  possession. 

'' Manufactured  by  Egan  of  Dublin,  a  well-known  maker  of  Bag- 
pipes, father  of  the  late  eminent  Harp-maker  of  Dawson-strcet  in  the 
same  City." 


The  ChTUcliyard  of  Donoughmore  lies  close  to  the  railway  between 
Leixlip  and  Maynooth,  and  opposite  to  the  demesne  of  Carton.  It  is 
locally  called  the  *'  Grange  William  "  churchyard,  after  the  farm  it 
stands  on.  Father  Shearman,  in  his  '^Loca  Patriciana,"  says  that  this 
Donoughmore  (t.^.  Domhnach-more,  the  great  church)  was  a  founda- 
tion of  St.  Patrick's,  with  which,  in  subsequent  times,  an  Ossorian 
saint.  Bishop  Ere,  was  connected,  and  that  its  full  ancient  name  was 
'^  Domhnach  mor  Magh  Luadhat."  The  present  remains  of  the 
church,  which  consisted  of  nave  and  chancel,  are  of  a  mnch  later 
period,  dating  probably  from  the  fourteenth  century.  The  rude 
chancel  arch  is  still  standing,  and  in  the  west  gable  end  (which  is 
topped  by  tbe  remains  of  a  little  double  belfry)  is  a  narrow  spike- 
hole  window  with  an  internal  splay ;  it  is  square- headed,  and  has 
no  cut  stone-work  about  it,  though  in  the  graveyard  are  portions  of 
cut  limestone  jambs  belonging  to  the  doorway. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  ruins  is  a  flat  slab  on  which  is  inscribed — 

Here  lies  old  Joe 
an  honest  Man, 
Say  more  of  Mortal 
if  you  can. 

Some  years  ago  the  fourth  Duke  of  Leinster  had  added  to  the 
inscription — 

Joseph  Foster 
died  1781 

and,  at  tbe  same  time,  had  the  slab,  which  was  in  several  pieces, 
cemented  together.  At  Carton  there  is  a  crayon  (28  inches  by  20), 
by  Hamilton,  of  this  Joe  Foster,  who  was  an  employ^  there.  He 
is  represented  as  an  old  man  dressed  in  a  big  skirted  blue  coat,  long 
red  waistcoat,  white  cravat,  conluroy  knee-breeches,  blue  stockings, 
and  big  buckled  brogues ;  a  stick  is  in  his  hand,  and  he  is  looking 
up  at  an  old  clock  standing  on  the  floor. — W.  Fitz  G. 


The  attention  of  our  readers  is  called  to  "  the  Treasure  Trove  " 
notice  on  last  page  of  cover  of  this  number  of  the  Journal.  By  making 
known  throughout  their  districts  the  information  contained  therein 
they  may  be  the  means  of  saving  the  valuable  contents  of  a  crock 
from  the  melting-pot. 


(     '57     ) 


0OU^ 

There  is  one  addition  to  be  made  to  the  List  of  Stone  Efllgies  in 
the  County  (continued  from  page  343  of  voL  i.) : — In  a  recess  in  the 
south  wall  of  the  Abbey  at  Clane  lies  a  portion  of  a  knight's  effigy. 
All  that  remains  of  it  is  from  the  waist  to  the  knees,  which  are 
crossed  one  oyer  the  other.  This  is  the  only  instance  remaining  in 
the  county  of  a  cross-legged  effigy.  If  a  guess  might  be  made  as  to 
who  it  represents,  I  would  say  it  was  Gerald  fitz  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald, 
4th  Baron  of  Offaly,  who  founded  this  Abbey  in  the  year  1271 
(Lodge).— W.FiTzG. 


CrannogB  in  Co.  Kildare. — In  1616  a  grant  was  made  from  King 
James  I.  to  Walter  Dongan  of  yaiiotis  lands.  Among  these  is  men- 
tioned land  in  Sherlockstown,  '*  with  common  of  pasture  in  Mone- 
cronock/'  held  by  payment  of  a  red  rose  yearly.  This  Monecronock 
is  marked  on  the  Oi'dnance  Map  as  Sherlockstown  Common.  And 
before  tlie  riyer  MorroU  was  taken  to  supply  the  Grand  Canal,  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  low -lying  land  there  must  have  been  a 
marsh  during  great  part  of  the  year.  The  formation  of  the  canal  and 
subsequent  drainage  have  of  course  altered  the  character  of  the 
ground ;  but  the  old  name  Monecronock  seems  equivalent  to  Mona- 
cronoge,  or  the  Bog  of  the  Crannog. — W.  Sherlock. 


Pagan  Sepulchral  Monnments,  Xoates.— The  undermentioned 
sepulchral  moats  are  an  addition  to  the  list  given  in  vol.  i.  p.  405  of 
the  Journal : — 

At  Naas,  the  "North  Moat,"  so  called  to  distinguish  it  from  the 

South  Moat  not  now  existing. 
At  Old  Connellf  close  to  the  churchyard. 
At  Birtown,  also  near  a  churchyard ;  it  is  now  greatly  reduced  in 

size.     A  tradition  exists  that  three  kings  were  buried  here, 

and  that  three  **  Skeochs"  were  planted  in  commemoration. 

Only  one  ancient  white-thorn  bush  now  survives. 
At  Ktlkea  Lower  townland,  close  to  the  river  Greese,  in  a  field 

called  "  Ballvlynan,"  and  not  far  from  the  site  of  a  chapel  called 

"  Kilcro,"  of  which  no  trace  is  now  left. 
At  Firmount^  near  Clane. 
At  Hbrtland,  near  Kilcock.  W.  FnzG. 


(    158     ) 


Two  ancient  Btructnres  in  the  southern  end  of  the  county  have 
Buffered  severely  from  the  "weather  during  the  last  two  winters. 
During  the  hard  Fehruary  of  1895  a  large  poiiion  of  the  church  ruins 
of  Killelan,  near  Moone,  fell  to  the  ground;  and  during  the  wet 
season  at  the  commencement  of  this  year  tlie  eastern  comer  of  Inch 
Castle,  near  Athy,  collapsed,  destroying  the  original  entrance,  with 
its  internal  **  murder-hole,"  a  large  poition  of  the  staircase  huilt  in 
the  thickness  of  the  wall,  hesidcs  the  chomhers  overhead. 


Sunday's  Well. — In  the  county  Kildare  there  are  anyhow  three 
wells,  if  not  more,  known  as  **  Sunday's  Well " ;  one  of  Ihcm  is  near  the 
village  of  Clane,  another  near  Naos,  and  the  third  is  in  the  townland 
of  Eichordstown,  and  parish  of  Kildangan.  The  last  one  mentioned  is 
the  only  one  which  hears  the  Irish  form  of  the  name,  viz.  Toherreen- 
downey"  which  is  a  contraction  for  "Toher-righ-an-domhnaigh," 
meaning  the  Well  of  the  King  of  Sunday  (t.«.  Ood).^  Can  any  of  our 
readers  inform  me  on  what  day  the  Patterns  weio  formerly  held  at 
these  wells  ?  Just  over  the  mearin  of  the  countj  Kildare,  and  in  the 
county  Carlow,  is  a  Sunday's  Well  at  a  place  called  Einneagh,  which 
lies  ahoutfour  miles  to  the  south-east  of  Castledermot;  according  to  the 
Ordnance  Survey  letters  the  Pattern  was  held  here  on  Whit  Sunday. 


Piper's  Stones. — On  the  summit  of  Brewel  hill,  1^  miles  to  the 
north  of  Colhinstown  station,  and  in  this  county,  encircled  hy  a  wide 
douhle  entrenchment  (now  much  levelled,  and  not  marked  on  the  six 
inch  Ordnance  Survey  map)  is  a  group  of  four  large  houlders,  of  which 
two  are  granite,  another  of  white  quartz,  and  the  fourth  of  red 
**  pudding-stone  "  ;  they  are  known  as  the  "  Piper's  Stones/'  though 
the  people  in  the  locality  do  not  know  why ;  I  would  he  glad  to  know 
if  any  one  can  explain  the  name,  and  relate  the  legend  which  must  he 
attached  to  them,  as  other  places  in  Ireland  have  also  groups  of  stones 
hearing  the  same  name;  one,  for  instance,  near  Bally  more-Eustace,  also 
in  the  county  Kildare. 

"  The  Bace  of  the  Blaek  Fig  "  on  the  Curragh.— An  ancient  road 
of  this  name  crosses  the  western  end  of  the  Currogh ;  roughly  speaking 
it  lies  hetween  the  racecourse  and  Kildare,  ond  is  so  shown  on  the  six 
inch  Ordnance  Survey  map.   What  is  the  origin  of  the  name  ? — W.  FitzQ. 

^  Vide  p.  452,  Second  Series,  of  Dr.  Joyce's  **  Irish  Names  of  Places 
Explained." 


SESSION  1897. 


YOLTTHE  II.,  Ho.  3. 


^      JOURNAL 


.-^ 


OF  THE 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAOLOaiCAL  SOCIETY. 


CONTENTS. 


Papers »—  PACK 

St.  Laurence  OToole.    By  the  late  Rbv. 

Dbmis  Murphy,  S.J.,  ....  169 
Castle    Rheban.      By    Lord    Waltsr 

FitzObrald.  With  niustratiqns,  .  167 
Early  Landowners  in  Kill,  Co.  Kildare. 

By  the  Rbv.  Canon  Shbrlock.    With 

am  IIlttStrattoB .179 

The  Moat  of  Ardscnll.    By" Omurbthi." 

With  lUnstrations, 186 

Celbridge :  Some  Notes  on  its  Past  His- 

tory.     By  Rbv.  Crarlbs  I.  Graham, 

B.Di,  Incombent  of  Celbridge,        .       .    196 


On  the  Lost  Ogham  "  Deccedda  "  Stone, 
once  at  Killeien  Connac,  near  Colbins- 
town,  Co.  Kildare, 806 


SUaceUanea-^^w/iMMA/ .— 

Co.   Kildare   "Trade  Tokens,"    Seven- 
teenth Century.    With  Illustrations,     . 

NotaB:— 


808 


814 


Cawlcannoq, 

The  building  of  two  Bridges  in  the  Co, 

Kildare,  in  the  Fourteenth  Century,      .  814 
Calverstown,  Co.  Kildare,         .               .814 

The  Tipper  Cross,       .....  814 

"The  Leap  of  Allen,"        ....  816 

The  Franciscan  Abbey,  Castledermot.     .  816 
List  of  Pictures  and  Engravings  of  the 

Salmon  Leap  and  Castle  at  Leizlip,      .  816 

Kildare  Cathedral, 817 

Map  of  Ireland, 818 

Church  Plate, 818 


♦♦«♦«»♦♦••♦♦« 


PONSONBY,    116,    GRAFTON    STREET. 
1807. 


Price,  Two  ShilUnss  and  Sixpence. 


THE  COONGIL  OF  THE  CODNTT  DLDiRE  iRGH£0L06I€AL  SOCIETY. 


THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 


l?tee-:?rB8id6ttt: 


Thomas  Cooke  Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a. 
The  Rev.  Edward  O'Leary,  p.p. 
Thomas  J.  De  Burgh,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Mathew  Devitt,  s.j. 

]^Dtt.  Treasurer : 
Hans  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Esq.,   Kerdiffstown,  Naas. 

'Sjiim.  Secretaries: 
Lord  Walter  Fitz Gerald,  m.r.i.a.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney . 

Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.a.,  Ulster,  44,  Wellington-road, 
Dublin. 

^txxi.  Editor : 


JOURNAL 


OF  THE 


AND 

jSttrr0iiM]triM0    Districts* 

ST.    LAC/HENCE     O'TOOLE. 

By  thb  latj?  rev.  DENIS  MURPHY,  8  J. 

[Read  at  Naas,  Febraarj  5,  1896.] 

UGAiNE  MoR,  27th  in  descent  from  Milesius,  and  Ardrigh 
(head  king)  of  Ireland  for  40  years,  the  common  ances- 
tor of  the  Leinster  tribes,  died  570  years  b.c,  and  was 
buried  in  the  royal  relig  or  cemetery  of  Cruachan,  in  the  present 
Oo.  fiosoommon.  He  had  a  numerous  issue,  twenty-two  sons 
and  three  daughters.  An  old  Irish  poem  tells  us  that  he  divided 
his  kingdom  into  equal  parts  between  his  five-and-twenty 
children.  He  survived  all  his  sons  but  two— Laoghaire  Lore 
and  Cobhtach  Galmbreagh,  who,  in  turn,  succeeded  him,  dwell- 
ing at  Dinrigh,  near  old  Leighlin,  on  the  Barrow.  This  rath 
is  still  in  existence. 

To  his  grandson,  Labrah  Lonseagh  (t.<?.  Lavra  the  mariner), 
we  owe  the  name  of  Leinster — Laighen — which  was  substituted 
for  the  earlier  name  of  Gailean,  he  having  introduced  the 
long,  green  spear,  called  ''  laighen,"  from  foreign  countries. 

About  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era  lived  TuathalTeach- 
mar,  twenty-sixth  in  descent  from  Ugaine.  He  was  monarch 
of  Ireland  a.d.  76  to  a.d.  106.  He  it  was  that  made  Tara  the 
fixed  residence  of  '^  the  Ardrigh,"  which  it  continued  to  be  for 
six  centuries.  He  it  was,  too,  that  first  laid  the  tribute  called 
the  Borua,  or  cow  tax,  on  Leinster,  which  was  exacted  for  five 
centuries,  giving  rise  to  many  contentions,  until  it  was  remitted 
VOL.  n.,  PT.  ni.  0 


l6o  ST.  LAURENCE  0*TOOLE. 

to  the  Leinster  men  by  Finnaohta  Fleadach,  at  the  request  of 
St.  Moling,  of  Hy  Einseallagh/  a.d.  693.  It  was  reimposed 
by  Xing  Brian  Boru,  i.e.  of  the  cow  tax,  on  the  people  of 
Leinster,  to  punish  them  for  calling  to  their  aid  the  Danes 
ngainst  him. 

Fifth  in  descent  from  Tuathal  was  Cathaoir  Mor,  from 
whom  descended  nearly  all  the  kings  of  Leinster  till  the  Anglo- 
Norman  invasion.  We  have  still  remaining  his  will.  It  can 
be  found  in  the  old  Irish  manuscript  called  the  Book  of  Lecan, 
and  a  copy  of  it  will  be  found  in  the  Book  of  Eights  edited  by 
O'Donovan.  In  that  will,  we  find  that  he  left  to  Fiacha,  the 
youngest  of  his  ten  sons,  the  country  about  Wexford. 

This  Fiacha,  Keating  tells  us,  though  the  youngest,  is 
placed  in  many  books  of  genealogy  before  his  brothers,  perhaps 
for  this  reason — that  the  province  of  Leinster  was  governed  by 
more  kings  of  his  posterity  than  of  any  of  the  other  brothers^ 
From  him  are  descended  the  princely  families  of  M'Morrough. 
Cavanagh,  O'Toole,  O'Byme,  and  others. 

lUann,  the  first  Christian  king  of  North  Leinster,  who  was 
baptized  by  St.  Patrick,  was  seventh  in  direct  descent  from 
Fiacha.  His  brother  Oillioll,  who  succeeded  him,  was  baptized 
in  Naas  by  St.  Patrick. 

Fourth  in  descent  from  Oillioll  was  Colman,  who  gave 
Glendalough  to  St.  Kevin  to  found  a  monastery  there. 

Murchadh  Mor,  fourth  in  descent  from  Colman,  divided  his 
kingdom  between  his  three  sons — (1)  Mureadagh,  to  whom  he 
gave  the  territory  in  later  times  known  as  Hy-Muireadhaigh,. 
the  southern  half  of  the  county  Kildare,  and  ImaaP  (in  the 
present  county  of  Wicklow) ;  to  his  second  son  (2)  Dunchadh. 
be  gave  all  the  territory  east  of  the  Liffey,  i.e.  a  great  part  of 
the  present  county  Dublin  ;  and  to  his  third  son  (3)  Faelan  he 
gave  the  territory  in  later  times  known  as  Hy  Faelan,  includ- 
ing the  northern  end  of  the  county  Kildare.  His  descendants 
in  later  times  called  themselves  TJi  Bruin,  or  O'Brins,  and 
lastly  O'Bymes,  from  Faelan's  grandfather  Bran,  king  of 
Leinster,  who  died  about  the  year  687. 

The  seventh  in  descent  from  Murchadh  Mor  was  Tuathal ;. 
his  father  Ugaire  was  slain  at  the  battle  of  Gonfey,  near 
Leixlip,  in  915,  fought  against  the  Danes  under  the  leadership 
of  their  chief,  Sitric,  grandson  of  Imar.     Frequent  mention  is 


1  This  district  iooluded  the  \vhole  of  the  County  Wexford ^  the  barony 
of  Shillelagh,  in  the  County  Wicklow,  and  the  northern  extremity  of  the 
County  Carlow. 
'  Corresponding,  in  extent  of  territory,  with  the  diocese  of  Olendalough^ 


.ST.  LAURENCE  O'TOOI-E.  i6i 

made  of  this  Tuathal  in  our  Annals.  He  is  said  to  have  made 
war  on  the  Hy  Ceansallagh,  on  the  O'Mores  of  Leix,  and  on 
O'Conor  Faly ;  but  whether  these  wars  were  offensive  or 
defensive,  history  saith  not.  From  him  his  descendants  took 
the  name  of  Ui  Tuatlial,  or  O'Toolo. 

At  the  battle  of  Clontarf  we  find  Boetan,  sou  of  Dunlang, 
king  of  Western  Liffe,  and  Dunlang,  son  of  Tuathal,  holding 
commands  under  Maelmordha,  king  of  Leinster,  aiding  the 
Danes.  The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters  say  (anno  lOlcJ) : — 
"MacTuathal  {i.e.  Dunlang),  son  of  Ugaire,  royal  heir  of 
Leinster,  and  a  countless  host  of  Leinstermen  were  slain  with 
him." 

It  was  in  the  time  of  Brian  Boru  that  surnames  came  into 
u^e  in  Ireland,  as  we  learn  from  Seating.  '^  It  was  Brian," 
he  says,  "that  appointed  surnames  of  distinction  to  all  the 
several  branches  of  the  Milesian  race,  and  to  the  other  principal 
families  of  Ireland,  in  order  to  avoid  confusion,  and  that  the 
genealogies  might  be  preserved  with  more  regularity." 

The  first  who  bore  the  name  was  Dunouan,  who  was  made 
king  of  Leinster  by  King  Malachy  II.  He  was  slain  by 
Mac  Oilla  Patrick,  at  Leighlin,  in  1015.  The  tribes  of  the 
O'TooIes  and  the  Mac  Gilla  Patricks  seem  to  have  been  inces- 
santly at  war  with  each  other  at  this  time.  Under  date  1141 
we  read  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters : — "  Dermot 
McMorrough  practised  great  tyranny  and  cruelty  upon  the 
I-einster  nobility.  He  killed  Donnell,  lord  of  Hy  Faelan,  and 
Morrough  O'Toole,  with  others."  ThisMorrough  had  a  brother 
Muircheartach,  who  was  elected  king  of  Hy  Muiroadhaigli  in 
1138  ;  he  died  in  1164,  and  is  thus  noted  in  the  Annals  of  the 
Four  Masters : — "  Muircheartach  Ua  Tuathail,  lord  of  Ui- 
Muireadhaigh,and  chief  of  Leinster  in  hospitality  and  prowess, 
died  after  penance."  He  lived  at  Garbh  Tameach/  near 
Castledermot,  and  at  Brittas  in  Imaile. 

This  Muircheartach  (or  Murtagh)  was  the  father  of  St. 
Laurence.  The  saint's  mother  was  the  daughter  of  Bran 
O'Byme  of  Hy  Faelan. 

Our  saint  was  born  in  1127,  very  probably  at  Garbh  Tam- 
each.  He  was  the  youngest  of  eight  children,  seven  sons  and 
one  daughter.  This  daughter,  named  Mor,  married  Dermpt 
McMurrough,  king  of  Leinster.  He  was  baptized  in  the 
church  of  St.  Bridget,  at  Eildare,  no  doubt,  through  special 
reverence  for  that  great  saint.  When  he  was  ten  years  old  he 
was  given  as  a  hostage  to  Dermot,  who,  having  wrested  Hy 

A  place  anidentified. 
02 


1 62  ST.  LAURENCE  0*TOOLE. 

Muireadhaigh,  would  not  be  satisfied  unless  he  received  hostages 
to  prevent  any  sort  of  retaliation  on  the  part  of  those  whom  he 
had  injured. 

For  two  years  the  youngboy  dwelt  at  Brittas,  treated  with 
great  cruelty  by  Dermot.  He  was  only  restored  to  his  father 
at  the  end  of  that  time,  who,  learning  the  miserable  condition 
of  his  son,  seized  on  twelve  of  Dermot's  kinsmen  and  threatened 
to  put  them  to  death  unless  his  son  was  returned  to  him  un- 
harmed. He  was  then  sent  to  the  bishop  of  Glendalough,  to 
be  instructed.  There,  after  a  time,  he  took  the  religious  habit, 
and  became  a  monk. 

In  1157,  in  his  thirtieth  year,  on  the  death  of  the  Abbot 
Gilla-da-Naomh,  Laurence  was  chosen  to  take  his  place.  On 
the  death  of  Gregory,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  four  years  later, 
Laurence,  whose  holiness  and  prudence  had  alreculy  become 
well  knpwn,  was  chosen  unanimously  to  succeed  him.  He  was 
consecrated  in  Christ  Church  in  1162,  by  Q-illa  MacDe,  better 
known  as  GJ-elasius  the  Primate,  and  the  following  year  he 
introduced  into  the  Church  the  Canons  of  St.  Victor,  called 
Aroasians,  from  Aroase.  He  became  a  member  of  their  com- 
munity, observing  most  strictly  all  tliat  the  rule  prescribed. 

Of  his  many  virtues  the  most  remarkable  was  his  love  of 
the  poor,  thirty  of  whom  he  used  to  supply  with  food  at  his  own 
table  every  day,  while  he  had  sometimes  as  many  as  three 
hundred  orphans  and  w^£s  to  provide  for. 

Soon  after  the  arrival  of  the  Anglo-Normans,  Dermot 
McMurrough,  aided  by  them,  laid  siege  to  Dublin.  The  people 
of  this  city  had  slain  his  father  and  treated  his  dead  body  with 
ignominy,  burying  a  dog  in  the  same  grave  with  him.  Know- 
ing the  cruel  disposition  of  Dermot,  they  took  counsel  together 
as  to  the  means  to  avert  the  storm  that  was  impending.  It 
was  unanimously  agreed  to  send  their  Archbishop  to  treat  with 
Dermot,  and  ask  him  to  spare  the  helpless  citizens,  who  offered 
to  make  all  amends  in  their  power  for  the  past.  But  while 
he  was  interceding  for  the  people,  Milo  de  Cogan  and  Raymond 
le  Gtos,  who  were  posted  at  the  other  side  of  the  town,  made  a 
breach  in  the  walls,  and  forcibly  entered  the  city.  They  put 
to  the  sword  whomsoever  they  met. 

Taught  by  such  sad  experience,  Laurence  went  round  to 
the  Irish  kings  and  chiefs  to  exhort  them  to  unite  against  the 
common  enemy.  The  result  was  that  an  army  60,000  strong 
assembled  under  the  walls  of  Dublin.  However,  their  want  of 
discipline  and  their  jealousies  allowed  the  enemy,  though  few 
in  numbers,  to  make  their  escape  and  join  their  friends  4n 
Wexford,  and  later  to  overrun  a  great  part  of  the  country. 


gX.  LAURENCE  O'XQOLE.  l6J 

In  .1175  St.  Laurence  went  with  Cathal,  Archbishop  of 
Armagh,  and  the  Abbot  of  St.  Brendan,  as  ambassadors  of 
Roderio  O'Connor,  to  make  a  treaty  between  him  and 
Henry  II.  This  treaty  is  known  in  history  as  the  Treaty  of 
Windsor. 

In  1179,  with  five  other  Irish  bishops,  Laurence  assisted  at 
the  Council  of  Laterain,  held  at  Bome.  Pope  Alexander  III. 
tr^^ated  him  with  special  favour,  confirming  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  the  Archiepiscopal  See  of  Dublin,  and  appointing 
him  Legate  of  the  Holy  See  for  Ireland. 

The  sons  of  lioderio  O'Connor  having  rebelled  against  him, 
ftnd-  having  been  aided  in  their  rebellion  by  the  troops  of  the 
Lord  Deputy,  Laurence  was  deputed  by  O'Connor  to  go  to 
and  ask  King  Henry  to  enforce  the  treaty  made  five  years 
before. 

On  his  arrival  he  found  the  king  deaf  to  his  appeals  for 
peace.  Duiiug  his  stay  in  England  he  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
the  tomb  of  St.  Thomas  d  Becket.  As  he  was  standing  at  the 
foot  of  the  altar,  before  beginning  Mass,  he  was  felled  to  the 
ground  by  a  violent  blow  on  the  head,  struck  by  a  maniac. 
After  a  while  he  became  conscious,  and  was  able  to  proceed 
with  the  Mass. 

Henry  meantime  had  set  out  for  Normandy.  The  arch- 
bishop determined  to  follow  him,  and  try  whether  another 
appeal  would  not  soften  him.  Taking  ship  at  Dover,  he  landed 
on  the  coast  of  Normandy,  near  Eu.  As  he  was  descending  a 
hill,  he  met  a  shepherd,  of  whom  he  demanded  the  name  of  the 
town  in  the  valley  beneath,  and  of  the  church  which  rose  up 
from  the  centre  of  it.  Being  told  that  the  place  was  Eu,  and  the 
church  the  priory  church  of  St.  Victor,  he  replied  in  the  words 
of  the  131st  Psalm  :— 

*'  This  is  my  resting-place  for  ever ;  in  this  place  will  1  dwell,  for  1 
have  chosen  it." 

He  went  to  the  priory,  where  he  was  received  most  kindly 
by  Osbert  the  Prior. 

There  he  fell  ill,  and  feeling  that  his  end  was  drawing  near, 
he  sent  one  of  his  companions  to  Henry,  asking  him,  as  a  dying 
lequest,  to  prevent  further  shedding  of  blood  in  Ireland.  The 
mission  was  successful,  and  the  messenger  returned  with  the 
consoling  news  that  the  king  would  carry  out  his  wishes. 

On  November  14th,  1180,  at  the  age  of  forty -three,  the 
saint  passed  away  calmly.  His  last  words  were  words  of  com- 
pahsion  for  his  countrymen  : — "Ah,  foolish  people !  What  v^ill 
now  become  of  you  P  Who  will  relieve  you  when  I  am  gone  P" 


]64  ST.  LAURENCE  O'TOOLE. 

Five  years  after  liU  death  the  grave  vas  opeaed,  aad  the 
body  was  found  as  fresh  as  oa  the  day  of  his  burial.  It  was 
then  buried  before  an  altar  in  the  Ohuroh  of  our  Blessed  liidy. 

In  1225,  fifty-five  years  after  the  saint's  death,  Pope 
Honorius  III.  published  the  Bull  of  his  oanonization,  to  the  gre  it 
joy  of  the  people  of  Eu  and  tlie  surrounding  country.  Tue 
following  year  his  remains  were  again  exhumed,  and  transferred 
to  a  shrine,  which  was  carried  in'  procession  through  the  town, 
accompanied  by  a  vast  multitude ;  the  A.rchbishop  of  Rouen, 
the  Bishop  of  Amiens,  the  Prior  of  St.  Victor's,  and  many  other 
ecclesiastics  were  present.  The  shrine  was  placed  before  the 
high  altar ;  it  is  now  immediately  over  the  high  altar  of  the 
church. 

Some  years  since,  this  shrine  containing  the  relics  was  opened 
in  the  presence  of  the  Archbishop  of  Rouen,  several  other 
ecclesiastics,  and  some  medical  men.  These  drew  up  a  formal 
document,  stating  that  the  bones  were  in  the  shrine,  and,  more- 
over, that  on  the  skull  there  was  an  indentation  such  as  would 
have  been  made  by  a  blow  from  some  blunt  instrument.  We 
have  already  spoken  of  the  blow  which  he  received  from  a 
maniac.  This  I  was  assured  of  by  a  medical  man,  who  was  one 
of  those  present  at  the  opening  of  the  shrine. 

The  photograplis^  which  I  will  now  show  you  are^ 

(1)  The  Memorial  Cliapel  of  St.  Laureuce,  built  on  the  side 

of  the  hill  overlookiugEu,  from  which  he  first  caught 
sight  of  the  town.  This  chapel  was  rebuilt  in  1876, 
on  the  site  of  an  older  one  built  there  in  1626  by 
M.  Pierre  Prevost,  priest  of  the  parish  of  the  Holy 
Trinity  of  Eu.  In  1810,  this  chapel  was  replaced  by 
another  and  a  better  one  by  M.  L'Abb^  Ghandeloup, 
cur^  of  Eu. 

(2)  I  show  four  photographs  of  the  Church  of  Notre  Dame 

et  St.  Laurent,  the  parish  church  of  Eu ;  two  views  of 
the  east  end,  showing  it  is  one  of  the  finest  specimens 
of  Gothic  of  the  very  best  type  in  existence ;  a  third 
photo  of  the  interior,  showing  the  beautifully  vaulted 
roof  of  the  western  doorway,  of  much  inferior  style. 

The  fact  is,  the  western  half  of  the  church  was 
burnt  down  in  1500,  and  rebuilt  soon  after,  ncoording 
to  the  style  of  the  time,  and  very  inferior  to  that  of 
the  older  portion. 


'  These  photographs  would  have  been  used  for  illustrating  this  Paper 
had  not  the  iameuted  death  of  Father  Murphy  prevented  it. 


ST.  LAURENCE  O'TOOLE.  1 65 

(3)  A  reliquary  of  gilt  wood,  in  which  there  was  formerly  a 

relic  of  ot.  Laurence,  which  is  not  in  it  now. 

(4)  A  picture  of  St.  Laurence,  which  is  hanging  in  his 

chapel,  just  behind  the  high  altar  of  the  church. 

Some  few  years  ago  there  was  found  among  the  rubbish  in 
Taults  of  Christ  Church,  Dublin,  a  sort  of  vessel  of  the  shape  of 
a  heart.  It  has  been  surmised  that  the  heart  of  St.  Laurence 
is  or  was  contained  therein.  There  is  a  tradition  among  the 
people  of  Eu  that  St.  Laurence's  heart,  immediately  after  his 
death,  was  taken  to  his  native  country.  We  know  that  it  was 
not  uncommon  for  people  to  leave  in  their  wills,  or  when  dying 
to  ask  their  friends  to  take  their  heart  and  deposit  it  in  some 
church  or  shrine  to  which  they  had  a  special  devotion.  The 
Bruce,  when  dying,  entreated  Sir  James  Douglas,  his  trusty 
friend,  to  carry  his  heart  to  Jerusalem.  O'Connell  ordered  his 
heart  should  be  taken  to  Rome. 

I  show  three  photographs :  one,  of  the  vessel,  on  a  table, 
showing  its  size ;  another,  hanging  from  the  roof ;  and  a  third, 
on  the  capital  of  a  pillar. 

We  know  that  very  valuable  relics  were  kept  at  Christ 
Church,  such  as  the  Baculus  Jesu  (St.  Patrick's  crozier),  trans- 
ferred there  from  Armagh  by  William  Fitz  Aldelm.  Two  lists 
of  them  are  given  in  '^  The  Book  of  Obits  and  Marty rology  of 
Christ  Church,"  published  by  the  Irish  Archaeological  Society 
in  1844.  In  these  we  find  the  entry — '*  Item.  Plures  reliquse 
sti  Laurencii." 

We  know  that  many  of  these  relics  were  lost  by  the  falling 
in  of  a  portion  of  the  roof  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  and  that  many  more,  as  the  crozier  above  men- 
tioned, were  oast  away  in  the  first  year  of  the  Reformation. 
Whether  this  one  survived  by  being  hidden  away,  and  then 
forgotten,  to  again  come  to  light  accidentally  in  the  nine- 
teenth century,  is  a  matter  of  conjecture. 


[/br  Pedigree  of  St.  Laurence  G*  Toole ^  tee  next  page. 


1 66  ST,  LAURENCE  O'XOOLE. 


O'DONOVAN'S  PEDIGREE  OF  ST.  LAURENCE  OTOOLE. 
(From  the  ''^Annah  of  the  Four  Masters,^^  und^r  the  year  1690). 


Tuathal,*  King  of  Leinster,  di«d  956,  from  whom,  the  surname  of  O'Toole 
has  been  deriyed. 


Ugaire,  King  of  Leinster,  slain  at  Belan,  Co.  Eildare,  by  the  Danes,  in  976. 

Dualang,  died  in  1013. 

Doncuan  Ua  Tuathal,  King  of  Leinster,  slain  1015. 

Gilla-Comhghaill  Ua  Tnatbal. 

Gilla-Eevin  Ua  Tuathal. 

Duncuan  Ua  Tuathal. 

Gilla-Comhghaill  Ua  Tuathal. 


I  I 

Gilla-Kevin  Ua  Tuathal.  Muirchenrtaoh  (or  Murtagh),  Chief  of  Hy 

I  Muireadhaigh,  died  1164. 


Walter  O'Toole.  St.  Lorcan  (or  Laurence)  O'Toole. 

I  Ob.  14  Nov.,  1180. 

Gilla-Kevin  O'Toole. 

I 
Faelan  O'Toole,  liord  of  Hy- Muireadhaigh  (or  Hy  Murray),  died  in  1260. 
He  was  the  anoestor  of  the  O'Tooles  of  Ferracullen,  Fertry, 
Castlekevin,  Powerscourt,  etc.,  all  in  the  County  Wicklow. 


*  For  the  ancestors  of  Tuathal,  see  the  pedigree  opposite  to  p.  168  of  the 
first  volume  of  the  Journal. 


INTUKIOR   VIEW  OF  CASTLK   RHKBAN,   1892. 


CASTLE  RHEBAN. 
Br  LOKD  WALTER  FITZ  GERALD. 


J 


[Read  at  the  Atuy  Excursion  Meeting,  September,  1892.] 

THE  name  Eheban  (pronounced  Ribbon)  is  supposed  to  be 
made  up  of  two  Irisli  words,  signifying  "  the  habitation 
of  the  king." 
The  Egyptian  geographer,  Ptolemy,  who  lived  in  the  second 
century,  on  his  thinly-named  map  of  Ireland,  has  two  inland 
towns  marked  near  one  another,  named  "Dunum"  and 
**llhaiba."  These  places  have  been  identified  respectively 
with  Dunamase^  and  Kheban. 

Though  Eheban  is  now  a  part  of  the  County  Kildare,  it 
was  formerly  a  portion  of  the  ancient  territory  of  Leix,'  over 
wliich  the  Clan  O'More  held  sway. 

*  Written  Dunmasf?  (i.«.  Masg's  Fort)  in  the  Irish  Annals.  It  is 'a  huge, 
precipitous-  sided,  isolated  ruck,  now  crowned  with  the  ruins  of  an  Anglo- 
Nornian  cattle,  and  lies  between  the  towns  of  Stradballv  and  Maryborough, 
in  the  Queen's  County. 

'  The  territory  of  Leix,  or  0*More*s  country,  comprised  the  present 
baronies  of  Maryborough.  Cullinagh,  Ballyadnms,  Stradbally,  part  of  Port- 
nahinch,  in  the  Queen's  County,  and  that  portion  of  the  County  Kildare 
which  lies  to  the  west  of  the  Barrow  in  the  Athy  neighbourhood. 


1 68  CASTLE   RHEBAN. 

The  Moat  of  Bheban  stands  about  half  an  English  mile  to 
the  south  of  Castle  Bhebau.  This  earthwork  is  of  great  anti- 
quity. It  consists  of  an  artificial  moat  or  mound  38  feet  in 
height,  attached  to  the  north-east  side  of  which  is  a  triangular 
enclosure,  surrounded  by  a  deep,  broad  dyke,  which  gives  the 
place  the  appearance  of  a  rath.  This  enclosure  is  said  to  have 
an  entrance  on  the  north  side,  closed  by  an  iron  door,  leading 
into  a  cave  or  underground  chamber.  The  moat  itself  for  many 
years  past  has  been  used  as  a  gravel-pit,  and  already  about  two- 
thirds  of  it  have  been  carted  away.  Some  seventy-five  years  ago 
M^Evoy's  cottage,  between  it  and  the  road,  was  at  the  edge  of 
the  moat,  but  now  a  potato-garden  is  laid  out  on  the  excavated 
portion.  In  the  next  field  to  the  moat  there  was,  some  twenty 
years  ago,-  a  small  moat,  which  was  levelled  by  a  Mr.  Joseph 
fiutler,  who  then  lived  at  Castle  Eheban.  Under  the  mound 
was  discovered  a  kistvaen,  or  dry-walled  chamber,  full  of 
human  bones.  This  field  is  called  **  the  Bridge  Field."  One 
corner  of  it,  near  the  moat,  is  never  tilled,  as  many  human 
bones  lie  close  to  the  surface ;  in  consequence,  it  is  known  as 
"  the  Churchyard."  The  field  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road 
is  called  '^  the  Baheen." 

In  the  latter  end  of  the  twelfth  century  most  of  the  province 
of  Leinster  jpassed  into  the  possession  of  iiichard  de  Clare,  Earl 
of  Pembroke,  nicknamed  **  Strongbow,"  by  his  marriage  with 
Eva,  daughter  and  heiress  of  Dermot  M'Murrough,  the  last  of 
the  native  kings  of  Leinster.  The  result  of  this  marriage  was 
an  only  daughter,  Isabel,  who  married  William  Marshall,  Earl 
of  Pembroke  (called,  in  Hanmer's  History  of  Ireland^  William 
Maxfield,  Earl  Marshall  of  England),  who  thus  succeeded  to 
the  lordship  of  Leinster.  Their  children  consisted  of  five  sons 
and  five  daughters  ;  the  sons  all  died  childless,  and  so  Leinster 
WHS  divided  by  King  John  amongst  the  five  daughters,  to  the 
youngest  of  whom,  Eva,  was  portioned  off  the  Manor  of 
Duuamase,  in  Leix.  She  married  William  de  Broase  (or 
Breouse),  Lord  of  Brecknock,  in  Wales,  and  by  him  the  pre- 
sent ruins  of  Castle,  on  the  Rock  of  Dunamase,  were  built, 
about  the  year  1250.  Their  daughter  Matilda  married  Lord 
Boger  de  Mortimer,  who  eventually  succeeded  to  the  above 
manor. 

In  the  year  1225,  the  king  issued  a  mandate  to  Earl 
William  Marshall,  justiciary  of  Ireland,  to  cause  Richard 
de  St.  Michael  to  have,  during  pleasure,  out  of  the  king's 
escheats  in  Ireland,  £20  worth  of  land,  to  maintain  him  in  the 
king's  service  (April  22).  In  the  following  year  (1226)  the 
king  issued  another  mandate  to  Qeoffrey  de  Mariscis,   lord 


I70  CASTLE  RHEBAN. 

justiciary  of  Ireland,  to  cause  to  be  restored  to  Boger  Waspail 
the  chattels  taken  during  the  disseisin  caused  by  Biohard  de 
St.  Michael,  son  and  heir  of  Margaret,  Roger's  wife,  in  the 
land  in  Eyban,  which  Boger  held,  of  the  inheritance  of  the 
said  Margaret.* 

From  William  Marshall,  lord  palatine  of  Leinster,  Bheban 
and  its  neighbourhood  were  granted  in  fee  to  Bichard  de 
St.  Michael,  created  Baron  of  Bheban,  who,  during  the  reign 
of  King  John,  founded  the  Crouched  Friary  in  Athy,  and  built 
the  two  castles  of  Woodstock  and  Bheban,  which  are  both  on 
the  west  bank  of  the  Barrow,*  tliree  English  miles  apart. 
Both  of  them  were  for  the  defence  of  the  fords  at  those  places, 
and  the  one  at  Bheban  probably  took  the  place  of  the  Bath 
mentioned  above,  which  must  have  been  erected  for  the  defence 
of  the  ford  in  ancient  times.  Since  the  arrival  of  the  Normans 
in  Ireland,  castles  were  erected  at  all  the  principal  fords  on  the 
borders  or  marches  of  the  "  English  land,"  or  Pale,  as  it  was 
afterwards  called,  so  as  to  prevent  "the  Irish  enemie"  from 
making  hostile  incursions  among  the  new  settlers. 

Bohesia,  daughter  of  the  above  Bichard  de  St.  Michael, 
married  Thomas  Fitz  Gerald,  Baron  of  Offaly,  whose  death 
took  place  in  1260.  Her  marriage  portion  was  the  Manors  of 
Woodstock  and  Athy,  which  still  belong  to  their  descendants. 
They  were  the  parents  of  John,  afterwards  first  Earl  of  Kildare, 
who  was  so  miraculously  Saved  from  being  burnt  to  death,  on 
one  occasion  when  Woodstock  Castle  caught  fire,  by  a  tame 
monkey,  which  became  and  still  is  the  family  crest  owing  to 
that  event. 

In  the  year  1282  a  writ  was  issued,  commanding  John  de 
Sauniord,  Ksclieator  of  Ireland,  to  take  into  the  king's  hands 
all  the  lands  and  tenements  in  Irehmd  whereof  Boger  de 
Mortimer,  senior,  was  seized  in  fee  at  his  death.  In  the  list 
attached,  under  the  heading  of  "  Knight's  Fees,"  appears  the 
following : — 

Bobert  de  St.  Michael,  2  knights'  fees  in  "Landa"^  de 
lUban,  for  two  knights'  services  when  royal  service  is  sum- 
moned.' 


*  Sweetman's  **  Calendar  of  Documents/*  Ireland. 

*  Anciently  written  **  Beorbha,"  i.«r.  the  dumb  water,  meaning  the 
silent,  flowing  river. 

3  This  is  w^ritten  **  in  leiado  de  Rhebau"  in  the  Calendar  of  Carew  MSS. 
under  the  heading  of — Extent  of  lands  of  the  late  Lord  Roger  de  Mortimer 
in  Ireland,  made  at  the  new  town  of  Leys  (Leix),  Co.  Kildare,  10th  March, 
11  Edw.L 

*  Vide  **  Calendar  of  Documents,'*  Ireland. 


CASTLE  RHEBAN.  171 

la  the  year  1316  Robert  Bnioe's  victory  over  the  English 
at  Bannockbura  was  the  signal  for  a  rising  in  his  favour  in 
Ulster,  and  he  sent  over  his  brother  Edward  to  head  them.  In 
May,  Edward  Bruce  lauded  at  Carrickfergus  with  6000  Soots, 
and,  proceeding  to  Dundalk,  had  himself  crowned  King  of 
Ireland  there.  He  then  proceeded  victoriously  through  Meath, 
and,  to  quote  from  Richard  Cox's  History  o/Jr^feufl?  (published 
in  1689),  "  from  Loghseudy,  where  he  had  spent  Christmas, 
Edward  Bruce  marched  through  the  County  of  Kildare  unto 
Rathangan,  Kildare,  Castle  Dermond,  Athy,  Raban,  and 
Sketheris,^  where  the  Lord  Justice  (Sir  Edmond  Butler)  ac- 
companied by  Lord  Johu  Fitz  Thomas  (afterwards  first  Earl  of 
Kildare),  and  many  others,  encountered  him  on  the  26th  of 
January,  and  were  defeated  by  reason  of  some  unhappy  feuds 
and  misunderstandings  in  the  English  army.  Hereupon  the 
Irish  of  Munster  and  Leinster  rose  in  rebellion,  and  the  Birns, 
Tools,  and  Moors,  burnt  the  country  from  Arclow  to  Leix. 
It  was  not  until  three  years  afterwards  that  Edward  Bruce  was 
defeated  near  Dundalk  by  Sir  John  de  Bermingham.  In  this 
conflict  he  was  killed,  and  the  Scottish  invasion  came  to  an  end. 

In  1325  Lysagh  O'More,  being  entrusted  by  Lord  Morti- 
mer, who  had  married  Matilda,  heiress  of  Lord  Brecknock, 
with  the  care  and  protection  of  his  estates  in  Leix,  assumed 
independence  and  destroyed  Dunamase,  capturing  in  one 
evening  eight  castles,  including  Rheban. 

In  the  second  volume  of  the  State  Papers  of  Henry  VIII. 
relating  to  Ireland,  Rheban  Castle  is  now  and  again  mentioned 
as  being  either  uninhabited  or  out  of  repair.  In  the  year 
1537  Robert  Cowley,  Master  of  the  Rolls,  wrote  to  Thomas 
Crumwell,  the  Lord  Privy  Seal,  as  follows : — 

'*  The  holdes  &  garisons  ia  the  Marches,  whereof  many  are  now  desolate, 
ia  ruyne,  i^v  lak  inhahitacion,  shalbe  mete  therefor  to  be  departed  to  suohe 
as  are  marchers,  men  of  warre,  having  good  retynnes,  yelding  the  King 
convenyent  reservacion  of  anuell  rent,  &  to  have  estate  of  inheritaunce 
therein ;  for  inhabiting  &  repayring  after  such  manner,  &  to  be  in  places 
of  daungier,  it  shalhe  mete  for  them  to  have  suche  estate.  The  Fassaghe 
Rebane,  Wodstock,  &  other  piles  in  the  0'More*s  cuntrey,  whereof  part  are 
in  possession  of  the  Irishrie  &  the  residue  is  waste ;  soo  as  if  the  same  be 
not  gevyn  to  suche  as  may  buylde  &  inhabite  the  same,  having  some 
abilitie  to  here  the  charges  thereof,  there  it  would  remaine  waste,  &  be  both 
agayne,  succor,  &  refuge  to  the  Irishrie  ;  whereas  being  inhabited  strongly, 
it  shonld  be  the  fortiiioation  of  the  Englishrie,  increase  of  the  Kind's, 
revenues  &  obedyencye,  impoverishing  &  enfebling  of  the  King's  dis* 
obeysauntes." 

1  Now  Skerries,  which  lies  below  the  Sioat  of  Ardscull  {t,e,  the  **  height 
of  the  Shouts  "),  to  the  N.W.     The  name  means  ''  Rocks/' 


172  CASTLE  RHEBAN, 

In  the  following  year  (1538)  Sir  Piers  Butler,  eighth  Earl 
of  Ormond,  wrote  to  Sir  Anthony  Saint  Leger,  one  of  the 
OommijBsioners  of  Ireland ,  as  follows : — 

*'  If  this  thing  (1.0.  the  rednction  of  the  Knvunaghs)  be  further  delaied 
for  eny  other  considerucions,  that  then  this  homer,  for  asmoche  as  the 
Mores  in  Leys  be  in  division,  therfore  to  repaire  Woodstok,  &  to  enhabite 
&  recontynue  to  the  Kings  Magestyes  lordship  of  Fassagh  Rebane  with 
other  Castles  &  landes  in  Leys ;  &  to  goo  aboute  that  the  Irishry  in  that 
partes  as  McGilpatrik,^  O'Karroll,  O'Meagher,^  &  others,  be  bond  to  a 
lurther  subjeccion  to  the  Kinge,  with  a  knowlege  to  his  Grace  of  an 
annuall  protite,  which,  with  power  <&  poiesy,  we  shall,  God  willing,  enforce 
them  to  agree  unto.** 

According  to  an  old  map  of  Leix  and  surrounding  districts 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  now  in  the  British  Museum,  reproduced 
in  the  7th  volume  of  the  Kilkenny  ArchcBological  Jotimal  (for 
the  years  1862-3),  the  district  of  "  Fasagh  Reban  "  extends 
along  the  west  bank  of  the  Barrow,  from  the  Bauteogue  river 
on  the  north  to  where  Kilmorony  is  on  the  south  side.  This 
district  is  narrow,  and  shown  full  of  forests  and  bogs.  The 
word  "  Fasagh  "  signifies  a  wilderness,  or  uncultivated  land. 

In  Morrin's  List  of  Patent  and  Close  Bolls,  Ireland,  in  the 
year  1581,  is  given  the  following: — 

**  Livery  of  Seisin  of  the  possessions  of  Walter  Saint  Michael, 
Baron  of  Keban,  son  and  heir  of  Christopher  Saint  Michael,, 
late  of  Castleton  of  Reban,  for  a  fine  of  £6  Irish.  Dublin, 
May  5th." 

In  1585,  the  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ireland,  notifies  the 
contents  of  three  letters  written  by  a  Captain  Thomas  Lee 
("of  Castle  Martin,  Gent.")  to  the  Lord  Deputy,  they  were 
dated  from  "Castle  Reban,"  and  "Castleton  Reban,"  in  the 
months  of  August  and  September.  At  this  time  Captain  Lee 
was  commissioned  to  pursue  and  capture  a  noted  rebel  named 
Cahir  Owre  Eavanagh.  Two  years  previously  he  liad  offered 
his  services  to  the  State,  in  order  that  he  might  obtain  a  lease 
of  lands  in  the  frontier  of  the  Co.  Kildare,  confiscated  by  Lord 
Baltinglass  (Eustace).  This  may  be  the  "Captain  Ley" 
afterwards  mentioned  in  the  year  1608,  and  again  in  1611. 

In  the  year  1607  King  James  wrote  to  Sir  Arthur 
Chichester,  in  April,  that  no  lease  or  custodian  was  to  be 
granted  of  any  part  of  the  castle  and  lauds  of  Reban,  the  king 
having  special  purposes  to  serve  in  the  disposal  of  them.  In 
the  following  month  (May),  Sir  Arthur  Chichester  received 
instructions  from  the  king  to  pass  the  Manor  of  Reban  (besides 

1  The  old  name  of  the  FitzPatricks.  '  The  O'Mores. 


CASTLE  RHEBA^.  1 75. 

some  lands  in  Munster)  to  the  king's  servant,  Robert  Carre, 
reserving  to  the  king  such  rents  and  service  as  by  office  found 
(after  the  death  of  Christopher  St.  Michael,  late  Baron  of  the 
said  Heban,  slain  in  rebellion)  to  be  fit  to  be  paid  for  the  same, 
to  be  held  of  the  Crown  under  such  clauses  and  covenants  as  in 
like  grants  have  been  accustomed.^ 

In  1608  Sir  Arthur  Chichester,  the  lord  deputy,  wrote  to 
the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  that  "  this  gentleman,  Mr.  Ley,  brought 
over  with  him  letters  from  the  council  table,  requesting  the- 
delivery  of  the  possession  of  the  house  of  Eebban  and  the 
lands,  formerly  enjoyed  by  his  father.  Captain  Ley,  before  his 
attainder,  into  his  hands.  Performance  thereof  has  been  made^ 
accordingly.     Dublin  Castle,  19  May,  1608."* 

In  December  of  the  year  1611  Sir  Arthur  Chichester  again 
wrote  to  the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  strongly  recommending  to  his 
notice  Sir  Arthur  Savage,  who  had  distinguished  himself 
greatly  in  the  Irish  wars.  He  writes  that  he  '*  has  served 
under  the  command  of  Sir  Arthur  Savage,  a  worthy  gentleman,. 
and  his  noble  friend,  and  therefore  puts  his  lordship  in  mind  of 
a  letter  in  his  recommendation  when  he  came  over  to  sit  down 
upon  Keban,  by  which  he  (Chichester)  gathered  that  he  was  to 
give  him  such  employment  and  entertainment  as  the  time& 
might  afford.  So  far  Sir  Arthur  has  had  no  benefit  of  his 
lordship's  letters,  albeit  he  (Chichester)  knows  the  place  he 
lives  in  to  be  a  border,  where  a  company  has  been  lodged  ever 
since  the  house  was  first  erected  by  Thomas  Ley.*' 

During  the  rebellion  of  1641-f50  this  castle  repeatedly 
changed  hands.  The  two  principal  causes  of  the  rebellion 
were  the  wholesale  confiscations  of  property  from  the  native 
owners,  and  the  growth  of  Puritanism,  which  aimed  at  tlie 
suppression  of  the  Boman  Catholic  religion.  In  it  both  the 
native  Irish  and  the  old  Anglo-Norman  families  fought  side 
by  side,  under  the  name  of  the  Confederate  Catholics.  The 
following  extracts  in  connexion  with  this  period  are  taken  from 
various  sources : — 

"  On  the  6th  of  April,  1642,  the  Castle  of  Ballilanan  was 
relieved  by  a  party  under  Sir  Charles  Coote,  and  the  Castle  of 
Bheban  by  another  detachment,  which  also  took  the  Castle  of 
Bert  and  in  it  eight  rebels,  who  were  hanged."' 

"Next  morning  all  the  army  marched  from  Disert  O'Lalor 
to  Bheban,  in  the  County  of  Kildare,  where  Captain  Flower 
was  commanding,  which,  upon  summons,  yielded  to  Sir  Phelim 

1  *'  Calendar  of  State  Papers/'  Ireland. 

»  '^Calendar  of  Carew  M8S."        •  Cox's  "History  of  Ireland." 


174  .CASTLE  RHEBAI^, 

,0'Neill,  Q-eneral  of  the  Horse.  Next,  they  went  to  Athy,  ami 
did  summon  Captain  Weldon,  Governor  thereof,  who  presentlj' 
yielded.  Whereupon  the  body  of  the  army  marched  home,  and 
Captain  G-erald  Crone  {t\€.  swarthy)  Fitz  Gerald  was  com- 
manded, with  summons,  to  Grange  Mellon,  which,  within  two 
days  after,  was  surrendered."* 

"  When  Captain  Tirlagh  O'Neill  and  Lieutenant  Neale 
O'Quin,  residing  in  Castle  Reban  with  their  company,  were 
informed  of  the  surrender  of  Maryborough,  they,  by  the  assent 
of  Captain  John  Hagan,  Governor  of  Athy,  burned  the  Castle 
of  Eebat,  and  carried  their  garrison,  ammunition,  and  pro- 
visions to  Athy,  choosing  rather,  for  their  safety  and  honour, 
to  make  good  one  place  against  the  enemy  than  to  hazard  the 
whole  by  division  and  distraction."* 

"  The  army  under  the  Lord  of  Inchiquin  rendezvoused  at 
Oashel  on  tlie  3rd  of  May,  from  whence  Castlehaven  was 
detached,  with  a  party  which  took  Bheban,  Maryborough,  and 
Athy  from  Owen  Boe's  soldiers  with  considerable  slaughter, 
and  that  being  done,  it  met  at  Cloghgrennan  on  the  26th  of 
May."' 

Since  this  time  Eheban  Castle  has  been  a  ruin. 

By  an  inquisition  taken  in  Kildare  on  the  20th  of  April, 
1640,  the  manor  and  lands  of  Bheban  were  then  in  the  posses- 
sion  of  Thomas,  the  son  of  Sir  Arthur  Savage,  knight,  who  suc- 
ceeded his  father  in  March,  1632.  A  list  of  the  townlauds 
comprising  the  manor  is  given  below,  as  many  of  the  old  Irish 
names  are  not  now  to  be  found  on  the  Ordnance  Survey  maps  : 

Keban,  alias  Castle  Beban,*  alias  Castleton  Beban ;  Moates- 
towne,^  Prieston,  Garrankancellott,  alias  Garrycanclott ;  Mil- 
towne,*  Brounston,*  Terrelston,*  Counston,  Ballinrue,*  Shaen,* 
BallinescoUock,^  Comitestowne,  Ballinedryna,  Bathnoran,  alias 
Bathnerane ;  Ballniddyn,  Churchtowne,*  Courtestowne,  Bath- 
negon,  alias  Bathinegoune ;  Bathenreny,  Bathinkeagh,  Brack- 
aragh,  alias  Brackanagh ;  Cardinstowne,^  and  some  premises  in 
Athy. 

The  above  contained  1  castle,  80  farmhouses,  80  gardens, 
2490  acres,  and  three  weirs  on  the  Barrow,  besides  water-mills 
and  pigeon-houses  ;  all  of  which  were  held  from  the  king 
If*  capile  for  a  knight's  service.  The  rectory  of  Fasagh  Beban 
wds  held  from  the  king  in  free  and  common  '^  soccage,"  and 
the  premises  in  Athy  were  held  from  the  Earl  of  Kildare. 

»  Gilbert's  "  History  ot  Affiiirs  in  Ireland,  1641-52."        » Ibid. 

>  Cox's  "  History  of  Ireland." 

*  Present  names  of  townlands  on  the  Ordnance  Survey  maps. 


CASTLE   KHEBAN.  175 

From  the  Ordnance  Survey  Letters  of  about  1837,  bound  up 
by  counties,  and  now  in  the  library  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 
the  following  extract  is  taken.  It  is  a  translation  by  O'Donovun 
from  the  Irish  of  a  portion  of  a  poem  by  the  bard  Ferganain 
McKeogh,  describing  the  predatory  excursions  of  Hugh  mao 
Shaun  O'Byme,  of  Glenmalnre,  in  the  16th  century :  — 

**  Baile-atha  Dhathi  *  he  likewise  brought, 
And  Rathdubh,^  under  the  sway  of  an  enemy ; 
He  left  Ros  Brinniudh'  without  kine. 
This  Hugh  had  luck  of  Cattle. 
Master  Davy  he  captured 
And  Master  Harney  in  one  Conflict. 
The  Royal  town  of  Caislean  He  bain* 
He  sacked,  A  gained  much  treasure 
Which  spread  his  fame. 
From  Diorin  Ruadh*  he  drove  his  cattle,"  etc. 

In  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters  Hugh  O'Byrne's  death 
is  recorded  in  the  year  1579. 

From  the  above  odds  and  ends  we  learn  that  Rhebau  was 
originally  in  the  possession  of  the  O' Mores,  in  whose  territory 
of  Leix  it  then  was.  It  then  passed  through  King  Dermot 
McMurrough's  daughter,  Eva,  to  Strongbow ;  through  Strong- 
bow's  daughter,  Isabel,  to  William  Marshall,  Lord  ralatine  of 
Leinster;  through  his  daughter,  Eva,  to  William  de  Breouse; 
then  into  the  family  of  Bichard  de  St.  Michael,  who  is  said  to 
have  built  the  castle.  The  second  Baron  of  Bheban  appears  to 
have  been  Robert  de  St.  Michael,  and  until  the  sixteenth  century 
there  seems  to  be  no  record  of  the  succeeding  Barons  of 
Rheban. 

In  the  year  1650  Mathew  de  St.  Michael,  Baron  of  Rheban, 
died,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  Christopher,  who 
married  Eleanor  Fitz  G-erald  (afterwards  wife  of  Walter  Arch- 
bold,  of  "Kylmelyn,"  in  the  County  Dublin).  Christopher 
was  killed  in  Baltinglass's  rebellion,  in  the  year  1582,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  and  heir  Walter.  Walter  died,  leaving  a 
brother  Nicholas,  who,  having  entered  into  possession  by  inden- 
ture, dated  20th  May,  1606,  in  consideration  of  21«.  of  "  ould 
silver,"  conveyed  all  the  premises  to  John  Toppe,  in  as  ample 
manner  as   they  had   been   devised  to  him  by  Christopher, 


^  This  is  intended  for  Bally-ath-ae,  ur  Athy,  i.e.  the  ford  of  Ae. 
'  i.e.  the  Black  Kort,  unidentified.      ^  Now  liosbran.     ^  Castle  lihebiin. 
*  Now  Kelly ville,  which  was  formerly  named  Derryroe,  i.e.  the  Red 
Oak  Wood. 

TOL.  11.,    PT.  XII.  P 


176  CASTLE   RHEBAN. 

his  father,  at  a  rent  of  £10  and  half  the  fish  taken  at  th& 
weir. 

Subsequently  the  castle  and  manor  came  into  the  posseanon 
of  Sir  Henry  Lee,  Lambrick  Nottingham,  and  Jane  his  wife^ 
who  conveyed  all  their  interest  therein  to  Sir  Arthur  Savage, 
who,  by  an  inquisition  taken  at  Naas  on  the  20th  of  October,. 
1612,  was  in  possession  in  fee  of  that  manor. 

Sir  Arthur  died  on  the  13th  of  Marcli,  1632,  leaving  a  son, 
Thomas,  who  succeeded  him,  and  was  found  in  possession  of 
the  castle  and  manor  by  an  inquisition  taken  at  Kildare  on  the 
20th  of  April,  1640. 

Thomas  Savage  died,  leaving  a  son  William,  who  was 
drowned  in  the  mouth  of  August,  1658,  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  brother  Francis,  who  left  a  daughter  (?)  named  Douglas 
Savage,  wlio  was  five  years  old  in  1661,  the  year  an  inquisition 
was  taken  in  the  month  of  November  in  Atliy.* 

In  vol.  viii.,  p.  249,  of  Archdall's  Lodged  Peerage^  it  is 
stated  that  Arthur  Loftus,  3rd  Viscount  Ely,  married  to  his 
first  wife  Douglas,  daughter  and  heir  to  William  Savage,  of 
Castle  Eheban,  but  had  no  issue  by  her,  who  died  and  was 
interred  in  his  family  vault  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at 
Monasterevan.  Her  death  took  place  before  1676,  as  in  that 
year  Lord  Ely  married  again. 

A  view  of  Kheban  Castle  as  it  was  before  1793  is  given  in 
the  Anthologia  Hibernica  Magaziney  vol.  ii. ;  this  view  is  re- 
produced in  No.  44  of  the  Dublin  Saturday  Magazine^  vol.  i., 
and  also  at  p.  245,  vol.  iii.,  of  the  Dublin  Penny  Joutmal 
(1834). 


'^U^^  ^4^a*    -C  iL'^M^^    fc»?^^«^ 


The  present  ruins  show  the  castle  to  have  been  a  square 
building,  ^of  which  only  the  south  side  remains  standing, 
together  with  the.vaulted  chambers  on  the  ground  floor.  Until 
a  few  years  ago  tlie  ruins  were  very  much  as  they  are  shown  in 
the  print  in  the  Magazine ;  but  the  present  tenant  of  the  place, 
Mr.  Large,  took  down  the  north  side  of  the  castle,  which,  he 
naid  was  an  unsightly  wall  with  no  windows,  for  the  sake  of  the 
material.  Some  stone  celts,  and  an  instrument  like  a  fack,* 
but  all  of  iron,  found  by  the  present  tenant  when  ploughing  a 


1  Vide  •*  Chancery  Inquisitions." 

*  The  country  spade,  having  the  footpiece  on  one  side  only. 


.CASTLE   RHEBAN. 


177 


piece  of  ground  near  the  castle  which  had  never  been  known  to 
have  been  broken  before,  were  discovered  in  recent  times.  The 
large  windows  on  the  south  side  of  the  castle  were  square- 
headed,  and  divided  by  mullions  into  eight  divisions,  four 
above  and  four  below  ;  a  square  eyebrow  was  over  each 
window.  On  the  quoins  of  the  castle  walls  is  imitation  cut- 
stone  work,  placed  there  probably  when  the  Savages  occupied 
the  castle. 

Sir  Jonah  Barrington,  in  his  "Personal  Recollections," 
refers  to  this  castle  in  an  improbable  story  about  Elizabeth 
Fitz  Gerald  of  Morett,  which  is  not  worth  repeating. 

A  mile  and  a-half  away  to  the  south-west  of  the  moat  are  the 
ruins  of  an  old  churcli,  of  which  large  portions  of  the  north  and 
south  walls  still  stand  ;  but  they  are  featureless,  as  the  cut- 
stone  work  has  been  torn  out,  to  be  used  as  headstones  at  the 
graves.  This  place  is  called  **  Churchtown  ";  its  former  name 
is  now  forgotten,  though  it  was  probably  Fassagh  Eheban* 
church  long  ago. 


Lying,  deep  sm>b  in  the  giound,  in  ivlmt  wa& 
the  rbancel,  ovc  ^^liflt1cmTd  by  a  whitetlirtrii  tree, 
is  a  elab,  measiinng  Oft.  4  in.  in  leiigtlu  uiid  2  U, 
Uius  in  brea^  1  f  1 1  ;  ruii nin g  down  1 1  > e  eeir t re  i s  a 
lightly -iiKtiM^d  liluiii  omsn,  lerniinating  in  three 
stt»p» ;  at  the  upper  f^nd,  riiiming  along  tlie  edge 
and  partly  down  one  Bide,  is  I  he  date,  followed 
by  letters  in  relief.  It  is  not  known  what  they 
Bland  for.      (  FiV/<?  flDeoin]>aiiyhig  illustriition.) 


\^'. 


Vk 


s?^?«^^; 


The  half  of  a  square  head,  with  rounded  corners,  of  a 
granite  font  lies  near  ;  the  perforation  is  in  the  centre ;  it  is 
quite  plain. 


'  This  was  the  old  name  of  this  district. 
II ess  or  uncultivated  place.     (Joyce.) 

P2 


**  Fassagh  "  means  a  wilder- 


178 


CASTLE    RHEBAN. 


Ou  another  slab  raised  above  the  ground  level,  also  in  the 
ruins  of  the  chanoel,  is  the  following  inscription,  with  the  letters 
in  relief : — 


"A' 


Here  lyeth  j*  Body  of  Bryan  m« 
Manus  late  of  Castle  Uebban 
who  departed  this  life  y*  9^  of 
Dec^'  17*29  Aged  47  years  &  of 
his  mother  in  law  (>'athrin  Coffie 
who  departed  this  life  in  y*  73"* 
year  of  her  age  &  also  of  his 
Daughter  Cathrine  rn'Mauus 
Who  departed  this  life  in  1729 
and  in  y*  20*^  year  of  her  age 

Memento   W'^^^^l    mori 


EXTEKIOH    VIEW  OF  CASTI.K    RMKRAN,    1896. 


a  W£#P 


OLD  CASTLK   AT  OUOHTKRAHD,   CO.   KILDARK. 


EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  COUNTY    \J 
KILDARE. 

By  THK  REV.  CANON  SHERLOCK. 

[Read  at  the  Januaut   Meettno  of  1896.] 

I  KNOW  a  lady,  who  shall  he  nameless,  whose  firm  persuasion 
is  that  an  archaeologist  is  simply  a  Sir  Walter  Scott  or  a 
Shakespeare  spoiled.  She  has  the  highest  respect  for  oiir 
imagination,  hut  not  the  least  faith  in  our  facts.  She  thinks 
that  the  active  members  of  our  Society,  when  they  are  about  to 
compose  a  Paper  on  any  subject,  set  their  imagination  to  work, 
and  when  that  faculty  is  red-hot,  they  sally  forth,  and  finding 
in  their  walk  a  grassy  mound,  or  an  old  boulder,  or  a  fragment 
of  a  wall,  they  proceed  to  invent  an  appropriate  history,  sad  to 
say,  more  or  less  dull,  and  certainly  not  at  all  true,  with  which 
they  beguile  the  other  members  of  the  Association,  and  perhaps, 
if  the  editor  be  propitious,  acquire  a  niche  in  the  temple  of  fame 
by  means  of  our  Journal.  If  any  such  incredulous  person  be 
present  to-day,  let  me  assure  her  that  she  gives  our  imagina- 
tion far  too  much  credit.  For  myself,  I  can  only  say  that 
those  who  doubt  me  may  go  to  the  Record  Office,  or  to  the 
Library  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  and  they  will  find  my 
statements  all  in  print,  though  scattered  in  fragments,  which  I 
have  had  to  piece  together. 


l8o        EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE. 

My  subject  is  connected  with  the  neighbourhood  of  Kill  ; 
and  I  propose  to  show  how  the  Anglo-Norman  settlement  was 
carried  out  there,  as  it  may  help  us  to  understand  the  process 
generally. 

Before  Strongbow's  invasion  and  conquest,  all  this  part  of 
Leinster  was  occupied  by  the  Irish  tribe  of  0' Byrne.  What 
the  Conquest  did  was  to  deprive  the  Irish  of  their  territories, 
and  drive  a  large  number  of  them  up  into  the  mountains  of 
Wicklow  on  the  one  side,  and  the  desolate  fastnesses  of  the 
bogs  on  the  other.  The  conquerors  took  possession  of  the  fertile 
plain.  But  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  all  the  old 
inhabitants  were  driven  away,  or  that  what  we  call  private  pro- 
perty was  destroyed.  In  fact,  there  was  little  or  no  private 
property,  except  the  wattled  Imts,  the  rude  clothes,  weapons, 
implements,  and  vessels.  Nobody  in  those  days  owned  any 
land.  It  belonged  to  the  tribe,  and  was  parcelled  out  by  lot  to 
the  different  members  of  the  tribe,  who  did  not  own  it,  and 
were  not  even  what  we  call  permanent  tenants,  being  obliged 
to  surrender  it  again,  and  to  take  whatever  other  lot  fell  to 
tliem  at  the  division.  It  is  most  likely  that  when  the  chiefs 
and  their  families  were  driven  into  the  mountains  and  bo^s,  a 
large  number  of  the  other  members  of  the  tribe  remained  to  do 
the  work  on  the  lands  taken  by  the  new  proprietors,  to  plough 
in  some  rude  way,  to  cut  the  woods,  and  to  herd  the  cattle. 
The  condition  of  the  natives  who  remained  was  probably  not 
altered  for  the  worse,  perhaps  rather  for  the  better.  But  their 
relations  with  society  were  totally  changed.  Before,  they  had 
belonged  to  a  tribe  ;  they  were  attached  to  the  chief,  not  to  the 
land.  If  the  chief  moved  into  anotlier  district,  and  the  tribe 
moved  with  him,  all  the  machinery,  so  to  speak,  of  life  went  on 
working  as  usual.  But  the  Anglo-Norman  conquerors  brought 
in  witli  them  the  feudal  system,  and  the  history  of  their  settle- 
ment in  the  country  is  for  centuries  the  history  of  an  attempt 
to  substitute  the  feudal  system  for  the  tribal  system.  Tiie 
attempt,  in  large  measure,  failed,  because  so  large  a  number  of 
the  lower  Irish  population  remained,  and  they  were  willing 
enough  to  regard  their  new  superiors  as  chiefs,  particularly  if 
they  had  married  Irish  wives ;  but  they  did  not  take  kindly  tu 
the  relation  of  a  feudal  lord  and  his  dependents. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  over  all  the  fertile  plain  of  this  county 
the  feudal  system  came  in  with  the  Conquest.  The  great  lords 
held  from  the  king,  the  inferior  lords  from  them,  their  vassals 
again  from  them,  always  on  certain  terms  of  military  service  in 
time  of  war.  It  was  not  a  system  of  landlord  and  tenant,  but 
of  feudal  lords  and  their  inferiors.     Below  these  again  were  a 


EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE.         l8l 

number  of  followers  who  came  with  tliem  from  England  as 
attendants, tradesmen,  artisans,  common  soldiers,  and  bow-men; 
and  below  these  again  the  Irish  who  reiuaiiied  to  do  tlie  rough 
work  of  the  land. 

When  an  Anglo-Norman  obtained  from  his  feudal  lord  a 
grant  of  land,  probably  the  first  thing  he  did  was  to  set  some 
of  his  English  followers  to  build  a  stone  tower  of  some  sort,  as 
a  residence  and  place  of  defence.  Round  this  would  be  erected 
the  huts  or  cottages  of  his  men-at-arms  and  of  the  Irish  who 
remained.  The  little  settlement  was  most  frequently  called  ji 
town,  tliat  is,  an  enclosed  place  of  habitation,  and  it  was  mostly 
named  after  the  man  who  obtained  the  grant ;  for  those  old 
Anglo-Norman  settlers  seem  to  have  been  very  fond  of  doing 
what  tlie  Psalmist  reproves: — They  called  the  lands  after  their 
own  names.  And  so,  all  about  this  country,  we  have  a  series 
of  towns — Palmerstown,  KerdiflPstown,  Hainstown,  Arthurs- 
town,  Bodenstown,  Jigginstown,  Sherlockstown,  Johnstown; 
and  really,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  they  did  this,  not  out  of 
pride  or  conceit,  but  for  sheer  lack  of  imagination  and  inven- 
tion. You  have  no  idea  how  hard  it  is  to  invent  a  new  name. 
We  see  that  in  America,  with  its  Rornes  and  Uticas.  There- 
fore, where  there  was  a  native  name  they  did  not  change  it ; 
they  kept  Rathmore,  Oughterard,  Mainhiim,  Clane,  Clongowes, 
Casam  Soilse,  and  Derrindarragh.  But  where  there  were  no 
native  names  to  hand,  they  gave  it  up  as  a  bad  job,  and  called 
their  lands  after  their  own  names.  And  thus,  curiously  enough, 
when  we  think  of  all  the  changes  that  have  taken  place  since, 
and  how  the  lands  have  passed  through  the  hands  of  multi- 
tudes of  families,  who  have  all  disappeared  and  been  swept  into 
oblivion,  yet,  by  making  out  a  list  of  these  Anglo-Norman 
townlands,  we  can  see  what  families  were  friends  and  neigh- 
bours here  six  or  seven  hundred  years  ago. 

Wlien  I  talk  of  neighbours  and  friends,  it  is  not  to  be 
supposed  that  there  could  liave  been  much  sociability  in  those 
days.  For  one  thing,  the  old  natives  from  the  hills  and  bogs 
were  so  near  and  so  fierce  that  there  would  be  little  possibility 
of  interchanging  visits,  unless  they  went  in  large  parties,  well 
armed.  For  another  thing,  it  was  not  easy  to  get  about  any- 
where. There  were  no  roads,  no  bridges,  no  drains.  Every 
little  stream,  when  it  came  to  the  low  land,  formed  a  series  of 
morasses.  If  I  had  wanted  to  get  from  Sherlockstown  to  Kill 
in  those  days,  I  must  have  waited  for  dry  weather  to  get 
through  the  marshes  formed  by  the  little  Morrell  river.  I  am 
sure  that  about  Kill  the  travelling  was  often  very  nasty ;  and  at 
Johnstown  and  Kerdiffstowu  gate  there  would  be  trouble  in 


1 82        EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE. 

rainy  weather.  To  get  beyond  the  LifiEey  one  had  to  cross  by 
fords  at  Castlesize  or  Clane.  Besides  this,  great  pait  of  the 
country  was  covered  with  wild  forest,  hard  to  travel  through, 
and  apt  to  shelter  outlaws  or  the  wild  Irish.  Derrindarragh, 
or  Daars  as  we  call  it  now,  was  a  thick  oak  wood. 

It  must  be  coufessed  that  if  tlie  old  Irish  tribal  system  had 
continued,  this  state  of  things  would  not  soon  have  been 
mended.  People  who  had  no  permanent  interest  in  the  land 
would  not  make  roads,  bridges,  make  good  fences  or  drains,  or 
reclaim  bogs  and  forests,  as  tliose  who  succeeded  them  have 
done.  Yet  history  shows  us  a  sort  of  rough  poetical  justice 
administered.  The  tribes  driven  to  the  mountains  were  forced 
by  the  change  in  their  circumstances  to  change  themselves. 
And  now  fortune's  wheel  has  turned,  and  we  see  the  mountain 
men  coming  down  to  the  plains  again,  renting  pastures  and 
buying  farms,  reaping  the  benefit  of  the  roads,  bridges,  drains, 
canals,  railways,  and  reclamations,  made  by  those  who  drove 
their  forefathers  to  the  hills. 

In  very  many  cases  the  new  proprietors  did  a  very  sen  ible 
and  right  act.  They  built  a  little  church  for  themselves  and 
their  followers ;  and  they  either  arranged  with  some  monastery 
to  supply  the  clerical  duty,  or  they  endowed  it  with  income 
sufficient  to  keep  a  clergyman.  Most  of  those  townlands  then 
became  parishes,  and  the  churches  were  parish  churches.  In 
other  instances,  where  they  found  a  native  Irish  church,  they 
retained  it,  or  perhaps  rebuilt  and  endowed  it.  At  Kill, 
where  there  was  already  a  church  dedicated  to  St.  Brigid,  they 
seem  to  have  added  to  the  old  dedication,  and  called  it  the 
Church  of  St.  Mary  and  St.  Brigid ;  and  this  church  became 
part  of  the  possessions  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Thomas. 

In  A.D.  1177,  four  years  after  the  canonization  of  Thomas 
a  Becket,  Archbishop  of  (Canterbury,  a  church,  dedicated  to 
him,  was  founded  in  the  western  suburb  of  the  city  of  Dublin, 
on  behalf  of  Henry  11.  by  William  FitzAldelm,  his  represen- 
tative in  Ireland.  The  church  was  under  the  care  of  the 
Augustinian  Canons  of  the  Order  of  St.  Victor,  and  it  became 
the  centre  of  an  establishment  called  the  Abbey  of  St.  Thomas 
the  Martyr,  near  Dublin.  Being  of  royal  foundation  its  abbots 
were  appointed  subject  to  tlie  approval  of  the  king,  and  became 
members  of  his  council  in  Ireland,  peers  of  his  parliament  there, 
and  administered  justice  in  the  court  of  the  abbey.  It  soon 
became  richly  endowed,  and  had  considerable  possessions  in  the 
County  Kildare.     Its  endowments  at  Kill  originated  thus : — 

One  of  the  favourite  companions-in-arms  of  Strongbow  was 
a  young  man   named  Adam  of  Hereford.      To  this  Adam,. 


EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE.         1 83 

Strongbow  gave  large  territories,  viz.  the  Salmon  Leap,  Clon- 
curry,  Kill,  Oughterard,  Downings,  and  otlier  lands.  To  help 
him  to  defend  these  lands  Adam  sent  to  England  for  his  two 
elder  brothers,  John  nnd  Bichard,  and  gave  them  a  share  of  his 
possessions. 

To  his  brother  John,  Adam  gave  the  lands  of  Kill,  Ealdroch 
(Celbridge),  Clonshanbo,  and  Mainham,  with  Cokej  (Rath- 
ooffey) ;  but  he  retained  himself  in  this  neighbourhood  Ough- 
terard, which  was  then  strongly  fortified.  The  church  of 
Wochtred  (Ougliterard),  with  tithes  of  lands  between  it  and 
Castellnm  Warin^  (Castle  Warden)  he  bestowed  on  tlie  Abbey 
of  St.  Thomas.  John  of  Hereford,  Lord  of  Kill,  endowed  the 
Abbey  with  seventeen  and  a-half  acres  of  land,  near  Fourn 
(Forenaghts),  and  also  with  a  farm  in  Kill. 

His  son,  Thomas  of  Hereford,  confirmed  these  gifts,  and 
also  bestowed  on  the  Abbey  his  church  of  Kill  (dedicated  to 
St.  Mary  and  St.  Brigid),  with  lands  in  the  direction  of  the 
possessions  of  Robert  Arthur  (Arthurstown),  situated  on  the 
stream  which  came  down  from  liadmor  (Rathmore). 

Thomas  also  gave  the  canons  of  St.  Thomas  the  right  of 
pasturing  their  animals  of  all  kinds  along  with  his  own,  and 
the  riglit  of  cutting  wood  in  his  forests  for  building,  firing,  and 
fencing.  The  same  Thomas  endowed  a  cei^tain  hospital  in  the 
town  of  Kill,  with  twelve  acres  of  land.  It  is  possible  that 
tliis  may  not  have  been,  strictly  speaking,  a  hospital  in  the 
modern  sense,  but  rather  a  place  of  hospitality  for  strangers 
and  travellers,  and  for  dispensing  relief  to  the  neighbouring 
poor  and  infirm  people,  something  after  the  nature  of  the  old 
Irish  betaghs.  In  addition  to  other  benefactions  he  gave  to 
the  Abbey  the  whole  townland  of  Ballykerdeval,'  with  all  the 
meadow  adjacent  to  it,  which  grant  was  afterwards  confirmed 
by  Eleanora,  his  daughter,  and  Milo  de  Rochfort,  who  had  for 
his  portion  Kill  and  ICildrought.* 

A  deed  of  another  neighbouring  liindowner,  Robert  Arthur 
(of  Arthurstown),  witnessed  by  Dulianus  and  Walter,  chap- 
lains of  Kill,  gave  the  abbot  and  canons  of  bt.  Thomas  eighteen 
acres  of  land  in  Shenebale  (Old  Town),  near  Kill.  Another 
Anglo-norman  settler  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Kill  was 
Kicardus  de  Lesse.      He  gave  to  the  Abbey  the  church  of 


*  There  was  one  Warinus,  Abbot  of  St.  Thomas,  a.d.  1268. 

*  Ballikerdeval  =  Ballakerdes  =  Kerdiff'stown. 

'  Thomus  ot  Hereford  had  no  son.  His  daughter  Eva  married  Walter 
de  Rochfort  (de  Kupe  Porti),  to  whom  she  brought  Mainham  and  Rath- 
ctiUfey.     The  otlier  daughter  Kleanora  married,  as  above,  Milo  de  liochfort. 


l84        EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE. 

Fornach,  with  tithes,  &c.,  only  stipulating  that  his  son  William, 
a  clergyman^  should  hold  it  as  long  as  he  lived.  In  addition  to 
this,  his  son  or  his  brother,  John  de  Lesse,  surrendered  to  them 
all  his  rights  over  the  Church  of  Fornachbeg  (Fumess). 

One  thing  that  we  come  across  in  these  old  benefactions  is 
at  first  rather  puzzling.  You  read  in  one  document  that  such 
a  lord  gave  to  a  church  or  to  a  monastery  certain  lands,  and 
then,  a  few  years  later,  you  find  his  son  or  grandson  granting 
the  same  lands  over  again.  I  suppose  the  explanation  is, 
that  the  lord,  holding  from  his  feudal  superior,  was  unable 
to  bestow  more  than  his  life-interest  in  the  lands,  as,  under  cer- 
tain circumstances,  they  were  liable  to  be  resumed.  Practically, 
however,  the  gift  was  in  perpetuity,  because  his  representative 
never  ventured  to  reclaim  it ;  and  assurance  was  made  surer 
by  a  deed  of  confirniation. 

Among  other  landowners  near  Kill  was  one  who  is  variously 
called  Willelmus  le  Hyrais,  Hireys,  Hibernicus,  Ibernieusis,  or 
William  the  Irishman.  On  the  land  which  he  held  (probably 
from  the  Hereford  family)  there  wjls  a  chapel.  This  was  sub- 
ordinate to  the  mother  church  of  Kill ;  and  by  deed  witnessed 
by  Milo  de  Rochfort,  William,  the  vicar  of  Naas,  and  Walter, 
chaplain  of  Kill,  and  by  his  brother,  Robertus  le  Hyrais,  he  be- 
stowed the  patronage  of  this  chapel  on  the  Abbey  of  St.  Thomas, 
and  endowed  it  with  an  acre  of  land  adjacent,  together  with 
the  right  of  pasture  for  the  chaplain's  horses  and  cattle  over  all 
his  lands.  After  his  brother's  death,  Robert  le  Hyrais,  although 
he  had  been  a  witness  of  this  deed  of  gift,  disputed  the  right  of 
the  Abbey  to  the  patronage.  He  was  in  orders,  and  had  pro- 
bably been  his  brother's  chaplain.  The  dispute  was  takea 
to  Rome,  and  there  settled  by  judges  appointu(l  by  the  Pope  in 
1224-5.  It  resulted  in  a  compromise.  Robert  was  directed  to 
surrender  all  his  claims  to  the  chapel,  an<l  in  return,  the  abbot 
and  canons  surrendered  the  chapel  and  belongings  to  him  for 
his  life,  subject  to  a  small  payment  thereout  at  Christmas. 
Robert  was  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  chapel,  and  to  pay 
all  episcopal  dues ;  but  to  the  mother  church  of  Kill  was  re- 
served the  right  of  baptizing  all  infants,  and  the  right  of  bury- 
ing all  parishioners.  The  parishioners  attending  the  chapel 
were  also  bound  to  attend  the  mother  church,  with  the  accus- 
tomed oblations,  on  the  feasts  of  Easter,  Pentecost,  Christmas, 
and  the  feast  of  the  mother  church. 

I  have  often  wondered  who  this  William  the  Irishman  was. 
Why  was  he  called  so  ?  Was  he  really  Irish  ?  Or  was  he 
only  called  so  because  he  had  adopted  the  native  way  of  living? 
If  he  was  really  Irish,  how  did  lie  come  to  be  living  as  a 


EARLY  LANDOWNERS  IN  KILL,  CO.  KILDARE.         1 85 

landed  lord  among  tbe  English  invaders  ?  Was  he  an  Irish 
chief  married  to  one  of  tlieir  daughters  ?  Or  had  he  thrown 
over  his  own  people,  and  joined  the  foreigner  in  plundering 
themP  Such  are  some  of  the  questions  always  turniug  up 
when  we  dive  into  these  old  records,  and  strive  to  gather  the 
history  beneath  them.  We  get  a  hint  now  and  then  of  some 
mystery,  a  glimpse  of  some  tragedy,  and  they  haunt  our 
memories  and  drive  us  to  vain  guesses.  They  make  us  feel 
that  behind  the  old  stained  and  mouldy  parchments  there  were 
men  of  flesh  and  blood  like  our  own,  animated  by  fierce  pas- 
sions and  strong  affections,  by  hopes  of  heaven  and  fears  of  hell. 
How  strange  it  all  seems  to  us  now.  Adam  of  Hereford 
Hummoning  his  brothers  John  and  Richard  over  to  help  him  to 
take  and  keep  this  country ;  and  with  them  Robert  Arthur,  and 
Richard  and  John  de  Lesse,  and  Kerdeval  or  Kardiif ;  the  Roch- 
fort  brothers,  who  married  sister  heiresses,  Eva  and  Eleanora ; 
William  the  Irishman  and  his  brother  Robert  the  clergyman  ; 
the  monks  of  St.  Thomas  ;  Dulianus  and  Walter,  chaplains  of 
Kill ;  and  William  the  Vicar  of  Naas :  all  pass  before  us  as 
dim  shadows — their  battles,  their  conquests,  their  plots  and 
intrigues,  their  benefactions,  and  their  petty  quarrels,  all  over 
hundreds  of  years  ago.  How  one  would  like  to  look  in  on  the 
little  iiospice  in  Kill,  or  to  see  the  parishioners  streaming  in 
witli  their  oblations  on  an  Easter  morning  to  the  Church  of 
St.  Mary  and  St.  Brigid,  or  to  be  present  when  the  Abbot  of 
St.  Tiiomas  visited  the  possessions  of  his  abbey  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood ! 


/ 


(     186     ) 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 
Br  ••  OMURETHI." 


w 


HAT  is  known  as  "  the  Moat "  of  Ardscull  stands  on  the 
summit  of  the  high  ground  of  that  name,  which  rises 
140  feet  above,  and  3  miles  to  the  north-east,  of  the 
town  of  Athy.  In  this  instance  the  term  "  Moat "  is  mis- 
applied, as  in  reality  this  earthwork  is  a  rath  or  fort ;  but  in 
Ireland  all  mounds,  artificial  or  natural,  are  called  "  Moats,'* 
though,  as  a  rule,  the  name  implies  a  Pagan  sepulchral  mound 
or  tumulus. 

In  tlie  Ordnance  Survey  Letters  (written  about  the  year 
1830),  kept  in  tlie  Library  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 
O'Donovan,  the  great  Irish  scholar,  thus  explains  the  meaning 
of  the  name  : — 

'*  Ardscull  =  Ard  and  Sool,  meaning  '  the  Hill  of  Shouts/ 
It  is  mentioned  in  the  Book  of  Lecan  as  the  site  of  a  battle 
between  the  Leinstermen  and  the  Munstermen  in  the  reign  of 
Felimy  Beachtmar  (t.e.  *the  Law-maker,'  King  of  Ireland 
from  A.D.  111  to  119).'' 

The  Moat  (as  it  will  be  called  in  future)  rises  to  a  height  of 
66  feet  above  the  ground  level,  and  is  artificial.  It  consists  of 
a  steep  high  central  mound,  with  a  rampart  round  the  top,  and 
II n  opening  on  the  west  side  (which  may  be  of  modem  make), 
while  n  trench  inside  a  rahipart  encircles  the  base.  The  Moat 
is  now  covered  with  trees,  which  were  planted  early  in  tliis 
century.  The  public  road  from  Athy  to  Fontstown  and 
SkeiTies  runs  round  about  two-thirds  of  its  base.  It  lay  in  the 
district  of  Omurethi,  belonging  to  the  O'Toole  sept ;  and 
though  it  must  from  its  strength  have  been  a  stronghold  of 
great  importance,  yet,  strange  to  say,  the  name  is  not  men- 
tioned in  "  The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  nor  does  it 
appear  in  nny  of  the  old  Irish  histories  until  after  the  coming 
of  the  Normans  into  Ireland  in  the  latter  end  of  the  twelfth 
century. 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL.  1 87 

The  following  three  extracts  are  taken  from  Holinshed's 
Chronicles  of  Ireland : — 

(1)  "The  Norwath  (i.e.  Narraghmore)  and  ArdsooU,  with  other  townes 
and  villages,  were  burnt  by  Philip  Stanton,  the  sixteenth  dale  of  November, 
in  the  yeare  1286."     ( Vide  Cox,  History  of  Ireland^  as  well.) 

(2)  **  In  the  yeere  1309,  on  Candlemas  day  (2nd  Feb.),  the  Lord  John 
Bonne vill  was  slaine  ueere  to  the  town  of  ArdscoU  by  the  lorde  Arnold 
Powre  and  his  accomplices ;  his  bodie  was  buried  at  Athie,  in  the  Church 
of  the  Friers  preachers.  In  the  yeere  following,  at  a  Parliament  holden  at 
Kildare,  the  lorde  Arnold  Powre  was  acquit  on  that  slaughter,  for  that  it 
was  proved  it  was  doone  in  his  own  defense.'*  {Vide  also  Calendar  of 
Carew  MSS,,  p.  127.) 

(3)  ''In  1315  the  Bruse*  went  through  the  Countrie  unto  Rathintigan 

it.0.  Kathangan)  and  Xildare,  and  to  the  partes  about  Tristeldermot 
i.e.  Castledermot)  &  Athie,  then  to  Raban,  Sketlier  (recte  Skerries),  «& 
neere  to  ArdskoUe  in  Leinster ;  where  the  Lord  Justice  Butler,^  the  Lord 
John  Fitz  Thomas'  (Fitz  Oerald),  the  iMxd  Arnold  Powre,  A  other  lords  & 
gentlemen  of  Leinster  &  Munster  came  to  encounter  the  Bruse ;  but  through 
discord  that  rose  among  them,  they  left  the  field  unto  the  enemies ;  Sir 
William  Prendergast,  Knight,  &  Heimond  le  Grace,  a  right  valiant  Esquire, 
were  slaine  there.  And  on  the  Scottish  side  Sir  Fergus  Andreasan,  &  Sir 
Walter  Murreie,  with  divers  other  that  were  buried  m  the  church  of  the 
friers  preachers  at  Athie."  (Vide  Calendar  of  Carew  MSS,^  p.  133,  as 
well.) 

The  Hamon  (or  Heimond)  le  (Jraee,  mentioned  above  as  one 
of  the  killed,  was  a  descendant  of  Raymond  le  (xros  [t,e,  the 
stout),  second  son  of  William,  who  was  brother  of  Maurice 
FitzGerald,  the  first  of  the  Irish  (j-eraldines.  Raymond  le 
Qtos  came  into  Ireland  with  Strongbow  in  1170,  became 
viceroy  in  1176,  and,  marrying  Basilia  de  Clare,  Strongbow's 
fiister,  acquired  the  extensive  district  in  the  Co.  Kilkenny, 
which  was  known  as  "  the  Gbace  country,"  owing  to  his  descen- 
dants assuming  the  surname  of  Grace,  which  originated  in  the 
agnomen  '4e  Gros."  The  family  is  now  seated  at  Mantua 
(formerly  Montagh)  House,  near  Elphin,  Co.  Roscommon, 
and  at  Qxacefield  House  (formerly  Shanganagh),  near  Arless, 
in  the  Queen's  County. 

In  a  well-illustrated  Work  by  Sheffield  Grace,  called 
"  Memoirs  of  the  Grace  Family,"  is  published  a  long  poem 
of  twenty-five   stanzas  on  the    family,    written   at  Jerpoint 


^  Edward,  brother  of  Robert  Bruce,  Xing  of  Scotland. 

*  Sir  Edmond  le  Bottiler,  Earl  of  Carrick. 

3  John  FitzGerald,  afterwards  Ist  Earl  of  Kildare. 


1 88  THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 

Abbey,  Co.  Kilkennj'.     Stnoza  viii.  thus  alludes  to  the  death 
of  Hamon  : — 

*'  On  Asciirs  plain  was  heard  the  sound  of  woe, 

And  as  the  gentle  Barrow  glided  by 
All  blood-stained  were  its  waters  in  tneir  flow, 

Where  heroes  died,  but  not  for  victory. 
There  Hamoii  perished  in  his  flower  of  days, 

While  many  a  fresh  wreath  bloomed  his  temples  round — 
The  warrior  Luurel  with  the  minstrel  Bays 

Entwined,  and  by  the  land  he  died  for  bound. 
Oh !  sacred  be  the  turf  above  his  breast. 

And  hallowed  be  the  spot,  almost  unknown. 
Where  fall  the  parting  sunbeams  of  the  West, 

And  gild  the  Earth,  unmurked  by  tree  or  si  one  ! 
The  grass  grows  wildly  o'er  his  lowly  bed, 

And  nought  but  common  clay  enwraps  the  brave  ;  . 
While  many,  as  they  o'er  his  pillow  tread, 

Know  not  they  trample  o'er  a  hero's  grave."  ^ 

After  this  period  I  can  find  no  allusions  to  Ardscull  until 
the  year  1654.  It  is  then  referred  to  in  a  MS.  book  in  the 
Record  OflBce  of  the  Four  Courts,  called  '*  The  Book  of  General 
Orders  for  1654." 

It  is  as  follows  :  — 

The  Inhabitants  )  Upon  reading  the  written  peticion  of  the  well  affected 
of  Kildare.  J  Inhabitants  of  the  Countie  of  Kildare,  praying  that  the 
state  would  contribute  thirty  pounds  towards  the  finishing  of  a  Fort  y* 
they  have  built  at  the  Mote  of  Ardscull  lying  near  the  Barrow,  &  upon  a 
considerable  road,  &  that  the  same  may  be  a  Oarrison. 

It  is  ordered  that  it  be  referred  to  Coll.  Hewson,  Coll.  Laurence,  &  the 
Com'«  Gen"  of  the  Revenue,  to  consider  of  the  allegacion,  &  of  the  necessity 
of  fortifying  a  place  in  Eildare,  &  of  the  convenieucy  of  the  place  within 
mentioned,  for  such  a  forte ;  and  being  satisfied  therein  to  certify  the  same 
to  the  Council,  &  the  Com"  Gen"  to  give  order  for  a  warrant  to  be  prepared 
lor  contributing  towards  the  finishing  thereof  out  of  y*  publique  Treasury 
not  exceeding  twenty  pounds. 

(Signed)    Thomas  Heiibebt,  Clerk  of  the  Council. 
Dublin,  12th  March,  1654. 

As  far  as  can  he  now  ascertained,  no  Cromwellian  fort  was 
erected  at  or  near  the  Moat,  and  I  have  come  across  no  tradi- 
tion of  its  existence;  yet,  according  to  the  wording  of  the 
petition,  the  fort  was  actually  commenced,  and  they  were 
begging  for  £30  to  he  able  to  finish  it! 


^  Brewer,  in  his  **  Beauties  of  Ireland,"  and  Moore,  in  his  **  Histor}*  of 
Ireland,"  quote  the  first  five  lines  of  the  above  stanza. 


X 


M 

X 

H 


e 


190 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 


Can  it  be  that  they  selected  a  moat*  (the  one  in  question), 
and  converted  it  into  a  rath-like  fort  by  raising  tlie  ramparts  at 
the  summit  ?  Its  commanding  position  and  size  would  mark  it 
out  as  a  most  favourable  earthwork  to  fortify.  This  idea  is 
carried  out  by  the  following  description  of  the  Moat  as  it  was 
over  a  hundred  years  ago,  taken  from  Eichard  Gough's  edition 


Plan  of  thb  Intkrior  of  the  Moat  of  Aroscull, 

By  W.  Beaufort. 

(From  Gough's  "Camden's  Britannia,"  1789.) 


^  Father  Shearman,  in  his  **Loca  Patriciana,"  favours  the  idea  of  its 
being  a  moat,  and  also  gives  his  version  of  the  meaning  of  the  name,  whicli 
is  given  below  for  what  it  is  worth  : — 

Nuadha  **Neacht"  (i.e.  the  snow-white)  slew  Ederscel,  son  of  Eoghan, 
son  of  Oilioll,  King  of  Ireland  in  a.m.  5089  (i.<;.  according  to  the  Annals  of 
the  Four  Masters,  B.C.  Ill),  at  Knookaulin,  Co.  Eildare,  and  became  Kiue 
of  Ireland.  **Ederscal,'*  says  Father  Shearman,  **was  buried  in  Ard 
Eterscel,  now  Ardscule,  a  remarkable  tumulus  near  Athy.'' 

If  it  was  formerly  a  moat,  that  fact  would  account  for  its  not  being 
mentioned  in  early  history  along  with  Enockaulin,  Allen,  Naas,  Mullagh> 
mast,  Mullachreelan,  and  other  forts. 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL.  IQI 

of  William  Camden's  Britannia  (originally  published  in  1607), 
which  he  illustrated  and  enlarged  in  1789  [vide  vol.  iii.,  p.  483j; 
the  account,  probably  from  the  pen  of  W.  Beaufort,  who  also 
drew  the  sketches  here  reproduced  from  the  volume,  is  as 
follows : — 

Ardscul,  about  3  miles  from  Athy,  on  the  road  to  Dublia,  in  the  barony 
of  Norragh,  and  county  Eildare,  is  a  very  fine  *'  Don.''  See  the  plan  and 
-view,  Plate  XLn.,  figs.  2  and  3,  in  which — 

£  is  the  mote  or  ditoh,  150  ft.  long,  110  ft.  wide,  and  40  ft.  above  the 
level  of  the  country. 

B,  the  rath,  or  cuirt,  from  12  to  20  ft.  wide. 

G,  the  parapet,  20  ft.  above  the  level  of  the  country. 

C,  the  ban,  or  rampart  of  earth,  from  8  to  10  ft.  wide. 

A,  the  entrance  from  the  west,  16  ft.  above  the  platform  of  the  fort,  and 
M  ft.  above  the  mote  (E],  being  from  16  to  20  ft.  wide  at  the  top,  and  from 
40  to  50  ft.  at  the  bottom. 

D,  the  amhairc,  or  radharc,  that  is,  a  speculum  or  watchtower,  whereon 
the  habitation  of  the  chief  was  generally  situated,  and  whereon  were  con- 
stantly placed  the  guards  or  watchmen.  This  is  120  ft.  by  45,  rises  some- 
what higher  than  the  ban  (G),  and  commands  a  most  delightful  and 
extensive  prospect.  On  this  may  be  traced  the  foundations  of  a  building 
at  (H). 

H,  consisting  of  two  apartments,  of  which  that  marked  1  is  14  ft.  by 
10 ;  No.  2  is  30  ft.  by  23 ;  No.  3  is  14  ft.  by  20.  In  that  marked  2  about 
six  years  since  Mr.  Beaufort  discovered,  near  two  feet  beneath  the  surface, 
a  iirehearth,  consisting  of  four  large  stones,  one  for  the  hearth,  one  at  the 
back,  and  one  at  each  side ;  they  were  neatly  hammered,  but  not  chiselled, 
and  on  the  hearth  were  found  some  pieces  of  coal  we  now  denominate 
Kilkenny  coal,  and  also  pieces  of  wood  burnt.  There  could  also  be  traced 
the  foundations  of  other  buildings  which  have  since  been  dug  up  to  make 
room  for  a  crop  of  potatoes. 

L  is  an  irregular  apartment,  50  ft.  by  15. 

M  was  either  a  well  or  an  entrance  to  a  cave  under  the  rath  10  ft. 
square. 

I  and  E  were  apartments  in  a  recess  of  the  parapet ;  I  La  30  It.  by  12, 
and  K  is  20  ft.  by  12. 

4,  5,  6,  and  7.  The  foundations  of  the  apartments,  or  barracks,  marked 
^08.  4,  5,  6,  and  7,  are  situated  without  the  ban,  and  are  in  the  whole 
100  feet  by  20.    No.  7  is  30  ft.  square. 

The  Irish  raths  or  duns,  when  situated  on  a  plain,  are  generally  circu- 
lar ;  but  when  on  a  natural  hill,  are  of  various  forms,  according  to  the 
situation  of  the  ground.  This  at  Ardscul  is  irregular,  and  contrary  to  the 
general  method,  opens  to  the  west,  and  not  to  the  east. 

A  new  road  has  been  made  round  it  about  twenty  years  ago,  before 
which  the  mote  or  rath  was  situated  in  a  large  field,  and  the  country  round 
it  was  covered  with  an  extensive  forest,  now  for  the  greater  part  a  bog.* 

*  Some  of  the  neighbouring  townlands  bear  names  indicating  the  former 
woody  nature  of  the  district,  such  as  Forest,  Sawyer's  Wood,  and  Black- 
wood. 

VOL.  U.,   FT.  HI.  Q 


IQ2  THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 

The  above  description,  though  the  writer  has  put  Geltio 
names  to  portions  of  this  earthwork,  conveys  more  the  idea  of  a 
rath  or  moat  converted  to  a  modern  use  than  that  of  a  very 
early  native  fortress;  and  so,  the  petition  of  1654  and  the 
above  account  may,  perhaps,  satisfactorily  explain  each  other. 

The  road  mentioned  iu  the  petition  of  1654  ran  more  or 
less  parallel  to,  and  on  the  east  side  of,  the  present  road  run- 
ning from  Athy  to  the  Moat.  Portions  of  it  are  shown  on  a 
hand-painted  map,  drawn  by  Hoque  in  1756  for  James,  Earl 
of  Kildare,  where  it  is  marked  down  as  "  the  old  road." 

The  earliest  Norman  possessor  of  property  in  and  around 
ArdscuU,  according  to  Sweetman's  Calendar  of  Documentu^  Ire* 
land,  appears  to  have  been  William  de  Moliun  (Mowon),  as,  in 
the  year  1282,  the  escheator  of  Ireland  (John  de  Saunford)  was 
ordered  to  take  into  the  king's  hands  all  the  lands  whereof 
William  de  Mohun  died  seized  in  fee.  William's  death  took 
place  at  Ottery,  in  Devon,  on  the  25th  of  August,  1282.  One 
of  the  twelve  jury  on  the  sworn  Inquisition,  held  on  the  4th  of 
October  in  that  year,  to  ascertain  William's  possessions,  was  a 
Stephen  de  Molochmast.  They  found  that  he  had  in  possession, 
besides  the  Manor  of  Grange  Mohun  (Moone),  property  in 
Bithelan  (Belan),  Carbery,  Allen,  and  Arscol,  all  in  the  Co. 
Kildare,  besides  property  in  the  Co.  Kilkenny.  As  to  Arscol, 
or  ArdscuU,  "they  say  that  there  are  here  60^  acres  in  demesne, 
which  they  extend  at  6O5.  6d.,  namely,  each  acre  at  12d. ; 
8  acres  held  by  William  Hoper  are  extended  to  8«.  a-year, 
namely,  12d.  an  acre:  total,  68s.  6d.  The  burgesses  of  Arscol 
hold  160  burgages,  and  render  therefor  8/.  a-year,  one  moiety 
at  Michaelmas,  and  the  other  at  Easter,  besides  Ss.  Hd.  surplus 
rent. 

"  Mill,  etc.  They  extend  a  moiety  of  the  mill  of  Arscol, 
which  William  held  at  his  death  at  19«.  a-year ;  one  moiety  of 
the  wood  there  at  6s.  8d. ;  prisage  of  beer  there  at  13s.  Ad, 
a-year,  and  pleas  and  perquisites  of  the  hundred  there  at  20b. 
a-year :  total,  60«." 

The  Moat  is  on  the  Duke  of  Leinster's  property.  It  pro- 
bably came  into  the  possession  of  the  Fitz  Geralds  in  the  13th 
century,  on  the  marriage  of  Thomas  Fitz  Gerald,  6th  Baron  of 
Offaly  (father  of  the  first  Earl  of  Kildare),  with  Bohesia, 
daughter  of  Bichard  de  St.  Michael,  Baron  of  Eheban,  who 
was  heiress  of  the  Manors  of  Woodstock  and  Athy. 

The  Moat  of  ArdscuU  is  still  believed  by  the  old  people  to 
be  the  abode  of  the  little  gentry,  or  good  people,  as  they  pro- 
pitiatingly  call  the  fairies.  One  story  I  lately  heard  in  con- 
nexion with  it  was  to  this  effect : — Long  ago  there  dwelt  in  the 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL.  195 

neiglibourhood  a  man  named  Murtagh  Byrne,  who  was  de- 
formed by  a  humped  back.  When  passing  the  Moat  one 
evening  he  heard  bagpipe  music  and  singing  going  on  at  the 
summit.  Wondering  what  party  had  assembled  there,  lie 
climbed  the  steep  sides,  and  peered  over  the  ridge  of  the  upper 
rampart,  and  below  in  the  hollow  he  saw  a  large  company  of 
the  good  people.  They  were  singing  a  monotonous  chant,  which 
consisted  of  the  often-repeated  words,  "  Monday,  Tuesday ; 
Monday,  Tuesday."  Soon  picking  up  the  air,  Murtagh  joined 
in,  adding  to  the  chant  "  and  Wednesday."  This  was  taken 
up  willingly  by  the  good  people,  and,  delighted  at  the  addition 
to  their  song,  they  surrounded  Murtagh  Byrne,  and  asked  him 
what  favour  they  could  do  him.  Murtagh  answered  that  his 
one  wish  was  to  have  his  back  straightened.  Immediately  they 
removed  his  hump,  and  placed  it  on  the  ground  beside  him. 
With  many  expressions  of  gratitude  Muiiagh  left  the  Moat, 
with  his  back  as  straight  as  the  barrel  of  a  firelock.  The  news 
of  Murtagh's  adventure  si)read  far  and  near,  and  eventually 
reached  the  ears  of  another  humpbacked,  but  cross  and  cantan- 
kerous fellow,  called  Myles  M'Evoy,  who  at  once  proceeded  to 
the  Moat,  in  hopes  of  a  like  cure.  He  also  found  the  good 
people  assembled,  and  singing  continually,  '*  Monday,  Tuesday, 
and  Wednesday ;  Monday,  Tuesday,  and  Wednesday."  Myles, 
without  troubling  to  learn  the  time  or  air,  shouted  discordantly, 
'*  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  and  Sunday."  A  yell  of  rage 
greeted  him,  and  before  he  could  say  "  Brian  Boru,"  Murtagh 
Byrne's  hump,  which  was  still  lying  on  the  ground,  was  clapped 
on  the  top  of  his,  and  he  was  hustled  from  the  place  amid 
shouts  of  laughter. 

The  above  tale  is  also  told  of  other  places  in  Ireland,  with 
local  oolouring. 

Formerly,  at  Green  Hills,  in  the  County  Kildare,  there 
dwelt  a  famous  bagpiper  named  Ned  Dunne.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  second  to  none  as  a  player,  and  to  have  acquired  the 
gift  also  from  "  the  good  people  "  of  ArdscuU  in  reward  for 
having  entertained  them  with  "  The  Hare  in  the  Corn,"  "The 
Geese  on  the  Bog,"  "The  Wind  that  Shakes  the  Barley,"  and 
other  jig  airs,  when  returning  one  night  from  the  pattern  at 
Toberara,  near  Athy.  One  of  his  performances,  I  was  told, 
was  being  able  to  play  "  Norah  Creina "  with  twenty-three 
variations. 

Within  half  a-mile,  and  to  the  south-west,  of  the  Moat 
stood  a  small  square  rath,  which  was  levelled  by  a  man  named 
Christy  Hickey,  for  top-dressing  his  holding,  some  six  or  seven 
years  ago.    To  the  astonishment  of  his  neighbours  no  ill  effects 

Q2 


194  THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 

to  him  or  his  have  resulted.  It  was  formerly  oovered  with 
thorn  bushes ;  under  one  in  particular  on  the  south  side  of  the 
rath  it  was  rumoured  that  a  big  lump  of  money  was  buried,  but 
no  one  would  dare  dig  for  it.  However,  a  few  years  ago  a  big 
wind  blew  down  the  bush,  and  Christy  then  attacked  the  place 
with  a  faok;  but  after  digging  to  a  depth  of  three  feet  he 
failed  to  find  the  treasure,  and  so  desisted.  When  levelling  the 
rampart  he  came  across  a  large  number  of  animal  bones  and 
teeth,  a  horse's  and  a  cow's  skull,  as  well  as  a  sort  of  iron  bill-hook, 
about  a  foot  in  length,  with  teeth,  and  a  socket  for  the  inser- 
tion of  the  handle.  In  the  north-eastern  corner  of  the  rampart 
he  came  across  an  unflagged  chamber,  full  of  black  barley  and 
ashes,  of  which  he  drew  away  twenty-seven  cartloads,  and  used 
it  as  manure.  Just  outside  this  find,  in  the  trench,  in  one 
place  was  a  very  soft  dry  spot,  down  which  his  shovel  went  as 
if  through  water ;  the  length  of  the  shovel  and  his  arm  did  not 
reach  the  bottom.     He  did  not  examine  it  further. 

In  connexion  with  this  square  rath  Christy  Hickey  tells  a 
story  which  he  had  heard  from  old  men,  while  "colloguing  "  at 
the  fireside.  In  giving  it  here,  I  have  adhered  as  near  as  pos- 
sible to  his  own  words  : — After  the  Danes  had  been  extermi- 
nated out  of  the  country  a  small  remnant  of  them  still  existed  in 
the  depths  of  the  Black  Wood,  near  the  MonavuUagh  Bog,  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  Moat.  They  had  hairy  skins,  like 
bullocks,  and  short  tails,  but  were  harmless  and  inoffensive  to 
the  people  round,  with  the  exception  of  a  white  wolf  they  pos- 
sessed. They  were  known  by  the  name  of  "  MacLochlans." 
One  day  a  man  named  Brian  O'Toole  hunted  the  white  wolf, 
but  was  pursued  by  the  Danes,  who  chased  him  up  a  tree. 
The  white  wolf  was  following  after  him,  when  he  fired  at  it 
with  a  bowarra,  and  wounded  it  in  the  eye.  The  Danes  then 
fled,  and  with  the  white  wolf  disappeared  out  of  the  country. 
Some  yeara  afterwards  Brian,  in  order  to  make  up  his  rent, 
went  over  to  England  to  look  for  work,  and  from  there  passed 
on  into  the  Danes'  country.  In  the  heel  of  the  evening  of  one 
hot  day  he  found  himself  tramping  along  the  mail-coach  road, 
weak  with  fatigue.  Presently  he  met  with  an  old  man  who  was 
sitting  on  the  top  of  the  ditch  crying  bitterly.  Beside  him  a 
few  head  of  cattle  and  a  puckawn  were  grazing  by  the  roadside. 
On  coming  up  with  him  Brian  bid  him  the  time  of  day,  and 
asked  what  ailed  him.  The  old  man  replied,  "  My  father  is 
after  giving  me  a  skelping  for  not  driving  the  cows  out  to 
graze  sooner."  "Is  your  father  still  alive?"  says  Brian, 
"  Faith,  he  must  be  a  very  old  man  entirely ;  where  does  he 
live  P  "     "  He  lives  in  a  house  about  ten  perch  further  down 


THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL.  1 95 

the  road,"  said  the  old  man ;  "  but  it 's  tired  you  look.  Won't 
you  go  in  and  take  the  weight  of?  your  feet,  and  you  '11  find  a 
drink  of  buttermilk  (m  the  dresser  ?  "  Brian  willingly  accepted 
this  invitation,  and  was  starting  off  when  the  old  man  ccdled 
him  back,  and  said,  '^It's  wanting  to  shake  hands  with  you  my 
father  will  be,  and  though  he  is  mighty  old,  yet  he  is  powerful 
strong ;  so  you  had  better  take  this  with  you,  and  give  it  to 
him  instead  of  your  hand."  And  he  gave  Brian  the  leg-bone 
of  a  horse. 

On  entering  the  Dane's  house,  with  a  "  God  save  all  here," 
Brian  saw  that  the  aged  Dane  was  lying  in  a  cradle  slung  from 
the  ridge-pole  of  the  house.  He  went  up,  and  commenced 
rocking  it,  upon  which  the  occupant  opened  one  eye  and  looked 
at  him.  "  Give  us  your  hand,"  says  he.  Brian  held  out  the 
leg-bone,  which  the  Dane  grasped,  and  crushed  it  to  bruss. 
"  Now,  sit  down  and  take  an  air  of  the  fire,"  said  he,  "  while  I 
speak  to  you."  Brian  sat  himself  on  the  hob,  and  picking  up 
a  live  coal,  lit  his  pipe  with  it.  "  I  know  you  well,"  said  the 
Dane  ;  "  it 's  out  of  the  county  Eldare  you  are."  "  Faith,  I 
am,"  said  Brian,  in  astonishment.  "  Did  you  ever  hear  tell  of 
the  Moat  of  ArdsciiU  ?  "  asked  the  Dane.  "  Wasn't  I  reared 
within  the  bawl  of  an  ass  of  it,"  replied  Brian.  "  Well,  it's 
there  I  made  my  load,"  continued  tlie  Dane ;  "  and  now,  if 
you  will  follow  my  instructions,  I  '11  make  you  as  rich  a*  the 
King  of  Spain."  "  Why  are  you  going  to  treat  me  so  hand- 
somely ?  "  inquired  Brian,  suspiciously.  "  I'll  tell  you  that," 
said  the  Dane ;  **  do  you  mind  some  years  ago  coursing  a  white 
W)lf,  and  wounding  it  in  the  eye  with  a  bowarra ? "  " Bedad, 
I  do,"  replied  Brian.  "Well,"  said  the  Dane,  "myself  was 
the  wolf,  and  that  eye  is  dark  in  my  head  yet.  By  wounding 
me  you  broke  the  enchantment  that  was  on  us,  and  we  were  then 
able  to  return  to  our  own  country.  But  to  return  to  tlie  treasure. 
Do  you  know  the  littlo  square  rath  called  *  Arduacutch,'  that 
lies  within  a  shout  of  the  Moat  of  ArdscuU,  to  the  south  ? " 
"  Many  are  the  cock-fights  I  've  seen  in  it,"  replied  Brian. 
"  Did  you  ever  remark  a  big  skeoch-bush  on  the  north  side  of 
it  ?  "  asked  the  Dane.  "  Begorra,  I  have,"  answered  Brian  ; 
"  shure,  I  destroyed  a  magpie  s  nest  in  it  last  year."  "  Well," 
continued  the  Dane,  "on  your  return  home,  get  a  fack  and  dig 
near  the  roots  of  the  skeoch  ;  you  '11  meet  a  fiight  of  steps,  at 
the  bottom  of  which  is  a  stone  flag,  with  an  iron  ring  in  it ;  on 
raising  that,  you  will  find  a  cave  containing  the  full  of  a  car  of 
golden  guineas.  But  you  must  take  this  handkercher  and 
woirum  (which  the  Dane  lifted  out  of  a  box  he  had  pulled 
from  the  thatch,  and  handed  to  Brian)  "  with  you,  because  the 


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196  THE  MOAT  OF  ARDSCULL. 

cave  is  guarded  by  an  eagle,  a  dog,  and  a  oat,  which  will 
attack  you ;  but,  by  holding  one  in  either  liand,  they  will  have 
no  power  over  you.  Don't  lose  them,  or  your  luck  will  fail. 
And  now  I  '11  take  a  shough  of  your  doodeen  before  I  go  to 
sleep,  and  good  luck  go  with  you."  That  night  Brian  slept  in 
the  settle-bed  in  the  Dane's  kitchen,  and  early  next  morning 
commenced  his  return  journey  to  Ireland.  In  due  course  he 
reached  home,  and  witliout  delay  commenced  to  dig  under  the 
big  skeoch-bush  on  the  north  side  of  Ardnacutch.  He  dis- 
covered the  steps,  unearthed  them,  and  lay  bare  the  stone  flag 
at  their  base.  He  then  took  the  handkerchief  in  one  hand  and 
the  worm  in  the  other,  and  commenced  to  raise  the  flag  from 
below,  when  a  screeching  and  bawling  commenced.  As  soon  as 
he  had  opened  the  mouth  of  the  cave,  out  charged  the  eagle, 
dog,  and  cat.  Brian  lost  his  head,  and,  dropping  the  handker- 
chief and  worm,  seized  the  fack  to  protect  himself.  He  was 
immediately  stunned  by  a  blow  from  the  eagle's  wing;  and 
when  he  came  to  again  he  found  himself  lying,  badly  bruised, 
in  the  middle  of  Ardnacutch,  while  the  hole  that  he  had  dug 
was  freshly  filled  in  again.  Since  then  no  one  has  discovered 
the  treasure. 

To  some  it  may  seem  childish  to  record  "fairy  tales  "  of  the 
above  description ;  but  they  are  old-world  stories  that  are  hard 
to  collect  now,  as  the  old  generation  who  used  to  recite  them, 
and  who,  to  a  great  extent  beliaved  them  to  be  true,  are  passing 
away,  and  with  them  will  go  a  very  great  deal  tiiat  was  innocent 
and  instructive,  never  to  return. 


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(     198     ) 


CELBRIDGE:    SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST 
HISTORY. 

Br  REV.  CHARLES  I.   GRAHAM,   B.D.,   Incumbent  of  Cclbridge. 
[Read  at  the  Celbbidob  Meeting,  September,  1896.] 

NOT  every  village  in  Ireland  can  boast  itself  the  scene  of  a 
famous  historical  romance.  Yet  Celbridge,  some  hundred 
and  seventy  years  ago,  was  for  a  short  period,  the  scene  of  a 
romance  wliich  will  not  be  forgotten  as  long  as  the  names  of 
Swift  and  Vanessa  live  in  the  pages  of  history.  Eomanoe  and 
archaeology  may  not  at  first  sight  seem  to  be  on  the  best  of 
terms.  The  truth  is  that  romance  is  a  much  greater  thing  than 
archaeology,  and  if  archaeology  can  make  the  romances  of  the 
past  stand  out  before  us  as  living  realities  to-day,  archaeology 
has  deserved  well  even  of  those  who  can  find  in  it  nothing  but 
the  driest  of  dry  bones.  The  story  of  the  love  of  Vanessa  for 
Swift,  more  than  a  century  and  a-half  ago,  can  be  realised  to 
tlie  full  by  any  who  pay  a  visit  to  Vanessa's  Bower  at  The 
Abbey,  Celbridge,  and  who  have  imagination  enough  when 
there  to  throw  themselves  into  the  history  of  tlie  past.  But 
what  is  this  story  of  Swift  and  Vanessa  P  Briefly  it  is  this. 
Bartholomew  Van  Homrigh,  a  Dutch  merchant  who  had  been 
Commissary  of  Stores  for  King  William  III.  in  the  Irish  Civil 
Wars,  purchased  forfeited  estates  to  the  value  of  £12,000  in 
Ireland.  He  became  Lord  Mayor  of  Dublin  in  1697.  And  at 
his  death,  about  1709,  his  widow  (who  was  the  daughter  of 
Mr.  Stone,  a  Commissioner),  witli  her  two  sons  and  two 
daughters  settled  in  London.  There  Swift  became  acquainted 
witli  them.  At  that  time,  the  eldest  daughter,  Esther  Van 
Homrigh  was  about  twenty  years  of  age.  She  was  the  Van-Essa 
of  S wilt's  romance.  She  and  the  Dean  read  and  studied 
together  in  London,  until  the  literary  bond  deepened  into  a 
stronger  and  more  powerful  one,  and  Esther  Van  Homrigh 
confessed  her  love  for  her  master.  This  confession  was  made 
just  before  Swift  went  to  take  possession  of  the  Deanery  of 
St.  Patrick's  in  1713.  Swift  indeed  expressed  surprise  that 
Vanessa  should  have  conceived  such  a  passion.     He  writes  : — 

**  Vanessa,  not  in  years  a  score 
Dreams  of  a  gown  of  forty-four. 
Imaginary  charms  oan  iind 
In  eyes  >\'ith  reading  almost  blind." 


CELBRIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY.        1 99 

And,  again,  he  tells  us  that, 

<*  His  conduct  might  have  made  him  styled 
A  father,  and  the  nymph  his  child. 
That  innocent  delignt  he  took 
To  see  the  virgin  mind  her  hook, 
Was  but  the  master's  secret  joy 
In  school  to  hear  the  finest  boy." 

— Cadenus  and  Vanessa, 

But  there  must  have  heen  something  more  than  this  in  the 
matter.  For  in  Swift's  Letters  to  Miss  Johnston  (hotter  known 
as  Stella) — another  of  the  Dean's  lady-loves,  and  another 
Esther — though  frequently  speaking  of  Mrs.  Van  Homrigh,  and 
of  his  visits  to  her  house  in  London  he  never  mentions  the 
name  of  Yanessa.  Indeed  he  refers  to  her  only  twice  in  all 
tl^ese  Letters,  and  then,  quite  coldly  and  indifferently,  as  "  Mrs. 
Yan  Homrigh's  eldest  daughter."  This,  to  say  the  least  of 
it,  is  suspicious.  However,  a  year  after  the  confession  of  her 
love  for  the  Dean,  her  mother  died,  and  her  two  brothers 
survived  their  mother  hut  a  short  time.  Esther  and  her  sister 
Moll,  or  Molkin,  then  returned  to  Ireland  to  live  on  their 
property  at  Celbridge,  the  demesne  now  known  as  The  Abbey, 
and  at  present  the  residence  of  Colonel  Dease.  The  date  of 
Vanessa's  residence  at  Celbridge  is  1717.  But  Swift  who  had 
Stella  on  his  hands,  and  to  whom,  it  has  been  said,  he  was 
secretly  married  in  1716,  never  visited  Vanessa  at  Celbridge 
until  the  year  1720.  So  that  the  Celbridge  part  of  the  Swift 
and  Vanessa  romance  is  confintd  to  three  years,  1720-1723,  for 
in  the  latter  year  Vanessa  died.  Her  death  was  indeed  a 
tragedy.  Tormented  with  doubts  created  by  rumours  which 
the  had  heard,  she  wrote  to  Stella  to  ask  the  nature  of  the 
friendship  which  existed  between  her  and  the  Dean.  Her 
letter  was  shown  by  Stella  to  Swift.  The  Dean  was  so 
much  irritated  by  the  letter  that,  filled  with  rage,  he  rode 
from  Dublin  to  the  Abbey,  and  throwing  down  Vanessa's 
letter  to  Stella  on  the  table  in  her  presence,  he  nished  from  the 
room  in  a  paroxysm  of  passion,  and  rode  back  at  once  to 
Dublin.  Within  three  weeks  of  this  occurrence  Vanessa  had 
died  of  a  broken  heart,  in  the  37th  year  of  her  age.  Such  is 
the  story  of  Swift  and  Vanessa.'  But  how  far  can  the  laud- 
Biarks  of  this  romance  be  now  traced? 


*  If  any  wish  to  read  a  full  account  of  this  romance  they  had  better 
purchase  Mrs.  Wood's  **  Esther  Van  Homrigh.'*  This  book  is  a  novel,  not 
a  contribution  to  archscology,  and  some  of  its  liistorical  statements  may  not 
bear  tlie  scrutiny  of  an  archeeological  investigation.  Nevertheless  it  gives 
a  very  fair  picture  of  the  times,  and  is  quite  worth  reading. 


200       CELBRIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY. 

The  village  of  Celbridge  was  called  in  Swift's  day,  Kildrohod^ 
or  Kildrought.  Kildrohod  is  said  to  mean  "  The  Church  of  the 
Bridge/'  though  where  the  church  was,  or  the  bridge  which 
originally  gave  a  name  to  the  village,  no  one  seems  as  yet  to 
have  discovered.  The  word  "  Celbridge  "  is  clearly  a  hybrid 
one — Kill  softened  into  "  CV/,"  and  Drohod  translated  as 
^^Bridge^^  The  name  Kildrought  still  exists  as  the  ecclesiastical 
name  of  the  parish,  while  in  the  village  there  is  a  KildrougUt 
House,  and  the  present  Rectory,  acquired  by  the  parish  in  1892, 
has  been  styled  Kildrought  Parsonage.  So  the  past  is  not  quite 
forgotten.  Swift  refers  to  Kildrought  in  his  letters  to  Vanessa. 
^*  Pray  take  care,"  he  writes,  "  of  your  health  in  this  Irish 
air  to  which  you  are  a  stranger.  Does  not  Dublin  look  very 
dirty  to  you,  and  the  country  very  miserable  ?  Is  Kildrohod 
as  beautiful  as  Windsor,  and  as  agreeable  to  you  as  the  prebend's 
lodgings  there  P  Is  there  any  walk  about  you,  as  pleasant  as 
the  Avenue  and  Marlborough  Lodge  ?  "  Again  he  writes  to 
lier : — "  I  have  asked,  and  am  assured  there  is  not  one  beech 
in  all  your  groves  to  carve  a  name  on,  nor  purling  stream,  for 
love  or  money,  except  a  great  river  which  sometimes  roars,  but 
never  murmurs,  just  like  Governor  Huff.'"  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
in  his  life  of  Dean  Swift,  mentions  that  Vanessa  always 
planted  a  laurel  or  two  whenever  the  Dean  was  coming  to 
visit  her.  No  traces  of  these  laurels  survive  at  the  Abbey,  but 
there  are  yew-trees  not  far  from  the. house  which  may  liave 
been  cotemporaries  of  the  Dean.  At  the  Hectory  at  New- 
castle-Lyons, three  miles  from  Celbridge,  an  old  yew-tree  is 
shown  under  which  it  is  said  that  Dean  Swift  many  a  time  sat 
and  talked.  But  if  we  cannot  trace  the  laurels  which  Vanessa 
planted  at  the  Abbey,  we  can  identify  the  bower  in  which  he 
and  Vanessa  so  often  sat  with  their  books,  and  their  writing 
materials  on  a  table  in  front  of  them.  There  it  still  remains, 
with  the  tiny  island,  and  the  little  cascade,  with  its  leafy  roof, 
and  the  river  that  "  roars  but  never  murmurs  "  ;  and  you  have 
only  to  stretch  yourself  on  the  mound  above  it,  and  close  your 
eyes,  and  you  can  live  in  the  days  of  this  sad  romance,  and 
see  it  with  the  clearest  of  visions.  The  old  foot-bridge  over 
which  Swift  and  Vanessa  had  so  often  crossed,  with  its  arched 
entrance   and   iron  gate,   still  remains.     In   Colonel   Dease's 

*  That  there  must  have  been  a  bridj^e  over  the  Liffey  here  from  pretty 
early  times  appears  from  tlie  fact  that  in  an  Inquisition  in  the  time  of  Henry 
Vlli.,  quoted  in  Archdairs  Afonasticon^  mention  is  made  of  "  some  pasture- 
ground  at  the  foot  of  the  Brid<?e  of  Kildrought." 

*  Governor  Huff,  it  is  needless  to  add,  was  one  of  Swift's  i»et  names  for 
Vanessa. 


CELBKIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY.       20i 

liouae,  there  can  still  be  seen  the  same  book-room  in  which 
Vanessa  read  and  wrote,  and  in  an  out-building  there  are  still 
preserved  some  of  the  black  and  white  tiles  which  formed  the 
flooring  of  the  liall  of  Vanessa's  house. 

But  where  was  Vanessa  buried  ?  That  is  a  problem  which 
antiquarians  have  not  yet  been  able  to  solve.  Shall  it  remain 
for  the  Kildare  Archaeological  Society  to  discover  the  resting- 
phice  of  her  remains  ?  Having  died  at  the  Abbey,  we  would 
naturally  look  for  her  grave  in  the  old  graveyard  in  Tee-lane^ 
in  Celbridge.  But  no  monument  or  inscription  marks  her 
grave,  if  she  is  buried  there.  The  parish  registers  can  supply 
no  information.  She  died  in  1723,  and  our  registers  only 
commence  in  1777.  Parochial  documents  older  than  these  are 
said  to  have  perished  in  the  fire  which  destroyed  the  old  church 
in  Tee-laue  in  the  year  of  the  great  Irish  Rebellion,  1798.  I 
have  been  in  communication  with  relatives  of  Vanessa  in 
England,  and  with  llev.  W.  Reynell,  b.d.,  of  Dublin,  whose 
sources  of  antiquarian  information  are  most  thorough  and 
exten^ive,  but  no  trace  can  be  found  of  her  place  of  burial. 
The  registers  of  the  city  parishes  in  Dublin  have  been  searched, 
but  all  in  vain.  It  is  strange  that  her  burial-place  should  have 
so  completely  vanished  out  of  sight.  Dean  Swift,  wlien  he 
found  Vanessa's  affections  centred  so  strongly  on  himself,  tried 
to  get  her  married  to  someone  else,  as  the  best  way  out  of  his 
difficulty.  And  two  clergymen  actually  proposed  for  her  hand. 
Dean  Winter  and  Dr.  Price.    But  she  would  have  none  of  them. 

One  of  these  clergymen,  Dr.  Price,  is  intimately  connected 
with  Celbridge  history :  for  he  lived  in  the  house  opposite  TJie 
Abbey,  now  known  as  Oakly  Park,  and  at  present  the  residence 
of  Captain  Mark  Maunsell.  His  father,  Samuel  Price,  was 
made  Vicar  of  Straffan,  and  Prebendary  of  Kildare  in  1672, 
and  resigned  the  parish  of  Celbridge  in  1705,  when  his  son 
Arthur  Price  succeeded  him.  Arthur  Price  was  a  graduate  of 
Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  his  first  ecclesiastical  appointment 
was  the  curacy  of  St.  Werburgh's,  Dublin.  His  first  promotion 
was  to  the  Vicarage  of  Celbridge,  and  then  ecclesiastical 
greatness  was  literally  'Uhrust  upon  him."  He  was  made 
Vicar  of  Feighculleu,  and  Bally  braiue ;  Prebendary  of  Donadea ; 
Rector  of  Louth,  in  Co.  Armagh,  and  of  Clonfeacle,  in  Kildare; 
Arclideacon  and  Canon  of  Kildare ;  Dean  of  Ferns,  and  in 
1724  (the  year  after  Vanessa's  death),  he  was  appointed  Bishoji 

^  The  word  **  7«;c,"  in  yVe-laue,  has,  doubtless,  no  connexion  with  the 
bevt'iiige  known  as  Tea.  It  is  probably  an  old  Celtic  word.  Miiis  Margaret 
Stokes  identities  it,  I  believe,  with  a  Celtic  word  **^c/4,"  meaning  **  church." 
Hence  **  Tee-lane  "  is  **  Church  Lane." 


202       CELBRIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY. 

of  Clonfert  and  Kilmacduagh.  Indeed,  there  might  have  been 
played  upon  Price,  the  joke  which  Sydney  Smith  says  was  once 
played  on  a  rich  Canon  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  who  held  no 
less  than  eight  benefices  and  dignities  at  the  same  time.  One 
day  the  Canon  asked  a  friend  of  his  to  order  dinner  for  him  at 
Hungerford.  His  friend  went  to  the  hotel,  and  there  ordered 
eight  separate  dinners.  One  was  for  the  Canon  of  Christ 
Church,  another  for  the  Rector  of  Staverton,  another  for  the 
Vicar  of  tliis,  another  for  the  Prebendary  of  that,  so  that  when 
the  Canon  of  Christ  Church  arrived  at  Hungerford,  he  found 
eight  separate  dinners  ready  for  him,  and  had  to  pay  the  bill 
accordingly. 

But  Price's  ecclesiastical  greatness  did  not  stop  short  at  the 
Bishopric  of  Clonfert.  In  1730  he  was  translated  to  the 
Bishopric  of  Ferns;  and  in  1734  he  was  translated  from  that  to 
the  Bishopric  of  Meath  ;  and  remaining  there  ten  yeara,  in  1744 
he  was  translated  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Cashel.  In  1746  he 
was  made  Vicc-Chancellor  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  you 
can  see  his  portrait  on  the  walls  of  the  Dining  Hall  of  tliat 
University.  He  died  on  July  17th,  1752,  at  Celbridge,  and 
was  buried  in  Leixlip  on  July  20tli.  A  monumental  slab 
recording  his  burial  is  placed  in  the  floor  of  the  nave  of  Leixlip 
Church. 

Archbisliop  Price  probably  built  the  house  now  known  as 
Oukly  Park,  about  the  same  time  that  Castletown  House  was 
built,  that  is,  in  the  year  1725,  and  tradition  states  that  the 
two  houses  had  a  common  architect.  When  promoted  to  the 
Bishopric  of  Mealh  lie  seems  to  have  lived  at  Oakly  Park,  and 
from  thence  to  have  superintended  the  building  of  an  episcopal 
residence  for  the  Diocese  of  Meath  at  Ardbraccan,  pureuant  to 
the  designs  of  his  predecessor  in  the  see,  Bishop  Kvans.  He 
did  not  complete  Ardbraccan  House,  for  before  it  was  finished 
he  was  translated  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Cashel.  On  which 
eveut  the  author  of  some  ms.  notes  to  an  edition  of  Ware's 
AutiqnilieHy  in  the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  makes  the 
following  sarcastic  remark  : — '*  It  had  been  much  to  be  wished 
that  he  had  never  quitted  Meath,  and  then  the  liouse  at  Ard- 
braccan would  have  been  completed,  and  the  noble  and  venerable 
Cathedral  of  Cashel  would  have  escaped  his  destructive  hand." 
Tlie  reference  in  tlio  latter  sentence  is  to  the  fact  that,  when 
Archbishop  of  Cashel,  he  procured  an  Act  of  Council  to  remove 
the  Cathedral  from  the  Itock  of  Cashel  into  the  town,  uniting 
the  same  with  St.  John's  Parish.  '*By  which  means,"  adds  the 
writer  1  have  just  quoted,  "that  noble  and  venerable  pile  has 
gone  to  ruins."     However,  no  man  is  without  his  redeeming 


CELBRIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY.        203 

feature.  Price  did  not  forget  the  first  parish  of  which  he  was 
vicar.  In  1734,  when  Bishop  of  Meath,  he  presented  to  Gel- 
bridge  Parish  a  very  substantial  set  of  Vessels  for  Holy  Com- 
munion. They  are  the  ones  now  in  use,  they  are  inscribed  with 
his  name,  and  the  date  of  the  gift ;  and  seem  to  be  very  little 
the  worse  of  the  wear  and  tear  of  162  years.* 

Dr.  Price  was  succeeded  as  Vicar  of  Celbridge  by  Georgfe 
Marlay,  who  afterwards  became  Bishop  of  Dromore.  He  lived 
at  the  Abbey,  and  for  a  considerable  time  in  its  history,  it  bore 
the  name  of  Marlay  Abbey,  after  himself  and  his  family.  It 
seems  as  if  Archbishop  Price  held  Oakly  Park  in  his  own  posses- 
sion until  his  death,  for  he  died  at  Celbridge,  and  his  successor  in 
the  Vicarage  in  1724  lived  not  at  Oakly  Park,  but  at  The  Abbey. 

For  thirty-three  years  after  his  death,  we  cannot  say  what 
tenant  may  have  occupied  the  house.  But  in  1785  there  came 
to  live  at  Oakly  Park,  or  Celbridge  Hall  as  it  was  then  called,  a 
family  the  memory  of  whose  deeds  sheds  a  glory  on  the  village 
of  Celbridge.  In  that  year  Colonel  and  Lady  Sarah  Napier 
took  up  their  residence  at  Celbridge  Hall,  and  all  their  sons  were 
born  there  except  Sir  Charles.  In  the  Baptismal  Register  there 
are  entries  made  of  the  baptism  of  five  of  his  children.  Lady 
Sarah  Napier  before  her  marriage  was  Lady  Sarah  Lennox, 
seventli  daughter  of  the  second  Duke  of  Richmond  (who  was 
grandson  of  Charles  II.),  by  Sarah,  eldest  daughter  of  Lord 
Gadogan.  Lady  Sarah  Napier,  who  was  a  celebrated  beauty, 
and  to  whom  IQng  George  III.  had  offered  his  hand  and  heart, 
had  three  sisters— one  Caroline,  married  to  the  first  Lord 
Holland,  and  mother  of  Charles  James  Fox ;  another,  Emily, 
married  to  the  Duke  of  Leinster,  and  mother  of  Lord  Edward 
Fitz  Gerald ;  while  a  third,  Louisa,  was  married  to  Colonel 
ConoUy  of  Castletown.  When  the  Napiers  lived  at  Celbridge 
Hall,  the  house  soon  became  known  in  the  neighbourhood  by 
the  name  of  the  '^  Eagle's  Nest."  It  was  so  called  either 
because  of  the  hooked  noses  possessed  by  the  Napier  boys,  or 
because  of  their  high  spirits.'     In  the  Life  of  Sir  William 

'  Some  years  ago  a  dispute  arose  as  to  whether  the  fi  ishop  of  Meath 
should  be  termed  **  Most  Itev.,**  as  being  the  bishop  of  the  see  next  in 
dignity  to  the  two  archbishoprics,  or  **  Hiffht  Rev.**  as  an  ordinary  bishop. 
On  the  Celbridge  Communion  Vessels  the  inscription  is  **  Miffht  Rev,*'  In 
a  Paper  recently  read  before  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  Canon  Olden  has 
called  attention  to  the  fact  that  two  of  the  patens,  presented  by  Archbishop 
Price,  are  made  to  tit  as  chalice  covers  when  reversed.  {The  Paten  of 
Oourdon  iUustraUdfom  the  Book  of  Armagh,  by  Rev.  T.  Olden,  Feb.  1896.) 

'  Punch  once  represented  a  meeting  between  the  Duke  of  Wellington 
and  one  of  the  Napiers,  in  which  the  greeting  consisted  of  a  fraternal 
rubbing  of  noses. 


204       CELBRIDGE  :   SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY. 

Napier,  many  a  tale  is  told  of  the  Celbridge  of  that  day.  It 
seems  that  Charles  and  WilHana  Napier  went  to  a  school  in 
the  village,  known  by  the  name  of  the  Academy,  under  the 
mastership  of  a  man  named  Bngnal.  At  this  Academy  the 
boys  were  all  Roman  Catholics.  A  Protestant  Boarding  School 
existed  in  St.  Wolstan's  at  that  time,  and  on  one  occasion 
Charles  Napier,  when  a  little  boy,  having  marched  a  band  of 
volunteers  whom  he  had  organised  and  drilled,  past  St.  Wolstan's, 
an  attack  was  made  on  them  by  the  boys  of  that  Institution. 
Serious  consequences  were  only  prevented  by  Charles  Napier 
riding  on  his  little  Arab  pony  between  the  belligerents,  and 
calling  off  his  youthful  troops.*  The  days  of  the  rebellion 
of  1798  were  sad  days  for  Celbridge.  Wounded  men  were 
constantly  being  brought  into  the  village,  and  the  village  itself 
was  twice  ordered  to  be  burnt  by  the  Government,  and  only 
waved  through  the  intervention  of  Colonel  Napier.  Celbridge 
Hall  was  itself  attacked,  and  on  the  knocker  of  Oakly  Park 
liall  door  can  still  be  seen  the  mark  of  the  blow  of  a  sledge 
hammer  wielded  by  some  of  those  who  were  trying  to  break  in 
the  door. 

Close  to  Oakly  Park,  in  an  enclosed  graveyard,  stand  the 
ruins  of  the  old  church  burnt  in  the  year  1798.  Part  of  these 
ruins  have  been  roofed  in  to  make  burial-places  for  the  Maunsell 
and  Conolly  families.  In  the  ConoUy  vault  is  to  be  found  a 
large  and  handsome  marble  monument  of  the  Bight  Hoik 
William  Conolly,  Speaker  of  the  Irish  House  of  Commons,  and 
his  wife.  It  represents  the  Speaker  reclining  in  his  robes,  and 
his  wife  bending  over  him.  There  is  on  it  a  long  Latin  in- 
scription, stating  that  it  was  erected  to  his  memory  by  Catherine 
Conyngham  his  wife.  And  in  front  of  it  is  a  beautiful  piece 
of  iron  grill- work.  An  effort  was  made  some  years  ago  to  have 
it  removed  from  its  present  position,  and  placed  in  the  parish 
church.  But  nothing  came  of  it.  I  have  reason  to  believe 
that  the  present  owner  of  Castletown  is  anxious  that  this  statue 
of  his  ancestor — so  influential,  so  patriotic,  and  so  good  an 


^  There  is  some  dispute  about  the  house  in  which  this  Academy  was 
held.  1  was  led  to  believe  that  it  was  in  Kildrought  House,  next  the  Couit 
House.  But  the  Kev.  M.  Hogan,  a  former  Koman  Catholic  curat«  in 
Celbridge,  informs  me  that  it  is  also  said  to  have  been  held  in  a  house  in 
the  village  which  has  a  date  over  it,  or  in  a  house  lower  down  in  the  village 
which  stands  in  a  place  known  as  the  Brewery  Yard.  Father  Hogan,  who  has 
very  kindly  placed  his  notes  at  my  disposal  for  the  purpose  of  this  Paper, 
states  that  in  a  book  entitled  *'  A  Short  View  of  the  History  of  the  Christian 
Church  from  its  first  Establishment  to  the  Present  Century,"  by  Rev. 
Joseph  Reeve,  published  in  1^09,  he  found  a  list  of  subscribers  to  the  book^ 
many  of  whom  gave  as  their  address  *^  Celbridge  Academy." 


CELBRIDGE  :    SOME  NOTES  ON  ITS  PAST  HISTORY.        205 

Irishinan — should  be  removed  into  some  position  where  it  could 
be  seen  by  the  public,  and  saved  from  its  present  condition  of 
obscurity  and  neglect.  Certainly  this  would  be  an  object  which 
patriotic  Irishmen  of  all  creeds  might  well  unite  to  effect. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  whether  the  old  church  in 
Tee-flane  was  ever  dedicated  in  the  name  of  any  saint,  or  what 
was  the  date  of  its  erection.  There  is  a  pump  in  the  village 
near  tlie  Mills,  with  a  stone  trough  underneath,  on  one  side  of 
which  there  is  an  inscription  which  reads  as  follows :  — "Ancient — 
Thobar  Mochua— Ornamented  to  St.  MochuAin  1783."  Could 
the  dedication  have  been  in  the  name  of  St.  Mochua  P  There 
are  five  Mochuas  mentioned  in  Irish  hagiologies.  The  Mochua 
whose  name  is  preserved  in  this  inscription  was  doubtless  the 
Mochua  known  as  the  first  Abbot  of  Clondalkin,  by  some  called 
**a  holy  bishop  and  confessor."  Mochua's  Irish  name  was 
Cronan.  He  probably  lived  about  the  eighth  century,  and 
was  descended  from  Cathaeir  Mor,  monarch  of  Erin.  Evidently 
Mochua  must  have  been  an  ecclesiastic  of  repute,  as  Clondalkin 
M  as  a  place  of  ecclesiastical  importance.  The  fact  of  its  possessing 
a  round  tower  84  feet  hich,  and  an  antiphonary  of  its  own, 
which  is  preserved  in  the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  would  be 
8u£Soient  to  show  this. 


^J 


(       206       ) 


On  the  Lost  Ogham  ''Deccedda'*  Stone,  onoe  at  Killeen 
Connao,  near  Colbinstown,  Co.  Kildare. — On  an  inlet  at  the 
entrance  of  the  great  estuary  of  the  Kenmare  river  stands  a  very 
remarkable  stone  monument.*  Under  the  lofty  range  of  Slievc- 
Miskish,  rising  almost  from  the  edge  of  the  Atlantic,  and  beside  the 
land-locked  Bay  of  Ballycrovane,  in  a  lonely,  treeless  land  of  moun- 
tain, and  rock,  and  ocean  bay,  watches,  and  has  watched  for  centuries, 
a  rough,  unhewn,  clay-slate  monolith,  erect,  though  age-stooped,  ami 
score-inscribed  with  the  mysterious  Ogham  script.  This  rude  stone 
is  remarkable  for  one  thing,  as  being  the  longest  and  loftiest  of  all 
the  inscribed  monoliths  yet  found  in  Ireland,  or,  indeed,  in  the 
British  Isles.  But  it  is  remarkable,  too,  for  facts  connected  with  the 
inscription,  I  need  not  (I  suppose)  minutely  describe  the  nature  of 
the  Ogham  script  for  readers  of  the  Kildare  Arch^ologica.l  Journal. 
Everyone  knows  that  it  consists  of  straight,  or  slightly-curved  scores 
and  nicks  graven  with  a  tool  in  the  stone,  almost  always  along  an 
edge,  which  forms  (so  to  speak)  the  back-bone  of  the  scores,  these 
latter  spreading  from  it  in  parallel  lines  on  either  side,  much  as  a 
herring's  ribs  spread  from  its  spine,  while  the  nicks  are  indented 
along  the  edge-spine  itself.  In  the  Book  of  Bally  mote  (fourteenth 
century)  is  a  tract  on  Ogham  (or  Ogam)  alphabets,  which  gives  a  clue 
to  the  deciphering  of  these  mysterious  scores  and  nicks.  Suffice  it  to 
say,  that  the  scores  (according  to  their  number  and  length)  represent 
consonants,  and  the  nicks  (according  to  their  number)  represent 
vowels.     The  language  is  (popularly  speaking)  Old  Irish. 

The  inscription  on  the  standing  monolith  of  Ballycrovane,  above- 
mentioned,  runs  thus : — 

**MAQI   DECCEDDASAFITORANIAS '' 

(according  to  Mr.  Brash's  reading  of  it,  which  is  not  substantially 
disputed). 

The  remarkable  letters  here  are  those  forming  the  word  "decckdda." 
This  word,  or  name  (for  such  it  is),  is  well  known  to  Oghamists.  It 
has  been  found  (practically  identical)  on  several  Ogham-inscribed 
pillar-stones,  and  invariably  preceded  by  the  word  "  maw,"  i.e,  "  son 
of."  At  Ballintaggart,  Dingle  (Co.  Cork),  occurs  thus — "maqi 
DECCEDA."  On  a  stone  found  at  GortnaguUanach,  in  the  Dingle 
district— "  MAQQi  decedda."  On  one  of  the  Dunbell  stones  in  the 
Museum  at  Kilkenny — "  maqi  deccedda." 

In  the  "  Archaeologica  Cambrensis,"  vol.  ni.,  3rd  series,  p.  296,* 

*  Brash,  •*  The  Ogam-insoribed  Monuments  of  the  Gaedhil,"  p.  127. 
3  Shearman's  '*  Loca  Patriciana,"  p.  39 ;  Brash,  p.  316. 


MISCELLANEA.  lo^ 

an  Oghaxa-inscribed  monument  of  the  close  of  the  sixth  century  is 
described.  It  is  at  Penros  Slygwy,  in  Anglcsea.  It  reads,  "Hie 
jacet  maccu  decetti." 

Space,  as  well  as  knowledge,  fails  me  to  go  into  the  conclusions 
suggested  by  this  remarkable  extension  of  a  name,  thus  found  in  such 
widely-sundered  districts.  What  is  of  importance  to  my  present 
purpose  is,  that  a  stone  formerly  existed  (described  and  figured 
by  Brash,  p.  316,  fig.  No.  2,  KiUen  Connac,  on  PL  xt.  ;  and  by 
Shearman,  p.  39)  in  the  old  graveyard  at  Killeen  Cormac,  near 
Colbinstown,  Co.  Kildare,  bearing  the  same  name — **  ddecceda." 
Killeen  Cormac  is  famous  among  Irish  archaeologists  for  its  Ogham 
stones,  especially  for  its  almost  (in  Ireland)  unique  specimen  of  a 
bilingual  Ugbam  and  Latin-inscribed  stone,  bearing  the  much-disputed 
letters — **ivybbk  (or  ?  iwkne)  dewides,"  upon  which  Father  Shear- 
man founds  a  very  elaborate  and  learned  disquisition,  perfectly  satis- 
factory in  every  respect,  except  that  the  reading  of  the  Ogham  which 
he  adopts  is  unfortunately  absolutely  impossible,  for  reasons  into  which 
space  forbids  my  entering  now.  Nor  is  this  famous  stone  the  one 
now  to  engage  our  notice.  It  is  another  stone — ^the  "decceda," 
"dbcbdda,"  or  **ddecceda"  stone,  formerly  existing,  and  standing 
upright,  in  Killeen  Cormac.     The  inscription  ran — 

^^Mi\  ...„iL iL  „„  nil  mi,.>444JJ-^./i  iim  Mii../-.-^^ ^^ 

MAQ         IBBB         C        C         SBAKAQ         IMAK  I         K 

i,e.  **  (Stone  of)  the  son  op  nnECCED  son  of  hasin." 

That  this  was  a  stone  worth  preserving  few  will  be  such  Goths  and 
Vandals  as  to  doubt.  But  it  has  7wt  been  preserved.  It  is  undoubtedly 
gone,  and  has  been  gone  now  for  a  good  many  years,  ^o  one  could 
give  any  information  as  to  its  disappearance,  further  than  that  it  was 
gone,  which  was  evident. 

In  August,  1892,  Kobert  Mitchell,  of  Ballynure,  and  the  present 
wiiter  paid  a  visit  to  the  Killeen.  Mr.  Mitchell  found  a  fragment  of 
a  stone  near  the  spot  marked  on  Eather  Shearman's  plan  as  the  site  of 
the  ''  DDECCEDA "  stouo.  This  fragment  bore  unmistakable  Ogham 
scores.  We  hunted  for  a  couple  of  hours,  till  darkness  set  in,  and 
found  about  twelve  fragments,  some  larger,  some  smaller — about  four 
bearing  Ogham  scores.  Several  fitted  along  the  fractures  (tolerably 
recent  fractures),  plainly  showing  that  they  once  formed  part  of  a 
pretty  large  inscribed  Ogham  stone.  The  letters  plainly  traceable  on 
the  fragments  (of  which  I  have  drawings)  come  into  the  inscription  on 
the  lost  '*Ddecceda"  stone,  as  given  by  Brash  and  Shearman  {locis 
eitatis). 

We  left  the  fragments  pieced  and  fitted  together.  On  subsequent 
visits  I  found  these  fragments  scattered  about,  and  left  them  in  a 
cavity  in  the  mound  of  the  Killeen,  where  I  fondly  fancied  they  would 
be  safe.  But  last  November,  when  Sir  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster), 
H.  Blake,  and  myself  visited  the  Killeen,  we  found  that  the  boundary- 
wall  of  the  graveyard  liad  been  lately  repaired   by  the  Board  of 

VOL.  XI.,   PAHT  III.  R 


208  MISCELLANEA. 

Guardians,  and  that  certainly  one,  and  probably  ally  of  the  "|Ddecceda  " 
stone  fragments  had  been  very  admirably  and  securely  mortared-up 
into  this  excellent  wall. 

I  could  not  but  be  reminded,  by  this  indiscnminating  zeal  of  the 
Fathers  of  the  Poor,  of  a  story  I  have  heard  concerning  a  country 
gentleman  of  archseologiual  tastes.  He  had  on  his  property  a  venerable 
and  interesting  ruin.  He  gave  directions  to  his  men  that  this  ruin,  in 
order  to  preserve  it,  should  be  well  fenced  in  with  a  good  wall.  On 
coming  some  time  after  to  see  how  his  orders  had  been  executed,  he 
was,  no  doubt,  highly  gratified  to  discover  an  admirably  built  wall  sur- 
rounding a  vacant  space,  where  the  object  of  his  care  once  stood.  Every 
remaining  stone  of  the  ruin  had  been  utilized  by  his  intelligent 
workmen  in  constructing  the  wall  of  preservation.  Moral, — Set  some 
one  that  knows  something  of  archaeology  to  look  after  Kilieen 
Cormac. — William  FitzGerald,  Clk. 


County  Kildare  <<  Trade -Tokens,"  Seventeentli  Century. — 
Appended  is  given  a  list  of  all  the  Trade  Tokens  in  connexion  with 
towns  in  the  Go.  Kildare  that  are  at  present  known  to  exist :  there  is 
a  specimen  of  each  one  here  given  in  the  Carton  collection  of  coins. 
The  following  remarks  on  the  origin  and  use  of  these  Trade  Tokens 
has  been  kindly  supplied  to  me  by  Dr.  William  Frazer,  f.k.c.s.i., 
M.B.I.A.,  who  is  an  expert  on  such  matters  : — 

**  Little  pieces  of  copper  coin,  varying  in  size  from  that  of  a 
shilling  to  even  smaller  than  a  threepenny  piece,  usually  inscribed 
with  the  name  of  the  person  by  whom  it  was  issued,  and  his  trade  or 
occupation,  possibly  also  bearing  the  date  of  its  issue,  and  on  the  other 
side,  often  having  the  town  or  village  in  which  he  lived,  are  called 
*  Trade  Tokens,'  for  they  were  made  principally  by  traders  and 
merchants,  to  assist  their  business  transactions,  affording  change  for 
penny  and  halfpenny  purchases.  Some  also  were  struck  by  town 
corporations  for  the  relief  of  the  necessitous  poor,  and  many  by  tavern- 
keepers,  to  promote  the  return  of  their  recipients  to  the  shop  where 
they  would  be  received  in  payments. 

**  The  period  when  such  little  tokens  became  important  in  the 
history  of  English  numismatics  was.  the  seventeenth  century.  Trade 
at  that  time  received  a  local  development  previously  unknown,  and 
people  living  in  England  and  Ireland  commenced  retail  traffic  in  all 
descriptions  of  goods,  so  extensive  that  the  former  monetary  arrange- 
ments failed  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  purchasers,  for  procuring 
and  paying  small  quantities.  Silver  as  the  sole  medium  was  not 
sufficient.  So  early  as  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  there  appeared 
for  Ireland  a  petty  coinage  of  pennies  and  halfpence,  struck  in  copper, 
which  did  not  suffice  even  for  the  limited  wants  of  this  country. 
James  I.  endeavoured  to  supplement  the  deficiency  with  imperfect 
success.  The  Catholic  Contederution  of  Kilkenny  struck  coin  also, 
and  so  did  Charles  I.  Yet  all  these  efforts  were  of  little  influence  in 
the  serious  monetary  trouble  due  to  the  want  of  suitable  small  pieces 
of  coin  for  trade. 


MISCELLANEA.  20g 

Some  idea  of  the  serions  nature  of  this  demand  for  small  coins  for 
commercial  tranRactions  may  be  judc^edby  the  simple  statement  of  the 
numbers  issued  during^  the  sixteenth  century.  In  the  latest  publica- 
tion on  *  Trade  Tokens,'  in  England,  Wales,  and  Ireland,  struck  at 
this  time  by  corporations,  merchants,  and  traders,  there  are  detailed 
descriptions  of  no  less  than  20,000  such  pieces,  fillinfz:  the  pages  of 
two  large  volumes.  The  editor  and  author  is  Mr.  George  C. 
Williamson,  and  this  work  is  itself  an  improved  and  expanded  treatise, 
based  on  the  celebrated  work  previously  published  by  William  Boyne. 
I  can  refer  all  who  require  further  information  about  tokens  to  its 
pages.  As  the  chief  authority  for  our  Irish  tokens,  I  ought  to  name 
the  late  Dr.  Aquilla  Smith,  whose  information  was  extensive  and 
accurate.  Some  few  Papers  were  contributed  by  local  writers 
chiefly  to  the  Kilkenny  Archaeological  Society's  Journal.  It  is  a 
reasonable  inquiry — What  possible  service  can  the  history  of  such 
tokens  be  to  us  ?  A  little  consideration  will  show  that  they  throw 
much  light  upon  the  domestic  history  of  our  country,  and  that  remark- 
able extension  of  local  traffic  which  influenced  our  prosperity,  so  that 
Napoleon  I.  attempted  to  satirize  it  when  he  called  Great  Britain  a 
nation  of  shopkeepers.  They  tell  us  of  local  trades  and  occupations, 
many  of  which  have  disappeared  altogether,  under  altered  circum- 
stances and  new  discoveries,  or  have  gone  from  the  places  where  they 
once  flourished.  They  preserve  the  names  and  pursuits  of  a  great 
number  of  men  long  dead,  but  whose  descendants  still  remain,  and  of 
others  whose  successors  have  either  emigrated  to  the  United  States,  or 
to  distant  Colonies.  Frequently  they  represent  armorial  bearings,  of 
much  importance  in  tracing  family  pedigrees,  for  amongst  these  early 
traders  were  many  persons  of  good  birth  and  honourable  descent,  and 
from  their  ranks,  with  augmented  wealth,  have  sprung  titles  and 
distinctions  acquired  by  their  representatives.  On  Irish  soil  this 
peculiar  extension  of  trade,  previously  limited  to  the  boundaries  of  a 
few  large  towns  and  to  the  English  Pale,  chiefly  occurred  under  the 
stem  rule  of  Cromwell  and  the  Commonwealth,  the  universal  peace 
he  succeeded  in  establishing  throughout  the  entire  country,  and  the 
complete  check  given  to  the  feuds  and  plundering  habits  of  petty 
chieftains  and  their  followers,  was  followed  by  the  adoption  of  stated 
industries  and  manufactures,  not  only  in  the  larger  towns,  but  like- 
wise in  small  burghs  and  villages.  Here  the  new  settler  put  his 
Trade  Tokens  into  circulation.  They  aided  in  extending  his  little 
ready-money  trade,  and  we  must  not  undervalue  their  importance  in 
supplying  the  place  of  those  advertisements  of  his  business  for  which 
he  now  relies  upon  the  newspaper,  a  power  at  that  time  unknown. 
At  their  greatest,  however,  our  Irish  tokens  are  few  in  numbers  when 
compared  with  those  struck  in  Great  Britain.  Still  they  afford  to  us 
much  useful  and  important  information  about  the  times  and  people 
when  and  by  whom  they  were  used. 

*'  The  accession  of  King  Charles  II.  brought  the  circulation  of 
these  tokens  to  an  abrupt  termination,  and  from  his  reign  down  to  the 
present  time  the  striking  of  a  copper  coinage,  as  well  as  those  made 
in  gold  and  silver,  has  remained  the  exclusive  privilege  of  the  Crown. 


2IO 


MISCELLANEA. 


Several  years  since  a  deficiency  was  felt,  or  assumed,  in  the  amount 
of  farthings  requisite  for  the  use  of  traders,  such  as  mercers  and 
bakers,  &c.,  and  a  limited  coinage  was  made  by  private  individuals, 
to  circulate  in  the  larger  cities,  Dublin,  Belfast,  Cork,  Waterford,  and 
Limerick.  I  believe  they  were  used  principally  for  supplying  adver- 
tisements of  the  establishments  of  those  by  whom  they  were  issued 
than  for  legitimate  trade  purposes,  and  after  a  few  years  they  were 
suppressed  by  Government.  AH  such  private  coinages,  however  inte- 
resting to  the  numismatist,  are  open  to  grave  objections.  They  do 
not  represent  the  monetary  value  of  the  circulating  medium  they 
appear  to  stand  for,  and  as  their  realization  by  their  temporary  owner 
must  depend  on  their  being  presented  for  redemption  at  the  office,  or 
mart,  of  the  issuer,  who  is  alone  responsible  for  them,  and  whose 
bankruptcy  renders  their  possession  a  loss  to  the  community,  or,  at 
least,  to  the  individual  who  chances  to  hold  them,  they  are  properly 
and  reasonably  prohibited  from  being  issued  and  circulated. 

**  In  this  brief  rimmi  I  have  left  out  of  consideration  altogether 
the  series  of  copper  tokens,  principally  pennios  and  half-pence,  issued 
in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  during  the  great  Continental  wars  against 
the  French  Republic  and  Napoleon  I.  This  was  the  period  when  our 
Camac  half-pence  and  similar  tokens  in  Ireland  formed  almost  ex- 
clusively our  Irish  copper  medium  for  all  trade  purposes  requiring 
small  change,  owing  to  the  culpable  negligence  of  the  Crown  at  this 
period,  in  refusing  to  supply  an  adequate  amount  of  copper  coins. 
The  striking  of  tokens  by  traders  became  almost  unavoidable,  and 
they  preserve  to  us  many  import£mt  features  respecting  the  domestic 
history  of  the  times  in  which  they  appeared." 


LIST  OP  ALL  THE  KNOWN  COUNTY  KILDARE  «« TRADE-TOKENS 
(17th  CENTURY). 

Atht. 


Obverse, — ^*wrLLAM  •  addis  :  *  ?  * 

Reverse, — ^op  •  k.  •  tht  •1659.     A  swan. 


Obverse, — *iames  •  swanton.    A  lion  rampant. 
Reverse, —  excise  offices  •  in- 


.  D  . 

ATHT 
.  I  . 


MISCELLANEA. 


211 


Ohverne, —  iames  •  walsh  • :  •      A  double-headed  eagle  displayed. 

Reverse, —  op  •  ATHr  •   1 666  • :  •  *  ^  ♦ 

(This  is  said  to  be  a  unique  specimen.) 


Blackrath. 

Obverse. —  tho  :  cvsek  :  at  :  blackwroth  *       An  upright  sword 

between  two  stars. 

+  0  + 

Rererse. —  in  •  the  •  cotnty  :  of  kildare  *        t    a 

-F*  + 


Castledermot. 


Obverse, —  thomas  •  aderley  :     A  six-nailed  horshoe. 
Reverie. —    •  smith  •  ca8t[klde]rmot  *^*S2Sie"r"'* 


Obverse. —  thomas  •  clinton  •  of  :     A  lion  rampant. 
Reverse. —  castelldermont  :  *  ?  * 


Obverse. —  henery  marrener  • :  •       A  glove. 
Reverse. —  :  of  castledermott  +  *  ?  ♦ 


212  MISCELLANEA. 

EiLcuLLEN  Bridge. 
Obverse, —  thomas  •  swan  • : . 
Rfverse. —  killcvllin  bridg  • : .       A  lion  rampant. 


O  p  o 
o  '  o 


KiLDAKE. 


Obverse, —  christoph=  cvsack  * 


*i* 


Reverse. —  of  •  kildaue  •  march'^"  .     A  bullock. 


Obverse. —  iames  •  'money  •  of  •  *  •       A  Maltese  cross. 
Reverse. —  kildaee  •  march*  ,    **'  b  (<»rBT) 

Matnooth. 


Obverse, —  ralfh  •  bvllocz  •  of  •       A  mounted  postman. 
Reverse, —  matnooth'.  postmaster'  *  *J  * 


Monasterevan. 
Obverse, —  tho  •  bvrrows  :  in  *  *  ?  * 

Reverse, —  monstereven  •  mr  •       A  man  in  armour. 


Obverse. —  robert  •  hobson« 
Reverse. —  in  •  monstereven  : 


MAR 
R  •:    H 


MISCELLANEA. 


2^3 


Obverse. —  nat  +  swaiue  tanner-  ^  i   ^ 

1673 
Reverse, —  in  +  monstebeven  +     Three  straps  and  buckles. 


Naas. 


Obverse, —  bichard  •  evstas 
Reverse, —  makch^  *  of 


I     8 


naase  .     A  sheaf  of  com  between  two 
rose-like  ornaments. 


Note.— All  the  above  tokens  are  about  the  size  of  a  threepenny-bit, 
except  those  of  EilcuUen  Bridge  and  Maynooth,  which  are  as  big  as  a 
sixpence,  and  the  Blackrath  and  Swaine*s  of  Monasterevan,  which  are  a 
size  larger  still. 

The  devices,  as  described  in  the  above  list,  which  occupy  the  middle  of 
the  coins,  were  probably  the  shop -sign  of  the  owner,  as  in  those  days  the 
name-board  was  not  in  use  as  it  is  at  present.  In  a  few  instances,  where 
three  initials  are  given,  the  third  may  belong  to  the  wife's  Christian  name. 


W.  FiTzG. 


(    "4     ) 


Notes;* 

'*  Cawlcannoil"  (written  as  pronounced)  is  the  name  of  a  dish 
eaten  by  the  peasantry  exclusively  on  AU-holland  Eve  or  All-hallo  ween, 
i.e,  the  Slst  of  October.  It  is  composed  of  potatoes,  white  cabbage, 
onions,  &c.,  pepper  and  salt;  all  boiled,  pounded  up,  and  mixed 
together ;  when  poured  out  on  u  keeler,  or  plate,  a  hollow  is  made  in 
the  centre  of  the  mash,  and  pats  of  butter  arc  placed  in  it,  and  allowed 
to  melt. 

The  1st  of  November,  or  All  Saints'  Day,  was  the  date  of  a  great 
pagan  festival  called  'Hhe  Samhain"  (pronounced  Saviu  or  80 wan), 
80  that,  possibly,  the  eating  of  *^  Cawlcannon''  at  this  time,  is  a  relic 
of  the  pre-Christian  feast. 

Can  anyone  give  the  derivation  and  meaning  of  "  Cawlcannon  "  ? 

The  building  of  two  Bridges  in  the  Co.  Kildare,  in  the  four- 
teenth century. — Holinshed,  in  his  '*  Chronicles  of  Ireland,"'  and  in 
"  the  Description  "  section,  writes  : — 

(1)  **  1319.  There  hath  bene  a  worthie  prelate.  Canon  in  the 
Cathedrall  Church  of  Kildare,  named  Maurice  Jake  (or  Jakis),  who 
among  the  rest  of  his  charitable  deedes  builded  the  bridge  of  Kilcoolienne, 
and  the  next  yeare  followyug  he  builded  in  lyke  maner  the  bridge  of 
Leighlinne,  to  the  great  and  dailie  commoditie  of  all  such  as  are 
occasioned  to  travaile  in  those  quaiters.* 

(2)  "  The  Hygh  Streete  (of  Dublin)  bearing  to  the  hygh  Pype. 
This  pype  was  buylded  in  the  yeare  1308,  by  a  woorthie  Citizen 
named  John  Decer,  being  then  Mayor  of  Dublyne.  He  buylded  not 
long  before  that  ty me  the  bridge  harde  by  8.  Woolstans  that  retcheth 
over  the  Lyffie.* 

Calverstown,  Co.  Kildare. — This  place  is  a  curious  instance  of 
the  changes  a  name  undergoes  in  course  of  time.  In  1627  it  was 
granted  to  Maurice  Eustace  of  Harristown,  Esq.,  and  is  styled  in  the 
grant,  "  Calvertstowu,  alias  Calviestown,  alias  Callowstown,  aliai 
Ballinchaloe  "  (vide  p.  263,  vol.  iii.  of  Morrin's  **  Calendar  of  Kolls"). 


The  Tipper  Cross  lies  on  the  south  side  of  the  church  ruins ;  it  is 
in  one  piece ;  the  base  it  formerly  stood  on  is  not  now  visible ;  pro- 
bably it  is  buried  under  an  accumulation  of  clay  and  fallen  masonry. 

1  Vide  p.  19  of  the  1677  edition ;  and  p.  33  of  the  1586  edition. 
3  Vide  p.  11  of  the  1677  edition  ;  and  p.  23  of  the  1686  edition. 


NOTES. 


215 


As  is  shown  in  the  accompanying  sketch,  on  one  face  of  the  cross 
there  are  two  coats-of-arms  (each  bearing  a  **  crescent,"  denoting  a 
second  son).     Between  them  are  the  initials  I  D  and  M  W  (the  W 


2*1?- 


THK   TIPPER   CROSS. 


appears  on  one  of  the  side  faces).    Sir  Arthur  Vicars  informs  me  that  the 
initials  and  arms  correspond  with  the  Delahyde  and  Walsh  coats,  viz. : — 

(1)  "Barry  of  six  argent  and  gules,  a  bend  sable,"  for  Delahyde. 

(2)  ''  Azure,  a   lion  rampant  argent,  debruised   by  a   fess  per 

pale  argent  and  gules,"  for  Walsh. 

I  should  be  glad  of  information  which  will  identify  the  individuals 
owning  the  initials. 

TOL.  II  ,  PT.  III.  S 


2l6  NOTES. 

'*  The  Leap  of  Allen  "  is  a  village  lying  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
to  the  north  of  the  Hill  of  Allen  :  what  is  the  origin  of  the  name  ? 
I  believe  it  has  some  connexion  with  Finn  M^Cool,  whose  chief 
residence,  in  the  third  century,  was  on  the  Kill  of  Allen. 


The  Franciscan  Abbey,  Castledermot. — Opposite  to  page  374, 
vol.  i.,  of  the  JoiTBir^L,  is  an  illustration  of  the  great  window  of  the 
Lady  Chapel  as  it  used  to  be,  below  which  it. is  stated  that  it  was 
maliciously  destroyed  in  1799  ;  this  is  a  mistakCi  as  an  old  man  named 
Mick  Slavin,  a  tailor,  still  living  in  Castledermot,  remembers  its  being 
pulled  down  by  a  man  named  Billy  Grimes  some  fifty  years  ago. 
Billy  Grimes  had  the  grazing  at  the  abbey,  and  said  his  cattle  were  in 
danger  from  the  unsafe  condition  of  the  window,  to  the  upper  portion  of 
which  he  fastened  a  rope,  and  so  pulled  this  fine  window  to  the  ground, 
an  act  which  caused  great  indignation  in  the  town  at  the  time.  Mick 
Slavin  remembers  seeing  glass  in  some  of  the  tracery  of  the  window. 

On  the  next  page  (375)  an  epitaph  in  verse  is  quoted  as  being  on 
a  stone  formerly  belonging  to  this  abbey,  and  given  in  Grose's  "  Anti- 
quities of  Ireland."  This  is  an  error,  as  Grose  writes  of  it  as  being 
at  the  Gray  Abbey  of  Eildare  {vide  p.  83  of  vol.  ii.). 


Piotnres  and  Engravings  of  the  Salmon  Leap  and  Castle  at 
Leizlip: — 

(1)  A  large  square  picture,  quaintly  painted  in  oils,  includes  the 
castle,  church- tower,  and  Salmon  Leap.  This  is  fixed  in  a  panel  over 
the  chimney-piece  in  the  hall  at  Castletown. 

(2)  A  small  oil-painting  by  Roberts  (17  in.  x  25  in.)  of  the  Salmon 
Leap  alone,  is  at  Carton. 

(3)  An  engraving  of  the  Salmon  Leap,  called  "Nymphs  batheing"; 
five  nude  female  figures  are  scattered  about  the  rocks  below  the 
fall  (17  in.  X  21  in.). 

Below  this  picture  is  printed  :— "  Painted  by  F.  Wheatley." 
"  The  aquatints  by  T.  Jukes."  "  Engraved  by  R.  Pollard," 
«  London,  published  April  10, 1785,  by  J.  R.  Smith,  No.  88, 
Oxford-street." 

(4)  In  "  Fisher's  Views  of  Ireland  "  are  two  plates  in  brown  tints 
(11  in.  X  8  in.). 

(a)  One  is  called  "  Leixlip  Castle  on  the  River  Liffey,"  and  indndes 
the  Castle,  a  tea-house  on  the  river-bank,  the  chnrch*tower 
and  the  weir. 

Below  is  printed: — ''Dublin,  published,  ftc.»  by  I.  Fisher, 
April,  1792,"  plate  vii. 


NOTES.  217 

{h)  The  other,  is  called  "The  Salmon  Leap  at  Leixlip." 

Below  it  ia  printed : — '*  Dublin,  published  by  J.  Fisher,  Feb- 
rhary,  1794,"  plate  xxxi. 

(5)  Anengraving(12  x  1  Sin.)  called  the**  Salmon  Leap  at  Leixlip.'' 
This  is  a  very  incorrect  and  unnatural  view  of  the  place  ;  it  introduces 
two  figures  on  the  arch ;  three  more  on  the  walk,  and  a  bullock  and 
two  figures  on  the  opposite  bank.     The  date  is  about  1745. 

Below  the  eDgraviDg  is  printed: — "  Fainted  by  Wm.  Jones,  Dublin, 
and  engraved  by  Giles  King."  **  London,  printed  for  Eobert 
Wilkinson,  No.  58,  Comhill." 

(6")  On  Noble  and  Keeuan's  Map  of  the  Co.  Kildare,  1752,  is  given 
a  small  view  of  the  castle  and  river,  called  **  A  View  of  Leixlip  from 
the  Bridge."  It  is  a  very  poor  attempt  to  represent  the  place,  and  has 
no  perspective. 

(7)  An  illustration  from  the  **  Universal  Magazine  "  (17 — )  called 
*'  A  Perspective  View  of  Leixlip  and  the  Salmon  Leap."  The  castle, 
church-tower,  Salmon  Leap,  houses,  bridge  to  Lucan,  &c.,  are  shown; 
but  the  picture  is  unnatural  though  quaint. 

Above  it  is  printed : — "  Engrav'd  for  the  Universal  Magazine,  for 
T.  Hinton  at  the  King  Anns  in  St.  Paul's  Church  Yard, 
London."     It  measures  nearly  9  by  7  inches. 

(8)  A  small  coloured  print,  in  Dennis  Sullivan's  *'  Picturesque 
Tonr  through  Ireland,"  called  **  Salmon  Leap  at  Leixlip  "(6x7). 
This  picture  of  the  falls  is  inacurate,  and  it  omits  the  arch  on  the 
castle  bank  side ;  a  man  is  fishing  below  from  the  opposite  side. 

Beneath  is  printed  : — **  London,  Published  by  Tho'.  M^'Lean,  26, 
Haymarket,  1824." 

Other  small  views  of  the  Salmon  Leap  are  to  be  found  in — 
Milton's  "Select  Views  in  Irehmd"  (1821),  plate  xii.,  drawn  by 
Wheatley  ;  T.  Cromwell's  "  Excursions  through  Ireknd  "  (1820),  vol. 
iL,  p.  156,  drawn  by  Petrie ;  Bartlett's  **  Scenery  of  Ireland  " 
(1841),  vol.  ii.,  p.  136,  drawn  by  Bartlett. 


Kildare  Cathedral. — On  Tuesday  the  22nd  of  September,  1896,  the 
ancient  Cathedrd  of  St.  Brigid  at  Eildare  (which  had  gradually  under- 
gone restoration  since  1871)  was  reopened  for  divine  service  by  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (the  late  Dr.  Benson).  In  commemoration 
of  the  events  Canon  Sherlock,  one  of  our  Council  Members,  has  written 
a  very  interesting  little  work  entitled,  "  Some  Account  of  St.  Brigid, 
and  of  the  See  of  Kildare,  with  its  Bishops,  and  of  the  Cathedral  now 
restored."    It  ia  illustrated,  too,  with  etchings  from  his  pen. 

W.  FitzObbald. 


2l8  NOTES. 

Map  of  Ireland,  showing  the  piincipul  families,  Irish,  and 
English,  in  the  country  at  the  commencement  of  the  seventeenth  ceo- 
tary.  Engraved  hy  S.  Thompson,  Dame-street,  Duhlin.  There  is  no 
date,  but  an  elaborate  dedication  (with  coat-of-arms)  to  William,  Duke 
of  Leinster  (1773-1804)  from  his  "  most  obedient  servant,  Charles 
O'Connor,  Esq."  These  last  words  (at  the  end  of  head-line  3)  are 
changed  in  another  impression  to  "  servants  the  Editors,"  and  a  line 
is  added  at  the  foot — 

**  Published  according  to  Act  of  Parliament,  by  Wogan,  Bean,  and 
Pike,  Old  Bridge,  No.  23,  Dublin." 

I  should  like  to  fix  the  date  of  these  maps. 

J.  R.  Gabstin. 


The  Journal  of  the  Association  for  the  Presenration  of  the 
Memorials  of  the  Dead,  Ireland. — The  request  for  information  on 
Iiish  Church  Plate,  given  below,  is  forwarded  to  us  by  one  of  our 
Members,  the  Editor  of  the  Journal  of  **The  Association  for  the 
Preservation  of  the  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  Ireland."  The  principal 
objects  of  this  interesting  and  useful  publication  are — 

1.  To  publish  all  inscriptions  on  sepulchral  monuments  in 
town  and  country  churchyards,  so  that  when  weather  and  time 
have  made  the  lettering  illegible,  there  may  still  be  a  record  of 
them  available. 

2.  As  far  as  the  funds  of  the  Association  will  admit,  to 
collect,  piece  together,  and  restore  ancient  tombs,  whose  frag- 
ments may  lie  scattered  about  the  burial-ground. 

The  Journal  of  the  Association,  which  has  been  in  existence  since 
1888,  is  well  illustrated,  and  carefully  indexed.  It  is  brought  out 
once  a  year,  and  should  be  in  the  hands  of  all  our  Members,  as  it  is 
an  invaluable  source  of  information  for  compiling  a  county  history, 
or  a  family  pedigree. 

Irish  Church- Plate. — I  am  now  engaged  in  collecting,  for  publi- 
cation, particulars  of  the  church-plate  in  use  in  this  country,  in  the 
churches  of  the  various  denominations,  and  I  shall  feel  very  mncli 
obliged  for  any  particulars  that  may  be  sent  to  me  concerning  the 
same.  Verhaiim  copies  of  any  inscription,  and  of  *•  Hall"  and  other 
marks  on  the  several  articles,  and  information  as  to  whether  they  are 
silver,  plated,  brass,  or  pewter,  with  height  and  diameter,  and,  if 
possible,  the  weight,  as  well  as  sketches  or  photographs  of  flagona 
and  chalices,  will  be  thankfully  received. 

The  constant  sale  of  ancient  church-plate,  and  its  loss  from  one 
cause  and  another,  make  it  very  desirable  that  such  a  list,  as  I  pro« 
pose  making,  should  be  prepared  and  published. 

It  is  particularly  requested  that  descriptions,  &c.,  of  any  church- 
plate  in  possession  of  families,  may  be  sent  to  me. — Philip  D.  Vigoes, 
Colonel,  F.B.8.A.(.,  Holloden,  Bagenalstown.  Co,  Carlow. 


SESSION  1897. 


YOLTTME  II.,  No.  4. 


^ 


JOURNAL 


OF  THE 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAOLDaiCAL  SOCIETY. 


CONTENTS. 


Procnedlnss:— 
Annual  General  Meeting,  x897> 
Report  of  Council  for  1896, 
Excursion  Meeting,  1896,    . 
Hon.  Treasurer**  Account, 


PACE 

.  219 

.  828 

.  223 

.  226 


List  of  Honorary  Officers  and  Members,  .    227 
Rules, 288 

Papers  :— 
St.  Brigid  and  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
KLildare.     By  the  Very  Rev.  Gborob 
Young  Cowxll,  m.a..  Dean  of  Kildare. 
With  Illnstrations^ 235 

rhe  High  Sheriffs  of  the  County  Kildare. 
By  John  Kibton  Garstin,  m.r.i.a., 
F.S.A., 258 


Miscellanea :—  PACK 

The  Fitz  Geralds  and  the  Mac  Kenzies,   .  268 

Sir  Thomas  Eustace, 268 

Notes:— 

Iron  Implements  found  at  Barrowford. 

With  Illustrations, 270 

The  Lattin  Alms-house  Inscribed  Stones,  270 

The  Deer  Park  of  Maynooth  Castle,         .  270 

Answers  to  Queries : 

'^  Cawlcannon," 272 

Tee-,  or  Tea-,  lane  in  Celbridge  ?     .       .  272 

Archaeological  Jottings,     ....  272 


♦•##♦#♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»»♦»< 


E.    PONSONBY,    116,    GRAFTON    STREET. 

1897. 


Price.  Two  Shillings  and  SIxDence. 


THE  GODNCIL  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE  ARGHAOLOGICAL  SOGIETY. 


THE   EARL  OF  MAYO. 
Thb  Rev.  Mathew  Devitt,  sj. 

Thomas  Cooke-Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  C^non  Sherlock,  m.a. 
The  Rev.  Edward  OXeary,  p.p. 
Thomas  J.  De  Burgh,  Esq.,  d.l. 
Ambrose  More  OTerrall,  Esq.,  d.l. 

^txu,  Treffeurer : 
Hans  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Esq.,  Kerdiffstown,  Salliqs. 

Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,m.r.i.a.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney. 
Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.a.,  Ulster,  44,  Wellington-rbad, 
Dublin. 

9on.  Editor : 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a.,  Sherlockstown,  Sallint. 


.zy'-'''RK', 


JOURNAL 


■•■■■«  ii 


AND 


The  Annual  Gheneral  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  on 
Wednesday,  the  24th  of  Fehruary,  1897,  in  the  Court  House, 
Naas,  kindly  lent  by  the  High  Sheriff.  Owing  to  the  absence 
of  the  President,  the  Earl  of  Mayo,  through  illness,  the  Senior 
Member  of  Council, 

Mr.  Thomas  Cookb-Tkench  was  called  upon  to  take  the  Chair. 

The  following  Members  of  the  Council  were  present: — 
Mr.  George  Mansfield  ;  Canon  Sherlock  ;  the  Rev.  E.  O'Leary, 
p.p. ;  Mr.  Thos.  J.  De  Burgh ;  the  Rev.  Matthew  Devitt,  s.j.  ; 
Mr.  Hans  Hendrick-Aylmer,  -Hon.  Treasurer ;  Lord  Walter 
JFitz Gerald  and  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster^  f.s.a.,  Hon,  Secre- 
taries. 

In  addition  the  following  Members  and  Visitors  were 
present : — 

Surgeon-Major  Eeogh,  High  Sheriff  of  Kildare ;  Rev.  W.  S.  Large  and 
Mrs.  Somerville  Large ;  Mrs.  Cooke-Trench ;  the  Very  Rev.  the  Dean  of 
Xildare ;  Mr,  George  Wolfe ;  Rev.  Thomas  Doyle,  c.c. ;  Rev.  Thomas 
Morrin,  p.p.  ;  Mr.  J.  Loch,  c.i.,  h.i.c.  ;  Mr.  William  Staples ;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Algernon  Aylmer ;  Miss  Dennis ;  Miss  Weldon ;  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Falkiner  ; 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  R.  Sutcliffe  ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  Sweetman  ;  the 
'Countess  of  Mayo ;  Miss  Sherlock  ;  Rev.  H.  CuUen,  and  others. 

The  Minutes  of  the  previous  Meeting  of  February,  1896, 
having  been  read  and  confirmed,  were  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

Sir  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster),  Hon,  Secretary^  then  read  the 
Report  of  Council  for  the  year  1896,  which  was  adopted. 

VOL.  II.,  PT.   IV.  T 


220  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE 

The  following  ResolutioD,  which  was  proposed  by  Mr. 
George  Mansfield,  and  passed  in  respectful  silence  at  the 
Excursion  Meeting  in  September,  1896,  was  brought  up  for 
confirmation,  and  ordered  to  be  inserted  on  the  Minutes : — 

"  That  this  bein^  the  first  Meeting  of  the  Eildare  Archaeological  Society 
since  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  the  Council  and  Members  of  the 
Society  desire  to  express  their  keen  sense  of  the  loss  they  have  sustained  in 
the  death  of  their  Vice-President  and  Hon.  Editor,  whose  active  interest  in 
the  working  of  the  Society,  and  great  ability  as  a  writer  on  Antiquarian 
and  Archeeological  matters,  was  evidenced  from  the  foundation  of  the 
Society." 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  then  read  his  Report  for  the  year 
1896,  which  was  adopted,  and  a  vote  of  thanks  passed  to  him 
for  the  same. 

Mr.  Loch,  C.I.,  proposed,  and  Sir  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster), 
seconded  the   following  resolution,   which   was   unanimously 


"That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  are  hereby  tendered  to  Mr.  J.  R. 
SutclifFe,  for  kindly  auditing  the  accounts  of  the  Society  for  the  past  year, 
and  tlie  Society  hope  that  he  will  continue  his  services.*' 

Some  discussion  ensued  regarding  the  necessity  for  economy 
in  the  general  expenses  of  the  Society,  wlien  Mr.  George 
Mansfield  proposed,  and  Mr.  Hendrick-Aylmer  seconded  the 
following  resolution,  which  was  carried: — 

"  That  a  Sub-Committee,  consisting  of  the  Hon.  Secretaries  and  Mr. 
Cooke-Trench,  be  appointed  to  decide  in  what  manner  a  reduction  in  the 
expenditure  of  the  Society  can  be  made,  and  to  carry  it  out." 

The  offices  of  Vice-President  and  Hon.  Editor  being  vacant 
by  the  regretted  death  of  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  the  Society 
proceeded  to  elect  Officers  to  fill  the  vacancies. 

The  Eev.  Matthew  Devitt,  Rector  of  Clongowes,  was  elected 
Vice-President  of  the  Society,  who,  in  acknowledging  the  com- 
pliment paid  him,  expressed  his  hope  that  he  might  carry  out 
the  duties  of  the  office  in  as  successful  a  manner  as  his  prede- 
cessor had  done. 

Sir  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster),  proposed,  and  Rev.  Matthew 
Devitt,  Vice^ President f  seconded  the  following  resolution  : — 

**  That  the  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock  be  earnestly  requested  to  act  as  Hon. 
Editor  of  the  Kildare  Archeeological  Society,  to  e3it  the  Jottbkal  and  other 
publications  of  the  Society." 

This  motion  was  carried  unanimously,  the  Chairman  appeal- 
ing to  Canon  Sherlock,  who  was  present,  to  resume  Ids  old 
duties,  which  he  had  previously  carried  out  in  such  an  able 
manner,  but  had  been  obliged  to  relinquish  owing  to  ill  health  : 
they  were  all  glad  to  see  Canon  Sherlock  restored  to  health 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        221 

again.  Canon  Sherlock  signified  his  willingness  to  aot  as  Hon, 
Editm\ 

Mr.  George  Mansfield  and  the  Bev.  Canon  Sherlock,  being 
the  Members  of  Council  retiring  by  rotation,  were  re-elected. 

Mr.  Ambrose  More  O'Ferrall,  d.l.,  was  elected  a  Member 
of  the  Council,  in  the  place  of  the  Eev.  Matthew  Devitt,  Vice- 
President, 

The  election  of  the  following  Members  at  the  Excursion 
Meeting,  September,  1896,  was  confirmed  : — The  Earl  of 
Drogheda;  the  Countess  of  Drogheda;  Mrs.  Somers;  Mr. 
Charles  Daly;  Right  Hon.  Sir  Peter  O'Brien,  Bart.,  Lord 
Chief  Justice ;  Thomas  E.  J.  O'Kelly,  m.d.  ;  the  Very  Eev. 
Thomas  O'Dea,  Yioe-President  of  Maynooth  College ;  the 
Very  Rev.  Monsignor  Gargan,  d.d..  President  of  Maynooth 
College  ;  Rev.  C.  J.  Gh-aham,  d.d.  ;  Mr.  George  P.  A.  CoUey ; 
Dr.  Norman  ;  Mrs.  Clarke ;  Mr.  William  Mooney ;  and  Mr. 
W.  A.  Murphy. 

The  following  were  elected  Members  : — Mr.  Thos.  Beard  ; 
Rev.  Mark  Doyle,  c.c. ;  Mr.  J.  R.  Blake ;  Rev.  Laurence 
Doyle,  c.c. ;  Rev.  Richard  Quinn,  c.c. ;  Rev.  Wm.  Duggan,  c.c. ; 
Rev.  Victor  Lentnigne,  s.j. ;  and  tlie  Most  Rev.  Patrick  Foley, 
D.D.,  Bishop  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin. 

It  was  decided  that  the  Excursion  Meeting  for  the  ensuing 
Session  of  the  Society  should  take  place  at  Gbange  Con,  Moone, 
and  district,  in  September. 

Mr.  George  Mansfield  proposed,  and  Mr.  T.  J.  De  Burgh 
Keoonded  the  following  resolution,  which  was  passed  unani- 
mously : — 

"That  the  thanks  of  the  Kildare  Archa?ological  Society  be  hereby 
tendered  to  Mrs.  Eirkpatrick,  for  kindly  having  entertained  the  Members 
and  their  friends  to  tea  on  the  occasion  of  the  Excursion  Meeting,  1 896 ; 
also  to  the  following  gentlemen,  for  having  permitted  the  Society  to  inspect 
their  respective  residences  and  demesnes : — Major  Cane,  Mr.  Wm.  Mooney, 
Capt.  Colthurst  Vesey,  and  the  Lord  Chief  Justice." 

Owing  to  the  regretted  absence  of  the  President,  the  reading 
of  the  Papers  standing  in  his  name  was  postponed. 

The  following  Papers  were  read  : — 

1.  "On  the  Baths  and  Long  Stones  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Naas,"  by  Mr.  T.  J.  De  Burgh. 

2.  "  Notes  on  the  Curragh  of  Kildare,*'  by  Lord  Walter 
Fitz  Gerald,  m.k.i.a. 

The  Chairman  exhibited,  as  an  abject  of  historical  interest; 
Daniel  O'Connell's  hat,  which  bore  his  name  written  in  hid 
autograph  inside.     Apart  from  its  historical  interest,  it  caused 

•T2 


222  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE 

8f)me  attention  as  a  specimen  of  the  curious  fashion  of  former 
days. 

A  vote  of  thanks  having  been  passed  to  the  gentlemen  who 
had  read  Papers  and  lent  Exhibits,  to  the  High  Sheriff  of  Kil- 
dare  for  the  use  of  the  Court  House,  and  to  the  Chairman  for 
presiding,  the  Meeting  was  brought  to  a  termination. 

Report  of  Council  for  1896. 

At  this  the  General  Meeting  of  the  Kildare  Archaeological 
Society  for  the  year,  it  is  usual  for  the  Council  to  report  on  the 
progress  of  the  Society  during  the  past  year  1896. 

The  roll  of  Membership,  after  allowing  for  loss  by  resigna- 
tion or  death,  now  amounts  to  147,  of  which  number  14  are 
Life  Member^.     This  shows  a  healthy  state  of  affairs. 

The  Council  regret  extremely  to  again  have  to  report  a 
vacancy  in  the  Vice-Presidency  of  the  Society,  by  the  sudden 
death  of  their  distinguished  colleague  and  antiquary,  the  Rev. 
Denis  Murpliy,  who  was  only  elected  to  the  office  at  the  Greneral 
Meeting  last  year  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of 
Bishop  Comerford. 

The  Rev.  Denis  Murphy's  services  to  the  Society  are  so  well 
known  to  all,  that  they  feel  it  unnecessary  to  expatiate  on  his 
merits  as  an  antiquary  and  his  valuable  assistance  to  the  Kil- 
dare ArchfiBological  Society. 

As  he  also  filled  the  office  of  Hon.  Editor,  you  will  thus  be 
called  upon  to  elect  at  this  Meeting  a  Vice-President  and  an 
Hon.  Editor. 

The  first  Meeting  of  the  year  1896  was  held  on  the  5th 
February  last,  in  the  Court  House,  Naas,  kindly  lent  by  the 
High  Sheriff  (Major  John  Aylmer),  at  which  several  Papers  of 
interest  were  read,  many  of  which  have  since  appeared  in  the 
Journal. 

The  Excursion  Meeting  took  place  on  17th  September — 
Celbridge,  Leixlip,  and  district  being  the  places  selected,  and 
the  objects  of  interest  then  visited  show  that  the  Antiquities  of 
the  County  are  so  far  by  no  means  exhausted. 

Apropos  of  the  Excursion  Meeting,  the  Council  think  that 
the  number  of  places  to  be  visited  in  one  day,  and  the  length 
of  the  Papers  to  be  read,  might  be  curtailed  with  advantage,  as 
crowding  too  much  into  one  day's  programme  necessitates  too 
hurried  an  inspection  of  the  places  visited,  not  to  mention  the 
inconvenience  occasioned  by  too  rapid  a  progress  on  such  an 
excursion. 

A  special  account  of  this  Meeting  will  as  usual  appear  in 
the  next  number  of  the  Journal. 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        22 i 

At  this  Meeting  Mrs.  Eirkpatrick  kindly  invited  the  Mem- 
bers of  the  Society  and  their  friends  to  tea  at  Donacomper. 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  will  present  his  report,  and  in  accord- 
ance therewith  the  Council  feel  it  incumbent  upon  them  to 
somewhat  reduce  the  expenses  attendant  on  the  production  of 
tlie  Journal,  which,  during  the  last  year  or  two,  has  been  pro-, 
duced  at  an  expense  scarcely  in  accordance  with  the  income  of 
the  Society. 

Our  Hon.  Treasurer  reminds  the  Council  that  the  composi- 
tion of  Life  Members  should  form  the  nucleus  of  a  reserve 
fund  for  contingencies,  and  without  any  such  fund  the  Society 
cannot  undertake  any  practical  work  in  the  nature  of  grants  in 
aid  of  restorations  of  ancient  monuments  in  its  district. 

The  Council  are  happy  to  report  that  during  the  past  year 
the  Abbey  at  Castledermot,  which,  through  the  exertions  of  the 
Society,  was  scheduled  as  a  National  Monument,  was  taken 
charge  of  by  Sir  Thomas  Deane,  r.h.a.,  and  prevented  from 
falling  to  further  decay,  thus  making  the  fourth  building  in  the 
c<  unty  scheduled  under  the  National  Monuments  Preservation 
Act,  the  others  being  the  Bound  Towers  of  Taghadoe,  Oughte* 
rnrd,  and  Old  KilcuUen. 

Two  Members  of  the  Council,  Mr.  George  Mansfield  and 
the  Bev.  Canon  Sherlock,  retire  by  rotation,  and  being  eligible, 
offer  themselves  for  re-election. 

Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Council, 

Thomas  Cooke-Trench,  Chairman. 

Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  \        Hon, 
Walter  Fitz Gerald,    )    Secretaries. 

Dated  this  2ith  ilay  ofFcbruarf/,  1897, 

Excursion  Meeting,  1896. 

The  Sixth  Excursion  Meeting  was  fixed  for  Celbridge, 
Leixlip,  and  that  district,  and  took  place  on  Thursday,  Sep- 
tember 17th. 

The  various  morning  trains  brought  the  company  to  Hazel- 
hntch  Station,  which  was  the  starting  point,  although  a  few 
living  at  the  northern  end  of  the  County  landed  at  Leixlip 
Station,  and  joined  the  Meeting  there. 

A  start  was  made  from  Hazelhatcli  about  half-past  ten  for 
8.  Wolstan's,  a  distance  of  one  and  a  half  miles,  where,  dis- 
mounting at  the  gate-lodge,  the  company  walked  to  the  Abbey 


224  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

ruins.  Here  Mr.  William  Kirkpatriok  read  a  Paper  on  tlie 
ruins,  and  gave  a  short  history  of  the  former  owners  of  the 
Abbey. 

Prior  to  the  readingof  the  Paper,  Mr.  Q-eorge  Mansfield, 
in  the  absence  of  the  President  of  the  Society  (the  Earl  of 
Mayo),  moved  a  vote  of  condolence  to  the  relatives  of  the  Be  v. 
Denis  Murphy,  only  recently  elected  Vice-President  of  the 
Society,  and  whose  death  the  Society  deplored :  the  terms  of 
this  resolution  will  be  found  in  the  Proceedings. 

The  Society  then  proceeded  througli  the  demesne  to  tlie 
other  gate-lodge,  where  the  carriages  were  in  waiting  to  take 
them  on  to  Leixlip.  On  the  way  the  river  LiflFey  was  crossed 
by  the  oldest  bridge  in  this  part  of  Ireland,  still  called  New 
BridgBy  although  built  in  1308  by  Jolm  Decer,  Mayor  of  Dublin, 
and  the  curious  cone-shaped  tower,  with  external  circular  stair- 
case, built  by  the  Conolly  family  in  1743,  was  sighted  from 
the  road. 

On  arrival  at  Leixlip  the  celebrated  Salmon  Leap  was 
inspected.  Owing  to  the  recent  rains  the  volume  of  water 
passing  over  tlie  rocks  heightened  the  effect. 

Some  of  those  present  then  entered  Leixlip  Castle,  wliich 
had  been  kindly  thrown  open  for  inspection  by  Mr.  William 
Mooney.  The  interior  is  now  fitted  up  as  a  modern  residence  ; 
but  the  room  in  which  King  John  in  f«aid  to  have  slept  is  still 
pointed  out,  and  is  known  as  the  "  King's  room."  Notes  uii 
the  Castle  were  read  by  Lord  Frederick  FitzQ-erald,  after 
which  Leixlip  Parish  Church  was  visited,  and  the  many  inte- 
resting monuments  it  contains,  and  the  registers  and  church 
plate,  attracted  much  attention. 

A  pleasant  drive  to  Lucan,  through  the  demesne  of  Lucaii 
House,  passing  the  famous  Spa,  brought  the  company  to  Luoaii 
Spa  Hotel,  wliere  lungheou  was  served. 

Some  delay  in  making  a  start  after  luncheon  somewhat 
shortened  the  time  apportioned  to  the  remaining  places  to  be 
visited,  and  it  was  already  late  when  the  Society  arrived  at 
Castletown,  where  they  were  received  by  the  Lord  Chief  Justice 
and  Lady  O'Brien.  The  Members  and  their  friends  having 
assembled  in  the  hall,  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  read  an  inte- 
resting Paper  on  Castletown  House  and  the  Conollj'  family, 
and  the  Rev.  C.  Graliam  followed  with  notes  on  the  past  history 
of  Celbridge ;  after  which,  by  tlie  kind  permission  of  the  Loid 
Chief  Justice,  the  company  were  permitted  to  inject  the  in- 
terior of  the  house. 

It  was  late  when  Donacomper  Churchyard,  which  w«s 
the  next  place  on  the  day's  programme  to  be  visited,  wais 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHJEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        225 

reaohed.  Here  some  notes  on  the  place  were  read  by  Mr. 
W.  L.  Kirkpatrick^  after  which  the  Members  of  the  Society 
and  their  visitors  were  received  at  Donacomper  House  by  Mrs. 
£irkpatrick,  who  had  kindly  invited  everyone  to  tea.  Owing 
to  tlie  lateness  of  the  hour,  and  many  having  to  catch  the 
evening  trains  at  Hazelhatch,  but  little  opportunity  was 
afforded  for  a  proper  inspection  of  Donacomper,  and  the  many 
objects  of  antiquarian  and  artistic  interest  which  it  contains. 
This  brought  the  Meeting  to  a  close,  and  the  company  dis- 
persed, after  having  spent  a  most  enjoyable  day,  in  a  district 
full  of  interest.  Unfortunately  the  weather  at  the  commence- 
ment was  not  altogether  propitious,  and  this  somewhat  tended 
to  delay  the  programme  set  out  for  the  day,  but  fortunately  the 
rain  did  not  last. 

The  arrangements  for  the  Meeting  were  under  the  personal 
control  of  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  and  were  excellently 
43arried  out,  assisted  by  Mr.  H.  0.  Blake,  as  his  co-Hon.  Sec- 
retary. Sir  Arthur  Vicars  (Ulster),  owing  to  indisposition, 
was  unable  to  be  present. 

The  following  Members  and  Visitors  took  part  in  the  Ex- 
cursion : — The  Earl  and  Countess  of  Drogheda ;  Mr.  George 
MansBeld ;  Mr.  W.  Grove  White ;  Mr.  N.  J.  Synnott ;  Mr. 
and  MiSl.  R.  F.  Rynd ;  Mr.  J.  Loch,  c.i.,  r.i.c.  ;  Miss  Diipr^ 
Wilson  ;  Dr.  R.  L.  Woollcombe,  ll.d.,  m.r.i.a.  ;  Mrs.  WooU- 
combe ;  Mr.  Kerry  Supple,  d.i.,  r.i.c.  ;  the  Right  Rev.  Mon- 
signor  Gargan,  President  of  Maynooth  College ;  Mr.  L.  J. 
Dunne ;  Rev.  P.  O'Leary ;  Mr.  Thomas  Greene,  ll.b  ;  Mrs. 
and  Miss  Ghreene ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sweetman ;  Rev.  Thomas 
O'Dea,  D.D.,  Vice-President  of  Maynooth  College ;  Mr.  Wm. 
Mooney ;  Rev.  B.  C.  and  Mrs.  Davidson  Houston  ;  Mr.  Austin 
Danier  Cooper ;  Mr.  F.  M.  and  Miss  Carroll ;  Mr.  Wm.  R.  J. 
Molloy  ;  Mr.  W.  A.  Murphy  ;  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  Hon. 
Secretary  ;  Sir  Peter  O'Brien,  Bart.,  Lord  Chief  Justice ;  Lady 
and  the  Misses  O'Brien  ;  Lady  Eva  Fitz  Gerald  ;  Lady  Mabel 
Fitz  Gerald;  Mr.  H.  C.  Blake;  Major  and  the  Hon.  Mrs* 
Barton;  Lord  George  Fitz  Gerald;  Lord  and  Lady  Henry 
Fitz  Gerald;  the  Countess  of  Mayo;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vipond 
Barry  ;  Mr.  B.  Cooper ;  Miss  Margaret  Stokes,  Hon.  Member^ 
K.A.S. ;  Lord  Frederick  Fitz  Gerald  ;  the  Duke  of  Leinster  ; 
Lord  Desmond  Fitz  Gerald  ;  Mrs.  Somers  ;  Mr.  Chas.  Daly  ; 
Dr.  Thos.  E.  O'Kelly  ;  Rev.  C.  J.  Graham  ;  Mr.  George  C.  A. 
CoUey ;  Dr.  Norman ;  Mrs.  Clarke ;  Rev.  M.  Devitt,  s.j.  ; 
Captain  A.  Weldon  ;  Mr.  William  Kirkpatrick  ;  Mrs.  Cane  ; 
Mr.  J.  B.  Hall ;  Mr.  A.  P.  Delany  ;  Rev.  E.  O'Leary,  p.p.  ; 
Miss  Aylmer. 


226 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 


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.  COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        227 

LIST  OF  HONORARY  OFFICERS  AND  MEMBERS. 

(CORRECTED  TO  FEBRUARY  34,  18^7.) 


THE   EARL  OF  MAYO. 

THE  REV.  MATTHEW  DEVITT,  S.J. 
ft0unril: 

(in  ohdbk  of  blkction.] 

THOMAS  COOKE-TRENCH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
GEORGE  MANSFIELD,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
THE  REV.  CANON  SHERLOCK,  M.A. 
THE  REV.  EDWARD  O'LEARY,  P.P. 
THOMAS  J.  DE  BURGH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
AMBROSE  MORE-O'FERRALL,  ESQ.,  D.L. 

|i0ff .  a)rf asurtr : 

HANS  HENDRICK-AYLMER,  ESQ.,  Kerdiifstown,  Sallins. 

II011.  S^fjCTjetarijeg : 

LORD  WALTER  FITZGERALD,  M.R.I.A.,  Kilkba  Castle,  Maoeney. 
SIR  ARTHUR  VICARS,  F.S.A.,  C7,/e»-,  44,  Wellinoton-road,  Dihlin. 

$0n.  (Ebiiat : 
THE  REV.  CANON  SHERLOCK,  M.A.,  Sheri.ojkstown,  Sallins. 


228  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 


[Officers  are  indicated  by  heavy  type ;  Life  Members  by  an  asterisk  (*).] 

Adams,  Rev.  James,  Kill  Rectory,  Straffan. 

Archbold,  Miss,  Davidstown,  Castledermot. 

Aylmer,  Miss,  Donadea  Castle,  Co.  Eildare. 

Aylmer,  Algernon,  Rathmore,  Naas. 

ATLMEB,  H.  HENDRIGX-,  Hon.  Treunrer,  KerdifPstown,  Sallins. 

♦Barton,  Hon.  Mrs.,  Straffan  House,  Straffan. 
♦Barton,  Major  H.  L.,  d.l.,  Straffan  House,  Straffan. 

Beard,  T.,  m.i).,  Bungay,  Norfolk,  England. 

Bird,  Rev.  John  T.,  Curragh  Camp,  Newbridge. 

Blake,  J.  R.,  22,  Moiehampton-road,  Dublin. 

Bonham,  Colonel  J.,  Ballintaggart,  Colbinstown,  Co.  Kildnre. 

Brooke,  J.  T.,  Dungannon,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Brown,  Stephen  J.,  Naas. 

Burke,  Very  Rev.  E.,  p.p.,  Bagenalstown,  Co.  Carlo w. 
♦Burtchaell,  G.  D.,  m.a.,  7,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin. 

Cane,  Major  Claude,  St.  Wolstan*s,  Celbridge. 

Carberry,  Rev.  Thomas,  p.p.,  The  Presbytery,  Ballitore. 

Carroll,  Frederick,  Moone  Abbey,  Moone. 

Carroll,  Rev.  James,  Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 

Clarke,  Mrs.,  Athgoe  Park,  Hazelhatch,  Co.  Dublin. 
♦Clements,  Colonel,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Clements,  Mrs.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 
♦Clements,  Henry  J.  B.,  d.l.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Coady,  D.  P.,  m.d.,  Naas. 

Cochrane,  Robert,  f.s.a.,  m.r.i.a.,  Hon.  Secretary  r.s.a.i.,-  17,  Highfield-r^ad, 
Rath  gar. 

Cole,  Rev.  J.  P.,  The  Rectory,  Portarlington. 

CoUey,  G.  P.  A.,  Mount  Temple,  Clontarf,  Co.  Dublin. 

Conmee,  Rev.  J.  F.,  b.j.,  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Upper  Gardiner-8ti:«et,  Dublin. 

Cooper,  Austin  Damer,  Drumnigh  House,  Baldoyle,  Co.  Dublin. 

Coote,  Stanley,  The  Orchai  d  House,  Wargrave,  Berks. 

Co  well.  Very  Rev.  G.  Y.,  Dean  of  Kildare,  The  Deanery,  Kildare. 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        229 

Daly,  C,  25,  Westmoreland-street,  Dublin. 

Dames,  R.  S.  Longworth,  21,  Herbert-street,  Dublin. 

Dane,  J.  Whiteside,  Abbeyfield,  Naas. 

Darby,  M.,  m.d.,  Monasterevin. 

Davidson-Houston,  Rev.  B.  C,  St.  John's  Vicarage,  Sidney  Parade,  Dublin. 

Day,  Robert,  f.s.a.,  m.k.i.a.,  3,  Sydney-place,  Cork. 

Dease,  Colonel  G.,  Celbridge  Abbey,  Celbridge. 

DE  BITEOH,  THOMAS  J.,  d.l.,  Oldtown,  Naas. 

BEYITT,  Bey.  MATHEW,  b.j.,  Yiee-Preiident,  Rector  of  Clongowes  Wood 

College,  Sallins. 
Doyle,  Rev.  J.  J.,  p.p.,  Derryoappagh,  Mountmellick,  Queen's  County. 
Doyle,  Rev.  liaurence,  Moone. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Mark,  Woodstock  Cottage,  Athy. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Thomas,  Caragh,  Naas. 
Drogheda,  The  £arl  of,  Moore  Abbey,  Monasterevin. 
Drogheda,  The  Countess  of,  Moore  Abbey,  Monasterevin. 
Duggan,  Rev.  William,  Athy. 
Duncan,  J.  A.,  Athy. 
Dunne,  Rev.  John,  Clane. 
Dunne,  Laurence,  j.p.,  DoUardstown  House,  Athy. 

Elliott,  Rev.  William,  The  Manse,  Nuas. 

Falkiner,  F.  /.,  m.d.,  Spring  (hardens,  Naas. 

Ffreneh,  Rev.  J.  F.  M.,  x.k.i.a.,  Bally redmond  House,  Clonegal,  Co.  Carlow. 
♦Fitz Gerald,  Lady  Eva,  Eilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare, 

Fitz  Gerald,  Lady  Mabel,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 
♦Fitz  Gerald,  Lady  Nesta,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 
♦Fitz  Gerald,  Lord  Frederick,  Carton,  Maynooth,  Co.  Kildare. 
♦Fitz  Gerald,  Lord  George,  King's  House,  Kingston,  Jamaica. 
♦FITZGEEALB,    LOEB  WALTER,   m.r.i.a.,  Hon.  Secretary,  Kilkea  Castle, 
Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 

Fitz  Gerald,  Lord  Henry,  36,  Ashley  Gardens,  Victoria-street,  London,  S.W. 

Fogarty,  Rev.  M.,  Professor,  The  College,  Maynooth. 

Foley,  Most  Rev.  Patrick,  d.d.,  Braganza,  Carlow. 


Ganly,  Rev.  C.  W.,  The  Rectory,  Castledeimot,  Co.  Kildare. 

Gargan,  Right  Rev.  Monsignor  Denis,  d.d.,  Pre^dent  of  St.  Patrick's  College, 

Maynooth. 
Garstin,  J.  Ribton,   d.l-,   f.s.a.,   m.r.i.a.,    Braganstown,    Castlebellinghain , 

Co.  Louth. 
Glover,  Edward,  19,  Prince  Patrick-terrace,  North  Circular-road,  Dublin. 


230  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

Graham,  Rey.  C.  J.,  Kildrought  Parsonage,  Celbridge. 
Greene,  Thomas,  ll.d.,  Millbrook,  Mageney. 

Hade,  Arthur,  c.b.,  Carlow. 

Higginson,  Ladj,  Connellmore,  Newbridge. 

Hogiiet,  Madame  Henrj-  L.,  48,  "West  Twenty-eighth-street,  New  York. 

Jameson,  Miss  Sophia,  Glemnona,  Moone. 

Jesson,  Rev.  J.  L.,  The  Rectory,  Kilkea,  Co.  Kildare. 

Johnson,  Miss,  Prumplestown  House,  Castledeimot,  Co.  Kildare. 

Joyce,  Patrick  Weston,  Lyrena  Greno,  Leinster-road,  Rathmines,  Dublin. 

Kennedy,  Rev.  H.,  St.  David's  Rectory,  Naas. 

Eeogh,  Surgeon-Major  T.  R.,  Castleroe,  Mageney,  Co.  Kildare. 

Kirkpatrick,  William,  Donacomper,  Celbridge. 

La  Touche,  Mrs.  John,  Harristown,  Brannoxtown. 
Lentaigne,  Rot.  Victor,  s.j.,  Clongowes  Wood  College,  Sallins. 
Loch,  J.,  C.I.R.I.C.,  The  Firs,  Naas. 
Long,  Miss  A.  F.,  Woodfield,  Kilcavan,  Geashill,  King^s  County. 

McS weeny,  J.  G.,  18,  Claremount-road,  Sandymount,  Dublin. 

Maguire,  Rev.  E.,  d.d.,  Professor,  The  College,  Maynooth. 

Maguire,  P.  A.,  2,  Oldtown-terrace,  Naas. 

Mahony,  David,  d.l..  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 

Mahony,  George  Gun,  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 

XAKSFIELD,  GEORGE,  d.l.,  Morristown  Lattin,  Naas. 

Mayo,  Dowager  Countess  of,  20,  Eaton^square,  London,  S.W. 

MATO,  The  EA£L  OF,  Preiident,  Palmerstown,  Straffan. 

MoUoy,  William  R.,  m.r.i.a.,  17,  Brookfield-terrace,  Donnybrook,  Dublin. 

Mooney,  William,  j.p.,  The  Castle,  Leixlip. 

Moran,  His  Eminence  Cardinal,  Sydney,  N.S.  Wales,  Australia. 

Morrin,  Rev.  Thomas,  p.p.,  Naas. 

Murphy,  Very  Rev.  Michael,  p.p.,  St.  Brigid*s,  Kildare. 

Murphy,  W.  A.,  Osberstown  House,  Naas. 

Nolan,  Rev.  James,  Ballitore,  Co.  Kildare. 
Norman,  George,  12,  Brock-street,  Bath,  England. 

O'Brien,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Peter,  Lord  Chief  Justice,  Castletown,  Celbridge. 
O'Bynie,  Rev.  Patrick,  SS.  Michael  and  John's,  Exchange-st.,  Dublin. 
O'Dea,  Veiy  Rev.  Thomas,  d.d.,  Vice-President,  The  College,  Maynooth. 
•O'FERRALL,  AMBROSE  MORE-,  d.l.,  Ballyna,  Moyvalley. 
0*Hanlon,  Very  Rev.  Canon  John,  p.p.,  8,  Leahy's-ter.,  Sandymount,  Dublin- 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        23 1. 

O'Kelly,  T.  E.  T.,  m.d.,  Maynooth. 
•(yLEARY,  Bev.  E.,  p.p.,  Ballyna,  Moyvalley. 
O'Leary,  Rer.  Patrick,  The  College,  Maynooth. 
0* Meagher,  J.  Casimir,  h.ii.i.a.,  46,  Moimtjoy-square,  S.,  Duhlin. 
Owen,  Arthur,  Shanvaghey,  Ballacolla,  Queen^s  Co. 

Palmer,  Charles  Colley,  d.l.,  Rahan,  Edenderry. 
Ponsonhy,  Hon.  Gerald,  Palmerstown,  Straffan. 
Ponsonby,  Lady  Maria,  Palmerstown,  StraHan. 
Pratt,  Mrs.,  Glenheste,  Manor-Eilbride,  Co.  Dublin. 

Quinn,  Bev.  Richard,  b.a.,  Eilmeade  House,  Athyj 

Rynd,  Major  R.  F.,  Blackball,  Naas. 

Saunders,  Colonel  R.,  d.l.,  Saunders*  Grove,  Stratford-on-Slaney,  Co.Wicklow. 

Seaton,  Lord,  Bert  House,  Athy. 

8HEBL0CK,  Bey.  Canon,  Hon.  Editor,  Sherlockstown,  Sallins. 

Skuse,  Rev.  Richard  D.,  Ballykean  Rectory,  Portarlington. 

Soiiiers,  Mrs.,  The  Rectory,  Dunboyne,  Co.  Mcath. 

Somerville-Large,  Rev.  W.,  Camalway  Rectory,  Kilcullen. 

Staples,  William,  Naas. 

Supple,  K.,  D.i.u.i.c,  Dunlavin,  Co.  Wicklow. 

Sutcliffe,  J.  R.,  Hibernian  Bank,  Naas. 

Sweetman,  E.,  Longtown,  Naas. 

Sweetman,  Mrs.,  Longtown,  Naas. 

Synnott,  Nicholas,  14,  Herbert-crescent,  Hans-place,  London,  S.W. 

Taylor,  Mark,  Golden  Fort,  Baltinglass,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Thomhill,  F.  Evelyn,  Rathangan  House,  Rathangan. 
TBEHGH,  THOMAS  GOOKE-,  d.l.,  Millicent,  Sallins. 
Trench,  Mrs.  Cooke-,  Millicent,  Sallins. 
Tynan,  Rev.  Thomas,  p.p.,  Newbridge. 

YICABS,    SIB  ABTH17B,   f.  s.  a.,   Ulster  King -of -Arms,   Hon.   Secretary, 

44,  Wellington- road,  Dublin. 
Vigors,  Colonel  P.  D.,  Holloden,  Bagenalstown,  Co.  Carlow. 

Wall,  Colonel  J.,  Enockareagh,  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Wall,  Mrs.,  Knockareagh,  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Walsh,  Rev.  Martin,  p.p.,  Castledermot,  Co.  Kildare. 
Warmington,  Alfred  A.,  Munster  and  Leinster  Bank,  Naas. 
Watt,  David,  Stackallan,  Navan,  Co.  Meath. 


232  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE 

Weldon,  General,  Forenaughts,  Naas. 
Weldon,  Captain  A.  A.,  Eilmorony,  Athy. 
"Weldon,  Lady,  Kilmorony,  Athy. 

Wheeler,  W,  I.,  m.d.,  p.k.c.8.i.,  32,  Merrion-squai-e,  1^.,  Dublin. 
"White,  W.  Grove,  13,  dpper  Ormond-quay,  Dublin. 
"Willis,  G.  de  L.,  4,  Kildare- street,  Dublin. 
Wilson,  Colonel  W.  F.,  The  Vicarage,  Clane. 
Wilson,  Bobert  M.,  Coolcarrigan,  Kilcock. 
Wilson,  Mi's.  K.  M.,  Coolcarrigan,  Kilcock. 
Wilson,  Miss  E.  Dupre,  Coolcarrigan,  Kilcock. 
Wolfe,  George,  Bishopsland,  Ballymore-Eustace,  Naas. 
WooUcombe,  Bobert  L.,  ll.d.,  m.r.i.a.,  14,  Waterloo-road,  Dublin. 
♦Wright,  Professor  E.  Perceval,  m.d.,  Hon.  Secretaiy  k.i.a.,  6,  Trinity  College, 
Dublin. 

'$on.  JSS^tmin : 

Miss  Margaret  Stokes,  Carrig  Breac,  Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.        233 


RULES. 

L  That  this  Society  he  called  '<The  County  Eildare  Archceologioal 
Society." 

II.  That  the  purpose  of  the  Society  he  the  promotion  of  the  study  and 
knowledge  of  the  antiquities  and  ohjects  of  interest  in  the  county  and 
surrounding  districts. 

III.  That  the  Society  consist  of  a  President,  Vice-President,  Council, 
Hon.  Treasurer,  two  Hon.  Secretaries,  and  Memhers.  Ladies  are  eligible 
for  Membership. 

lY.  That  the  Names  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  desiring  to  become 
Members  of  the  Society  shall  be  submitted,  together  with  the  names  of 
their  proposers  and  seconders,  to  the  Council,  and,  if  approved  by  them, 
shall  then  be  submitted  to  the  next  Meeting  of  the  Society  for  Election. 

V.  That  the  affairs  of  the  Society  be  man  aged  by  the  President,  Vice- 
President,  Hon.  Treasurer,  and  Hon.  Secretaries,  together  with  a  Council 
of  six  Members.  That  for  ordinary  business  two  shall  form  a  quorum  ;  but 
any  matter  upon  which  a  difference  of  opinion  arises  shall  be  reserved  for 
another  meeting,  in  which  three  shall  form  a  quorum. 

VI.  That  two  Members  of  the  Council  shall  retire  by  rotation  each 
year,  but  shall  be  eligible  for  re-election. 

VII.  That  Members  pay  an  Annual  Subscription  of  Ten  Shillings  (due 
on  the  1st  of  January),  and  that  the  payment  of  £5  shall  constitute 
a  Life  Member. 

VIII.  That  Meetings  of  the  Society  be  held  not  less  than  twice  in  each 
year,  one  Meeting  being  an  excursion  to  some  place  of  archsBological 
interest  in  the  district. 

IX.  That  at  the  lirst  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  each  year  the  Hon. 
Treasurer  shall  furnish  a  balance-sheet. 

X.  That  a  Journal  of  the  Society  be  published  annually,  containing 
the  Proceedings  and  a  column  for  local  Notes  and  Queries,  which  shall  be 
submitted  to  the  Council  for  their  approval. 

XI.  That  the  Meetings  of  the  year  be  fixed  by  the  Council,  due  notice 
of  the  dates  of  the  Meetings  being  given  to  Members. 

XII.  That  Members  be  at  liberty  to  introduce  visitors  at  the  Meetings 
of  the  Society* 

Xin.  No  Member  shall  receive  the  Journal  if  his  Subscription  for 
the  previous  year  be  not  paid. 


St.  Brigid's  Cathrdrai.,  Kij.dakr,  ante  1820,  and  Bask  of  Granite  Cross. 

(From  T.  Cromwell's  "  Excursions  through  Ireland.") 

The  original  Water-colour  (10}  X  7^)  by  George  Petrie,  is  in  the  possession  of 
Miss  Margaret  Stokes. 


ST.  B RIGID  AND  THE  CATHEDRAL   CHURCH 
OF  KILDARE} 

By  thb  very  REV.  GEORGE  YOUNG  COWELL,  M.A., 
Dean  of  Kildare. 

[Read,  September,  1895.] 

THE  Cathedral  Ciiurch  of  Kildare  is  built  on  one  of  the  most 
auoient  and  famous  eoclesiastieal  sites  in  Ireland,  and  is 
second  only  to  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Armagh  in 
historical  and  religious  interest.  If  Armagh  is  indissolubly 
associated  with  the  work  and  memory  of  St.  Patrick,  Kildare 
is  equally  bound  up  with  the  work  and  memory  of  St.  Brigid ; 
and  so  we  may  add  are  Derry  and  Durrow  with  the  work  of 

>  For  the  materials  of  this  Paper,  I  wish  to  express  generally  my  obliga- 
tions to  the  following  works :  Arohdi^ll's  **  Monastieon" ;  Harris's  **  Ware" ; 
MS.  notes  and  letters  of  Dr.  O'Donovan,  prdnance  Survey  R.I. A. ;  Dr.  Comer- 
ford,  *•  Collections,  Dioceses  Kildare  and  Leighlin  ** ;  Dr.  Olden,  **  Church  of 
Ireland" ;  Dr. Whitley  Stokes's  "  Lives  of  Saints  from  Book  of  Lismore  " ;  Dr. 
Healy's  *' Ancient  Schools  and  Scholars  of  Ireland";  the  Rev.  F.  E. 
Warren's  "Ritual  and  Liturgy  of  the  Celtic  Church";  Dr.  Fowler's 
^'Adamnan's  Life  of  S.  Columba,"  &c. 

VOL.  11.,   PT.  IV.  U 


^J 


236  ST.   BRIGID  AND   THE 

St.  Columba,  and  these  three  form  the  **  Trias  Thauroaturga/^ 
the  wonder  working  triad,  the  three  great  patron  Saints  of 
Ireland. 

As  Dr.  Healy  says : — "  If  St.  Patrick  was  the  father,  St. 
Brigid  was  the  mother  of  all  the  Saints  of  Erin,  both  monks 
and  nuns." 

In  the  Roman  Missal,  the  Festival  of  St.  Patrick  is  cele- 
brated on  the  17th  of  March,  but  St.  Brigid  and  St.  Columba 
are  passed  over.  I  understand,  however,  that  in  the  Roman 
Breviary,  in  the  supplement  for  Irish  clergy,  she  receives  a 
restricted  recognition. 

In  the  Irisli  Church,  owing  to  the  custom  of  only  com- 
memorating persons  whose  names  occur  in  Holy  Scripture,  all 
three  are  left  out  in  the  cold,  unless  when  some  individual 
bishop  authov^ea  the  use  of  a  special  collect,  as  was  done  this 
year  for  St.  Patrick,  when  the  17th  of  March  fell  on  a  Sunday. 
This  was  a  step  in  the  right  direction,  which,  it  may  be  hoped, 
will  some  day  go  further,  and  authorize  a  special  collect  for  1st 
of  February. 

St.  Brigid  was  born  in  453,  and  was  for  some  years  a  con- 
temporary of  St.  Patrick. 

She  thus  belongs  to  the  period  of  t]ie  first  order  of  Saints 
who  are  called  most  holy,  of  whom  we  are  told  by  a  writer  in 
the  eighth  century : — **  Then  they  were  all  bishops,  famous  and 
holy,  full  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  350  in  number,  founders  of 
churches;  they  had  one  Head,  Christ;  and  one  Chief,  Patrick; 
they  observed  one  mass,  one  celebration,  one  tonsure  from  ear 
to  ear,  they  celebrated  one  Easter  on  the  fourteenth  moon  after 
the  vernal  equinox,  and  whosoever  was  excommunicated  by  one 
churclj,  all  excommunicated ;  they  rejected  not  the  services  and 
society  of  women,  because,  jfounded  on  the  Bock  Christ,  they 
feared  not  the  blast  of  temptation.  All  these  bishops  were 
sprung  from  the  Romans,*  Franks,  Britons,  and  Scots."  This 
period  terminated  in  643  a.d. 

St.  Brigid  has  a  sentimental  advantage  over  St.  Patrick, 
not  merely  because  she  was  a  woman,  but  because  she  was  an 
Irish  woman,  one  of  pure  Celtic  descent,  and  the  first  woman 
who  was  prominently  engaged  in  Church  work  in  Ireland. 

She  was  the  daughter  of  a  famous  Leinster  Chieftain  named 
Duffach,  who  was  descended  from  Felim  Rectmar,  the  law 
giver,  a  celebrated  Monarch   of  Ireland,  and  from  Eochad, 

*  Dr.  Healy  says,  "  The  Romans  were  those  who  enjoyed  the  rights  of 
the  Imperial  oitizenshipi  which  at  this  time  had  come  to  be  a  badge  of 
slavery.** — **  Ireland's  Ancient  Schools,"  p.  160  n. 


CATHEDRAL  CHURCH   OF  KILDARE.  237* 

brother  of  the  redoubtable  Con  of  the  Hundred  Battles,  and  was 
tlius  connected  with  St.  Columba,  the  great  presbyter  abbot  of 
lona.  Her  mother  was  named  Brocessa,  of  the  tribe  of  the 
Dftil  Concobair  of  Meath,  and  is  said  in  the  Irish  Life  from 
Book  of  Lismore,  and  in  the  Third,  Fourth,  and  Fifth  Lives  of 
St.  Brigid,  to  have  been  a  captive  slave  of  DnflPaeh's,  and  sold 
shortly  before  Brigid  was  born  to  a  Druid,  who  lived  near 
Dundalk  at  Faughard,  where  the  Saint  was  born  in  453.  '^  A 
legend  relates  that  her  mother  having  gone  out  one  day, 
leaving  the  child  covered  up,  the  neighbours  saw  the  house  all 
ablaze,  so  that  the  flame  reached  from  earth  to  heaven,  but 
when  they  went  to  rescue  the  girl  the  fire  appeared  not." 
This  was  regarded  as  an  intimation  of  the  glory  which  would 
attach  to  the  name  of  Brigid. 

We  have  many  Lives  of  St.  Brigid,  the  earliest  written 
rather  more  than  a  century  after  her  death. 

They  are  unfortunately  not  "  Lives  "  in  the  ordinary  sense 
of  the  term,  they  are  rather  stories  of  the  wonders  and  miracles 
wliich  were  said  to  have  been  wrought  by  her.  "  Hngiologies 
rather  than  Histories."  Some  of  the  miracles  are  of  a  pecu- 
liarly incredible  kind,  as,  for  instance,  when  it  is  recorded  in 
the  Life  by  TJltan  (chap.  92),  that  St.  Brigid  hung  her  clothes 
to  dry  on  a  sunbeam ;  this  would  have  been  a  remarkable  feat, 
and  a  sunbeam  a  very  unsubstantial  line  to  hang  clothes  on,  no 
matter  how  airy  and  diaphanous  they  may  have  been,  unless  it 
were  a  poetical  way  of  saying,  she  wore  none  at  all. 

In  other  recorded  miracles,  however,  it  is  different,  and  as 
the  late  Bishop  of  Brechin  said: — "In  the  legends  there  is  no 
little  beauty,  and,  in  almost  all,  we  find  an  undercurrent  of 
true  human  feeling,  and  deep  Christian  discernment." 

This  statement  is  remarkably  illustrated  in  some  stories 
about  lepers. 

"  One  day  a  woman  brought  her  a  present  of  apples ;  while 
they  were  talking  some  lepers  came  up  asking  alms ;  Brigid 
bade  the  woman  divide  the  fruit  among  them.  *  Indeed,  then, 
I  will  not,'  said  the  woman ;  '  I  brought  these  apples,  not  for 
lepers,  but  for  yourself  and  your  nuns.'  The  Saint  rebuked 
her  for  the  want  of  charity,  and  said,  *  Your  trees  shall  never 
bear  fruit  again,'  a  prediction  which  was  fulfilled." 

"  Another  time  two  lepers  came  to  her,  covered  with  their 
frightful  sores.  The  holy  virgin  blessed  water,  and  bade  one 
of  them  wash  the  other.  He  did  so,  and  behold !  the  washed 
one  became  sound  and  whole.  *  Now  you  wash  your  comrade,' 
she  said,  to  him  who  had  been  cured.  He  would  not,  and  was 
going  away;    but  the  Saint  herself  washed   the  second  poor 

U2 


ST.  BRIGID  AND  THE. CATHEDRAL  CHURCH,  KILDARE.    241 

lier*' ;  tit  eccksiam  in  epitfcopalidignitaie  cam  ea  gubernaret.  This 
was  Coulaedth,  f  Hugh  .the  Wise,"  first  Bishop  of  Kildare.  Of 
this  religious  bouse,  it: is  stated — ''that  it  is  the  first  clear 
iustuDce  of  one  provided  with  a  monastio  bishop  under  the  rule  of 
thehead  of  the  institution,  and  also  of  a  double  monastery  for  men 
and  women^  a  system  which  was  subsequently  imitated  on  the 
Continent"  ;*  and  I  may  add  imitated  in  England,  in  the  next 
century,  by  St.  Hilda,  at  Whitby.  She  was  the  great  saint 
of  the  Northumbrian  Church,  which  had  been  founded  by  Irish 
missionaries  from  lona. 

The  account  of  this  growth  and  organization  of  Kildare  is 
g^iven  by  Cogitosus,  wiio  was  himself  a  monk  of  this  monastery, 
in  a  very  interasting  passage,  which  I  shall  now  read.  I  am 
not  responsible  for  the  translation. 

"  This  Virgin  (he  says),  increasing  with  egregious  virtue, 
when  through  the  fame  of  good  acts,  innumerable  people  of  both 
«exes  flocked  from  all  provinces  to  her,  making  voluntary  vows, 
raised  upon  the  firm  foundation  of  faith,  in  the  plain  of  MagU 
Liiffe,  her  monastery,  the  head  almost  of  all  the  monasteries  of 
Ireland,  and  in  honour  surpassing  all  the  monasteries  of  the 
Scoti,  the  district  attached  to  which  (monastery),  extending 
through  the  whole  of  the  land  of  Ireland,  lay  from  sea  to  sea. 
And  procuring  with  prudent  dispensation  respecting  their  souls, 
regularly  in  all  things,  and  solicitous  about  the  churches  of  many 
provinces  adhering  to  her,  and  considering  with  herself,  that  (it) 
could  not  be  without  a  high  (or  chief)  priest,  who  would  conse- 
crate churches,  and  substitute  ecclesiastical  grades  in  them. 
Galling  an  illustrious  and  solitary,  adorned  with  all  morals, 
through  whom  Qod  worked  very  many  virtues,  out  from  liis 
desert  (or  hermitage)  and  solitary  life,  and  going  on  to  meet 
him,  sent  for  him,  that  he  would  rule  the  church  in  Episcopal 
dignity  together  with  her,  and  that  nothing  of  the  Sacerdotal 
Order  might  be  wanting  in  her  churches.  And  afterwards,  tlie 
so  annointed  head  and  principal  of  all  the  bishops  and  the  most 
blessed  ruler  of  the  Nuns,  by  a  felicitous  association  between 
them  and  by  the  government  of  all  virtues,  erected  their  princi- 
pal chui*cli ;  and  through  the  merits  of  both,  their  Cathedral, 
like  a  fructiferous  vine  with  branches  spread  in  all  directions, 
increased  throughout  the  whole  Island  of  Ireland,  in  its 
episcopal  state,  as  also  in  its  state  in  respect  of  the  Abbess. 

"  Which  (church)  the  Archbishop  [or  Ard-bishop]  of  all  the 
Irish  Bishops,  and  the  Abbess,  whom  all  the  Abbesses  of  the  Scoti 
venerate,  always  rule  with  happy  succession  a  perpetual  rite." 


»  Olden,  p.  44. 


242  ST.   BRIGID   AND   THE 

This  Conlaedth  was  not  a  diocesan  bishop  in  our  modern 
sense,  as  diocesan  episcopacy  was  not  at  that  time  introduced 
into  Ireland.  He  was  the  bishop  of  the  monastery  and  seems 
in  some  degree  at  least  to  have  been  subject  to  St.  Brigid's  juris- 
diction. 

Two  incidents  illustrate  this :  "  Conlaed  had  gone  to  Letha 
(Rome  or  Brittany),  and  brought  back  some  *  transmarine  and 
foreign  vestments.'  But  Brigid  always  sympathising  with  dis- 
tress ....  cut  them  up  and  made  clothes  of  them  for  the  poor. 

"  On  another  occasion,  he  expressed  a  desire  to  visit  Rome. 
....  On  his  applying  to  Brigid  for  permission,  she  refused  to 
grant  it,  on  which  he  presumed  to  set  out  on  his  journey  with- 
out leave,  but  had  only  got  as  far  asDiinlavin,  in  the  county  of 
Wicklow,  when  he  was  devoured  by  wolves.  This  was  inter- 
preted as  a  judgment  for  his  disobedience,  because,  as  a  native 
authority  tells  us,  *  he  tried  to  go  to  Rome  in  violation  of  an 
order  of  Brigid ' "  (Olden,  p.  43).  This  tale  is  told  by  the  author 
of  the  Scholia  on  the  Martyrology  of  ufEngus. 

In  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  it  is  stated  : — 

619  A.D.  Conlaedh,  Bishop  of  Kildare,  and  artificer  to 
Brigid,  died  on  the  3rd  May. 

And  in  the  "  Annals  of  Ulster  "  : — 

799  A.D.  The  placing  of  the  relics  of  Conleadh  in  a  shrine 
of  gold  and  silver. 

The  arms  of  Kildare  Bishopric  are  thus  described  by 
Goodman : — Argent,  a  Saltire  engrailed  gules ;  on  a  chief  azure 
an  open  book  proper  with  the  inscription,  "The  Law  was  given 
by  Moses,  but  grace  and  truth  came  by  Jesus  Christ." 

These  arms  appear  on  a  seal  of  Charles  Cobbe,  Bishop  of 
Kildare,  dated  1731.  Other  arms  on  a  seal  of  Edmund  Lkne, 
Bishop  of  Kildare,  1495,  are  shown  in  Ware,  wliich  I  should 
like  to  have  properly  described  by  Ulster  King-at-Arms. 

Among  the  Suffragan  Bishops  of  Ireland,  the  Bishop  of 
Kildare  claimed  the  second  place  next  after  the  Bishop  of 
Meath,  the  rest  taking  their  seats  according  to  the  dates  of  their 
ordinations.  A  description  of  the  church  of  Kildare  ajs  it 
existed  in  his  day  is  also  given  to  us  by  Cogitosus,  which  is  of 
considerable  interest,  as  it  is  said  that  we  have  no  similax 
account  of  any  other  church  in  Ireland  at  that  age ;  and  soon 
after  it  was  written,  the  church  and  monastery  were  sacked  and 
burned  by  the  Danes  in  835  a.d.* 

1  The  Bishop  of  Limerick  (Dr.  Graves)  gives  very  oonvinciDg  reasons 
for  placing  the  date  of  Cogitosus'  death  about  670  a.d.,  and  not  about  800, 
as  stated  by  Dr.  Petrie  and  others.  (See  his  Paper,  Proceedings  of  R.I.A., 
vol.  viii.,  p.  26). 


CATHEDRAL  CHURCH   OF  KILDARE.  243 

I  give  Dr.  Petrie's  translation  of  the  passage  : — 

**  Nor  is  the  miracle  that  occurred  in  repairing  the  church,  to  he  passed 
over  in  silence,  in  which  repose  the  bodies  of  both,  that  is  Bishop  Conlaeth 
and  tliis  holy  Virgin  St.  Bridget,  on  the  right  and  the  left  of  the  decorated 
altar,  deposited  in  monuments  adorned  with  various  embellishments  of  gold 
and  silver  and  gems  and  precious  stones,  with  crowns  of  gold  and  silver 
<lependiiig  from  above.  For  the  number  of  the  faithful  of  both  sexes  increas- 
ing, the  church,  occupying  a  spacious  area  and  elevated  to  a  menacing  height, 
and  adorned  with  painted  pictures,  having  within  three  oratories  large,  and 
separated  by  partitions  of  planks  under  one  roof  of  the  greater  house,  where- 
in one  partition — decorated  and  painted  with  figures,  and  covered  with 
linen  han^'^ings— extended  along  the  breadth  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  church, 
from  the  one  to  the  other  party  wall  of  the  church,  which  partition  has  at 
its  extremities  two  doors,  and  through  the  one  door,  placed  in  the  right  side, 
the  chief  prelate  enters  the  Sanctuary  (in  Sanctuariura  ad  altare)  accom- 
panied by  his  regular  school,  and  those  who  are  deputed  to  the  Sacred 
ministry  of  offering  Sacred  and  dominical  Sacrifices  ;  through  the  other  door, 
placed  in  the  left  part  of  the  partition  above-mentioned  and  lying  transversely 
(a  per  ostium  in  sinistra  parte  porietis  supradicti  &  transversi),  [does  not 
this  mean,  the  above-mentioned  and  transverse  partition]  none  enter  but  the 
Abbess  with  her  virgins  and  widows,  among  the  faithful,  when  going  to 
participate  (fruantui)  in  the  banquet  (convivio)  of  the  body  and  blood  of 
Jesus  Christ.  But  another  partition,  dividing  the  pavement  of  the  house 
into  two  equal  ports,  extends  from  the  eastern  {rede  western)  side  to  the 
transverse  partition  lying  across  the  breadth.  Moreover,  the  church  has  in 
it  manv  windows  (fenestras)  and  one  adorned  doorway  (portam)  on  the 
right  side,  through  which  the  priests  and  the  faithful  of  the  male  sex  enter 
the  church,  and  another  doorway  on  the  left  side  through  which  the  congre- 
gation of  virgins  and  women  among  the  faithful  are  used  to  enter  (intrare 
solet).  And  thus  in  one  very  great  temple  (basilica),  a  multitude  of  people, 
in  different  orders  and  ranks,  and  sex,  and  situation,  separated  by  partitions, 
in  different  orders,  and  (but)  with  one  mind,  worship  the  Omnipotent  Lord.'* 
— ^Petrie's  "Round  Towers,'*  p.  197. 

The  Eev.  F.  E.  Warren,  author  of  "  The  Celtic  Liturgies," 
in  a  letter  wliieh  he  kindly  sent  me,  states : — "According  to  the 
more  ancient  rule,  the  right  band  meant  the  right  hand  of  the 
celelirant,  or,  the  right  hand  looking  east — i.e.  the  south  side." 

And,  again  : — **1  should  say  that,  unless  there  was  very  clear 
evidence  to  the  contrary,  the  *  riglit  hand,'  in  any  document 
earlier  than  the  fifteenth  century,  must  be  intei-preted  to  mean 
the  south  side." 

Consequently  the  men  came  in  through  the  south  door  in 
tlie  nave;  the  women  tlirough  the  north. 

From  this  description,  it  would  appear  that  the  church  of 
that  date  was  a  simple  rectangular  building,  probably  of  stone, 
without  any  regularly  constructed  chancel,  which  was  formed 
by  the  wooden  partition  already  mentioned,  and  which  was 
possibly  latticed. 

Whether  the  present  building  incorporates  any  portion  of 
the    ancient  church  is  exceedingly  doubtful,   especially  as  the 


9t.  BRIGID  AND  THE  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH,  KILDARE.    245 

o.  ^ch  was  burned  iind  rebuilt  more  than  once  before.  Balph  of 
Bristol,  the  first  English  bishop  of  Kildare  (1223-1232),  ''  was 
ki^  no  small  charge  in  repairing  and  adorning  this  Cathedral." 
^  Here  perhaps  I  should  insert  certain  remarks  of  Dr.  John 
O'Donovan,  made  in  1837  from  investigations  in  connection  with 
the  Ordnance  Survey.  He  says : — "I  examined  the  ancient 
remains  of  Kildare,  but  to  my  great  disappointment  I  could  not 
iflisoover  any  church,  cell  feature,  or  ancient  inscription  which  I 
dould  refer  to  the  primitive  ages,  with  the  single  exception  of 


Thk  "Fire  Housk,"  Kili'Ake,  in  1784. 
From  a  Drawing  by  Austin  Cooper. 


the  Round  Tower.  Tiie  natives  pretend  to  be  able  to  point  out 
the  site  of  St.  Brigid's  House,  Oak  Tree,  and  Fire  House ;  but, 
I  fear,  one  cannot  safely  rely  on  their  traditions.  I  am  anxious 
to  hear  Dr.  Petrie's  opinion  on  this  subject.  Is  there  extant 
any  ancient  map  of  Kildare  showing  the  relative  situation  of 
its  primitive  churches  before  they  were  destroyed  ?  Does  Ware 
or  any  of  our  ecclesiastical  writers  mention  their  having  seen 
any  of  the  ancient  churches  of  St.  Brigid  of  Kildare  ?  I  think 
they  stood  about  the  tower. 


246 


ST.   BRIGID  AND   THE 


% 


According  to  the  pres-  jj 

ent  tradition  their  relative 
position  is  here  given. 

On  the  Fire  House  we 
have  these  remarks  in 
•'Holinshed's  Chronicle": 
"  There  was  in  Kildare  an 
antient  monument  named 
the,  ffire  house,  wherein 
Cambrensissaith, was  there 
continuall  fire  kept  day 
and  night,  and  yet  the 
a^hes  never  increased.  I 
travelled  of  set  purpose  to  the  Towne  of  Kildare  to  see  this 
place,  where  I  did  see  such  a  monument  like  a  vault,  which  to 
this  daie  they  call  the  ffire  house."* 


di^^^^i 


Blm^k: 


'  J         ^-m.  '.4 


U*rjr 


Ancihnt  Granite  Cross,  Kit.oarr  Cathedral. 


*  Holinshed  when  writiiij<  the  above  wms  quoting  Richard  Stanihurst,  and  he 
it  wa8  who  visited  the  Fire  House  about  the  tliird  quarter  of  the  16th  century. 

In  the  year  1220,  Henry  de  Loundres  {i.e.  Henry  the  Londoner),  Archbishop 
of  Dublin,  caused  this  Fire  (which  had  been  carefully  preserved  from  a  very  early 
time  by  St.  Brigid*s  nuns)  to  be  extinguished  ;  but  it  was  shortly  after  relighted, 
and  continued  to  bum  until  the  suppression  of  the  Monasteries  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury.— Archdall*8  **Monasticon.*' 


CATHEDRAL  CHURCH  OF  KILDARE.  247 

Dr.  O'Donovan,  in  placing  the  Fire  House  where  he  does, 
differs  from  the  present  tradition,  which  places  it  to  the  north 
of  north  door  of  nave,  and  inside  the  churchward  wall. 

He  does  not  mention  the  very  ancient  cross,  but,  as  accord- 
ing to  Ware,  the  shaft  was  used  as  a  step  to  the  Communion 
Table,  it  may  have  escaped  his  notice.  The  shaft  and  mutilated 
cross  have  been  placed  on  the  ancient  base,  some  four  or  five 
years  ago,  at  the  expense  of  the  late  Duke  of  Leinster.  Quite 
recently  an  ancient  granite  font  of  very  rude  and  primitive 
make  has  been  discovered  in  the  churchyard  to  the  north  of 
north  transept,  and  has  been  placed  inside  the  nave.  Dr. 
O'Donovan  also  states,  vol.  ii.,  p.  232.: — 

**  I  have  no  doubt  that  St.  Bridget  found  the  idea  of  her  perpetual  fire  in 
that  part  of  Leviticus  which  commands  that  a  perpetual  fire  be  lighted  in 
the  Tabernacle.  .  • 

**  Be  this  as  it  may,  we  have  every  authority  for  stating  that  St.  Bridget 
was  never  a  Vestal  Virgin^  and  we  have  no  proof,  nor  can  we  assume  with* 
out  more  evidence,  that  there  were  fire  Druidesses,  or  Vestal  Virgins,  in 
Ireland  before  the  introduction  of  Christianity  in  the  fifth  century. 

*'  I  could  believe  that  this  fire  was  kept  lighting  by  the  nuns  in  honqur 
and  memory  of  their  Patron,  St.  Bridget,  and,  as  there  is  no  mention  in  her 
lives  of  its  having  been  lighted  by  herself,  that  it  was  perhaps  an  innovation 
of  modern  times.  In  like  manner  St.  Bridget's  'Oak,  hawks,  ili^c.,'  would 
have  been  rendered  perpetual,  if  the  principal  (  ?)  of  their  life  and  duration 
could  be  continued  or  su])plied  by  any  means  ;  and  I  could  also  believe  that 
there  is  very  little  reliance  to  be  placed  on  these  insulse  (insipid)  stories  of 
Cambrensis.  .   . 

**  Itis  astonishing  that  Cogitosus^  who  described  the  ecclesiastical  establish- 
ment at  Eildare  so  minutely,  takes  no  notice  of  this  perpetual  fire,  &c. 

*'  It  is  curious  that  Cogitosus  makes  no  mention  of  the  tower  or  perpetual 
fire  of  Kildare.  However,  we  should  be  very  cautious  in  venturing  to  assert 
that  he  does  not,  without  examining  his  work  most  carefully  fp.  235.] 

**  He  makes  another  reference  to  the  Basilica  of  Kildare,. which  I  have  not, 
viz.  that  it  was  an  inviolable  sanctuary  in  which  the  Regalia  of  kings  were 
placed,  and  that  it  had  an  ornamented  roof.  The  passage  is  extremely 
obscure,  and  should  be  compared  with  all  the  editions  of  Cogitosus." 

The  Annals  of  Ireland  have  many  references  to  Kildare 
and  its  church  during  the  ninth,  tenth,  and  eleventh  centuries, 
principally  burnings  and  plunderings  by  the  foreigners,  thus 
we  read:. — 

836  A.D.  "  A  Danish  fleet  of  30  sail  arrived  in  the  Liffey, 
and  another  in  the  Boyne;  they  destroyed,  amongst  other 
places,  Kildare  by  fire  and  sword,  and  carried  away  the  rich 
shrines  of  St.  Brigid  and  St.  Conlaedh." 

868  A.D.  The  Church  of  Kildare  was  rebuilt  by  Queen 
Flanna,  wife  of  Aedth  Finliath,  King. of  Ireland. 

962  A.D.  Kildare  rifled  by  the  Gentiles,  but  O'Nerulo, 
through  merciful  pitie,  tooke  pitty  on  them,  and  redeemed  all  the 


248  ST.   BRIGID  AND   THE 

clergi  almost  for  the  name  of  the  Lord,  viz.  the  full  of  St.  Brigid's 
house,  and  the  oratora-fuU ;  he  redeeilied  all  by  his  own  monie. 

1 050  A.D.  Eildare,  with  its  great  stone  ehuroh,  burned,  and 
again  in  1067  a.i>. 

1132.  A.D.     St.  Laurence  O'Toole  was  baptized  at  Eildare. 

1135  A.D.  The  Abbesse  of  Kildare  was  forced  and  taken 
out  of  her  cloisters  by  Dermot  MaoMorrogh,  King  of  Lynster, 
and  compelled  to  marrie  one  of  Dermot's  people. 

1 176.  The  English  Earl  (Strongbow)  died  at  Dublin,  of  an 
ulcer  which  had  broken  out  on  his  foot,  through  the  miracles 
of  St.  Brigid  and  Columbkille,  and  all  the  other  saints,  whose 
churches  had  been  destroyed,  by  him. 

1223  A.D.  Ralph  of  Bristol  repaired  and  adorned  the 
cathedral,  as  already  stated.  [This  was  the  building  whose 
ruins  have  now  been  restored  once  more.] 

1482  A.D.  Dr.  Edmund  Lane,  Bishop  of  Kildare,  repaired 
and  beautified  the  cathedral ;  he  also  built  a  college  in  which 
the  Dean  and  Chapter  should  reside. 

1600  A.D.  The  town  of  Kildare  suffered  so  severely  that 
all  the  houses  were  in  ruins  and  without  a  single  inhabitant. 
That  the  Cathedral  shared  in  the  general  wreck  is  shown,  firstly, 
in  the  Bural  Visitation  Book  of  1615,  in  wliich  it  is  stated, 
"  The  church  of  Kildare  diocese,  situated  in  the  town  of  Kil- 
dare, is  now  wholly  ruinous,"  and  again  in  the  Report  of 
Dr.  Pilsworfch,  Bishop  of  Kildare,  "  The  roof  of  the  body  of 
the  said  church  is  altogether  ruinous,  being  pulled  down  in 
the  late  wars.  The  parishioners  of  the  same  are  so  poor  that 
they  are  unable  to  repair  the  same,  unless  his  excellent  majesty 
vouchsafe,  of  bis  wonted  goodness,  to  grant  some  extraordinary 
help  and  furtherance  thereto." 

1641  A.D.  The  cathedral  suffered  severely  having  had  its 
steeple  beaten  down  by  a  cannonade. 

This  statement,  from  Ware,  is  constantly  repeated.  I  am 
inclined  to  think,  it  is  mythical,  as  I  have  been  assured  by  a 
very  intelligent  resident  in  Kildare,  who  was  constantly  at  the 
cathedral  during  the  work  of  restoration,  that  not  a  trace  of 
feuch  battering  nor  a  single  cannon  ball  was  discovered. 

The  sub-committee  also  reported,  as  follows : — "  Curiously 
enough,  steps  of  the  old  turret  and  portions  of  the  interior 
mouldings  of  the  windows  were  found  lying  on  the  corn  gravel 
(10  feet  down),  clearly  showing  that  from  some  cause  or  other 
the  foundations  of  the  piers  and  turret  were  turned  up  from 
the  very  bottom."  Again,  it  was  found  very  diflSoult  to 
obtain  a  proper  foundation  for  the  north  wall  of  tower. 

It  seems  probable,  therefore,  that   the  north  wall   of  the 


CATHEDRAL  CHURCH  OF  KILDARE.  249 

tower  fell,  from  a  settlemeDt  in  the  foundation,  carrying  with 
it  some  portions  of  east  and  west  walls,  and  wrecking  the  north 
transept  and  ohanoel. 

1642  A.T).  Archdeacon  Golborne  and  Mr.  Lightbome 
deposed  that,  "in  the  rebellion  of  1641,  the  ornaments  of  the 
cathedral  of  Kildare  and  the  hooks  belonging  to  the  same,  value 
ten  pounds,  also  the  chapter  chest  containing  all  the  evidences 
and  rescripts  of  the  chapter,  were  in  December,  1641,  taken 
away  by  Eosse  MacQeoghegan,  titular  Bishop  of  Kildare, 
Dempsey,  his  Vicar-General,  William  liorey,  priest,  and  the 
friars  of  the  Grey  Abbey  there." 

It  does  not  seem  that  these  books  and  chapter*deeds  were 
ever  recovered. 

Thus  we  see  that  the  wars  of  the  seventeenth  century  left 
the  cathedral  in  ruins. 

1681  A.D.  William  Moreton,  d.d.,  eldest  son  of  Edward 
Moreton,  Prebendary  of  Chester,  and  born  in  that  city,  was 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Kildare.  He  had  been  Dean  of  Christ 
Church,  and  was  allowed  to  hold  the  Deanery  in  commendani, 
on  account  of  the  poverty  of  the  See,  the  manors  and  lands  of 
which  had  been  alienated  by  Bishop  Craik,  in  1660. 

Bishop  Moreton  built  a  kind  of  pro-cathedral  or  choir,  on 
the  site  of  the  ancient  chancel.  This  building  was  probably 
commenced  in  1683,  as  a  stone  with  his  name  and  this  date, 
may  still  be  seen  amongst  the  monuments  in  the  cathedral. 

On  this  structure,  Mr.  George  Edmund  Street,  r.a.,  reported 
in  1871,  as  follows: — "The  choir  is  the  only  part  still  roofed 
and  used  for  service  ;  it  is  fitted  up  for  use  as  a  Cathedral  choir, 
with  seats  for  the  parishioners  in  the  centre.  Its  architectural 
character  is  of  the  poorest  description.  .  .  .  The  roof  is  not  in 
good  condition,  but  is  concealed  from  view  by  an  internal 
flat  and  plastered  ceiling." 

It  had,  however,  a  glory  of  its  own,  for,  on  the  day  of 
its  re-consecration,  St.  Peter's  day,  1686,  Thomas  Wilson, 
the  saintly  Bishop  of  Sodor  and  Man,  received  deacon's  orders. 
The  cathedral  still  possesses  a  paten  which  Bishop  Wilson,  in 
conjunction  with  bis  friend  Michael  Hewetson  (afterwards 
Archdeacon  of  Armagh),  presented  to  the  church  in  memory 
of  that  event. 

In  speaking  of  the  present  work  of  restoration,  I  cannot 
do  better  than  follow  a  carefully  compiled  Paper,  communi- 
cated to  the  Ouardiany  in  December,  last,  by  the  Eev.  C.  I. 
Graham,  b.d.,  with  a  few  alterations  and  omissions  : — 

"When  the  Irish  Church  Act  of  1869  became  law,  the  cathedral  was 
handed  over  to  the  parishioners  of  Kildare,  for  it  serves  both  as  the  church 


250  ST.   BRIGID   AND   THE 

of  the  parish  of  Eildare  and  the  cathedral  of  the  diocese.  But  the  choir,  in 
which  the  services  were  held,  was  in  a  ruinous  condition  ;  its  walls  cracked 
in  many  places,  and  generally  in  so  weak  a  condition  that  they  were  unable 
to  bear  a  new  roof,  which  had  then  come  to  be  badly  needed.  A  deputation 
of  the  parishioners  accordingly  waited  on  the  Dean  and  Chapter  to  ask  their 
assistance  in  the  work  of  restoration.     But  the  Dean  and  Chapter  could 

Sromise  no  funds,  and  the  deputation  returned  much  depressed.  One  of  the 
eputation  was  the  late  Dr.  Chaplin,  of  Eildare,  ex-President  of  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons,  Ireland,  whose  earnest  zeal  and  constant  labours  in 
connection  with  the  work  of  restoration  are  now  fitlj'  commemorated  in  the 
handsome  east  window  of  the  present  cathedral,  erected  by  subscriptions  of 
his  friends,  and  recently  unveiled  and  dedicated  by  the  Archbishop  of 
Dublin.  On  Dr.  Chaplin  mentioning  to  his  family  the  apparent  hopelessness 
of  effecting  any  restoration  of  the  cathedral  at  that  time,  his  little  son  of 
seven  years  ola  (now.  a  clergyman  in  the  diocese)  said  that  he  would  give 
his  bullock,  value  £0  towards  the  work.  This  offering  of  the  little  child 
was  literally  the  beginning  of  the  present  work  of  restoration,  for  it  led  to 
other  and  large  subscriptions  being  offered,  and  to  the  Archbishop  (Dr. 
Trench),  and  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  asking  Mr.  Street  to  inspect  the  ruins, 
.  and  report  as  to  what  could  be  done.  In  October,  1871,  Mr.  Street  issued 
a  report,  of  which  I  ijubjoin  some  extracts : — 

*•  •  This  ancient  cathedral  appears  to  have  been  built  in  the  early  part  of 
the  thirteenth  century.  It  was  a  simple  cross  church,  without  aisles,  but 
with,  apparently,  a  chapel  of  some  kind  opening  out  of  the  eastern  side  of 
the  south  transept.  A  tower  rose  above  the  intersection  of  the  arms  of  the 
cross,  whilst  a  noble  round  tower  stood,  and  still  stands,  not  far  from  the 
western  end  of  the  nave.' 

*'  With  the  exception  of  the  choir^ 
'  **  '  The  rest  of  the  church  is  in  ruins.  The  south  transept  and  the  nave 
have  lost  their  roofs ;  but  almost  all  their  other  architectural  features  still 
remain,  either  intact  or  in  such  a  state  as  to  make  their  restoration  a  matter 
of  no  difficulty.  The  southern  elevation  of  the  south  transept  is  one  of  great 
simplicity,  and  of  good  character  and  proportion.  Its  window  is  a  well- 
designed  triplet,  simple  externally,  but  with  shafts  and  mouldings  internally. 
The  side  walls  of  the  nave  present  a  very  remarkable  design.  The  windows 
are  simple  lancets,  separated  from  each  other  by  buttresses.  Between  these 
buttresses  bold  arches  .are  formed,  nearly  on  a  face  with  the  front  of  the 
buttresses,  and  with  a  narrow  space  between  them  and  the  face  of  the  wall. 
The  effect  of  this  arrangement  is  to  throw  a  very  bold  shadow  over  the 
window,  and  to  produce  a  most  picturesque  effect.  But  the  reason  of  it  is 
not  clear.  It  looks  somewhat  as  though  the  men  who  were  building  had 
more  acquaintance  with  miHtary  than  with  ecclesiastical  architecture,  and 
as  though  the  defence  of  the  church  from  hostile  attack  was  a  chief  motive 
in  this  part  of  the  design — a  part  which,  to  me  at  least,  is  novel.  .  .  .  The 
central  tower  is  a  mere  wreck.  It  is  a  work  of  fine  design  and  proportion, 
not  very  lofty,  but  in  its  complete  state  so  large  as  to  give  a  good  deal  of  the 
dignity  of  a  cathedral  to  what  might  otherwise  have  looked  somewhat  too 
much  like  a  parish  church.  There  are  various  other  fragments  of  great 
architectural  and  antiquarian  interest  in  this  building ;  among  them  I  may 
notice  some  fine  encaustic  tiles,  and  several  fine  monuments,  with  sculpture 
on  the  sides  or  slabs.  Ample  authority  exists  for  the  whole  of  this  work,  so 
that  it  might  really  be  a  work  of  restoration  in  the  best  sense  of  the 
word. 

*<  <  Geobgb  Edhuvb  Street,  R.A. 
"« October  31st,  1871.*" 


CATHEDRAL  CHURCH  OF  KILDARE.  251 

**  The  cost  of  this  restoration  Mr.  Street  estimated  at  £5000.  When  Mr. 
Street's  report  was  issued,  subscriptions  soon  flowed  in.  Archbishop  Trench 
gave  £350,  the  Duke  of  Leinster's  family  £2500,  Mr.  Thomas  Cooke-Trench 
£550  and  £1500  (the  interest  on  this  latter  sum  going  to  form  a  repair 
fund  for  use  in  the  future) ;  the  Dean  of  Kildare  £100,  and  £200 — collected 
by  himself  personally.  Amongst  the  subscribers  at  this  time  are  to  be  found 
the  names  of  the  Duke  of  Westminster,  the  Dowager  Marchioness  of  Bath, 
Sir  William  Heathcote,  the  Rev.  R.  F.  Wilson,  the  Duchess  of  Marlborough, 
and  Mr.  Gladstone.  But  the  money  came  in  largest  measure  from  Church- 
men  in  the  diocese  of  Kildare. 

*'  The  work  was  not  actually  commenced  until  1875  ;  but  from  that  date 
until  1882,  it  went  on  continuously.  A  visit  of  inspection  from  Mr.  Street 
in  1878  necessitated  some  alteration  of  the  plans,  in  order  to  follow  out  the 
old  lines,  and  the  walls  of  the  chancel  were  now  commenced,  but  left  un- 
completed. It  was  found  at  this  time  that  the  cost  of  the  works  would  far 
exceed  the  sum  of  £5000  mentioned  at  iirst  by  Mr.  Street  in  his  report.  Mr. 
Cookc-Trench  at  this  crisis  generously  oifered  £500  himself,  and  on  behalf  of 
Lady  Helena  Trench,  £200,  if  a  sum  of  £1500  were  collected  before  the 
end  of  February  in  the  next  year.  This  was  accomplished,  and  the  year 
18S2  saw  the  sum  of  £7072  expended  on  the  restoration,  leaving  the 
tower,  nave,  and  two  transepts  of  the  cathedral  completed.  Then  came  the 
agrarian  war  in  Ireland,  and  the  work  of  restoration  ceased  until  1890,  when 
a  fresh  appeal  was  made  for  funds,  which  resulted  in  £2700  being  subscribed 
again  mainly  by  Churchmen  in  Kildare  diocese 

. . .  **  This  sum  of  £2700  was  expended  in  the  rebuilding  of  the  chancel, 
filling  all  the  windows  (except  the  east  one)  with  cathedral  glass,  .  •  .  point- 
ing all  the  walls  internally  (it  having  been  decided  to  leave  the  walla 
unplastered),  laying  down  a  concrete  floor  with  necessary  steps  to  the 
chancel,  ana  providing  a  heating  chamber.  All  the  work  has  been  carried 
out  under  the  direction  of  the  eminent  diocesan  architect,  Mr.  J.  F.  Fuller, 
F.8.A.,  who  has  reproduced  the  character  of  the  old  masonry  as  far  as  possible. 
A  handsomely  wrought  Caen  stone  arcading  covers  portion  of  the  north  and 
south  faces  of  the  chancel  walls,  and  runs  across  the  east  end  to  the  level  of 
the  window  sills.  This  arcading,  for  about  half  its  height,  is  diapered,  and 
has  a  very  rich  effect.  On  the  south  side,  the  divisions  form  the  sedilia, 
-credence  table,  and  piscina.  The  portion  of  the  arcading  immediatelv  behind 
the  holy  table  has  a  greater  projection  from  the  face  of  tlie  wall,  and  is 
divided  into  spaces  more  richly  treated  than  the  remainder  of  the  work.  So 
that  now  Kildare  Cathedral  stands  complete,  as  far  as  its  structure  is  con- 
cerned, in  the  cruciform  shape  in  which  it  existed  prior  to  its  demolition  in 
1641.     But  much  still  remains  to  be  done. 

Heating  and  lighting,  the  tiling  of  the  entire  floor,  benches 
or  chairs  for  the  nave  and  transept,  a  suitable  organ— all  these 
things  have  yet  to  be  provided,  and  would  require  the  expen- 
diture of  about  £1750  before  the  whole  cathedral  could  be 
thrown  open  for  the  worship  of  Qod.* 

^  All  the  requisites  here  enumerated  with  the  exception  of  tiling  the  tran 
septs  have  been  provided,  and  the  Cathedral  was  dedicated  anew,  and 
solemnly  reopened  with  a  magnilicent  Service,  and  in  tlie  presence  of  a  great 
congregation  of  Bishops,  Clergy  and  Laity,  on  Tuesday,  22nd  September, 
1896,  the  Sermon  being  preached  by  the  late  Archbishop  ot  Canterbury. 
See  "Archbishop  Benson  in  Ireland,"  edited  by  Dr.  Bernard  (Maomillan 
and  Co.).  ^ 

VOL.  II.,  FT.  IV.  X 


252     ST.  BRIGID  AND  THE  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH,  KILDARE. 

And  now  a  word  in  answer  to  an  objection.  It  is  sometimes 
said  "  The  work  of  restoration  has  spoiled  a  beautiful  ruin." 
Surely  the  report  of  Mr.  Street  is  a  sufficient  answer.  "  A  few 
years  more,  and  what  now  r^mains  of  this  interesting  church 
may  have  become  a  thing  of  the  past.  Each  winter's  rain  and 
frost  help  to  disintegrate  the  very  fabric  of  the  walls,  and  that 
which  is  possible  now  may  not  be  possible  ere  long";  and  if 
this  is  not  sufficient,  then  surely,  the  dignity  of  God's  house,  the 
needs  of  the  diocese,  the  honour  of  the  Church  of  Irelai^,  the 
very  memory  of  St.  Brigid  herself,  call  on  all  who  can  lielp 
to  aid  in  the  restoration  of  the  great  church  of  Kildare,  so  often 
ruined — so  often  may  I  not  now  say — as  often  restored. 

Let  any  further  justification  necessary  be  found  in  the  words 
of  an  unwilling  witness,  Mr.  J.  M.  Fallow,  f.s.a.,  in  his  notes  on 
"  The  Cathedrals  of  Ireland  "  : — "  Antiquaries  may  be  pardoned 
for  regretting  that  the  attempt  was  ever  made  to  rebuild  tlie 
cathedral  from  the  old  ruins ;  but  that  having  been  done,  it  must 
be  confessed  that  the  result  has  been  to  produce,  as  the  reconstruo- 
tion  of  the  ancient  church,  one  of  the  most  picturesque  of  modem 
ecclesiastical  buildings  in  Ireland." 


KiLUAKB  Cathedral  from  tmk  SoiriH-EAsx  in  1870. 


(     253     ) 


THE  HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY        ^ 
KILDARE, 

By  JOHN  RIBTON  GARSTIN,  m.k.i.a.,  p.s.a. 

THE  office  of  High  Sheriff  is  one  of  great  antiquity  and 
dignity,  and  it  is  still  an  open  question  whether  the  High 
Sheriff  or  tlie  more  modem  Lieutenant  ranks  first  in  his 
own  county.  Pamphlets  have  heen  wiitten  on  this  knotty 
point,  which  has  never  heen  autlioritatively  decided  :  perhaps 
because  only  of  local  importance.  Mr.  Atkinson  in  his  work  on 
Sheriffs  (8^  Lond.,  6th  ed.,  1878)  lays  it  down  that  the  Sheriff 
**  has  right  of  precedence  within  his  county  of  every  nobleman 
during  the  time  he  is  in  office."  Blackstone  was  of  the  same 
opinion.  Sir  J.  Bernard  Burke  wrote:  "  Between  the  two  the 
higher  position  appertains,  in  my  opinion,  to  H.  M.  Lieutenant 
of  a  county."  His  successor  as  "Dlster,  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.  a., 
takes  the  opposite  view,  and,  in  his  official  Scale  of  Precedence 
(issued  By  Authority,  Dublin  Castle,  1897,  p.  18),  assigns  the 
higher  position  to  the  Sheriff.  The  Lieutenant  doubtless  is, 
even  when  not  a  peer,  generally  accorded  the  courtesy  designa- 
tion of  Lord,  and  in  right  of  the  office  of  Custos  Rotulot^m 
(when  he  holds  it,  which  was  not  always  the  case),  he  is  head  of 
the  magistracy,  but  his  position  is  chiefly  quasi-military.  He  is 
appointed  under  the  Militia  Act  and  wears  a  military  uniform. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  High  Sheriff  is  head  of  the  posse  conii- 
iatuSy  and  as  such  he  is  the  proper  convener  of  county  meetings. 
He  administers  the  law,  and  represents  the  Sovereign  in  his 
county. 

In  Ireland,  as  soon  as  it  became  divided  into  shire  ground 
and  English  law  prevailed,  the  execution  of  the  law  was  to  a 
great  extent  intrusted  to  Sheriffs,  and  accordingly  mention  of 
them  is  found  in  connexion  with  the  counties  of  the  Pale  from 
a  very  early  period. 

Many  Lists  of  Sheriffs  have  been  published,  and  there  is 
probably  no  English  county  without  some  such  list.  Fuller's 
Worthies  of  England  contains  Lists  to  his  own  time.  Mr.  Portal, 
in  bis  "  History  of  the  Great  Hall  at  Winchester,"  devotes 
part  iii.  to  an  account  of  the  High  Sheriffs  of  Hampshire  from 

X2 


254  HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 

A.D.  ]130.  An  Annotated  List  of  Oxfordshire  Slieriffs  from 
tlie  Conquest  was  compiled  by  Mr.  John  M.  Davenport ;  and 
Sir  G.  F.  Duckett,  Bart.,  published,  in  1879,  *'  The  Sheriffs  of 
Westmoreland,  with  the  Early  Sheriffs  of  Cumberland." 
Blakeway  published  The  Sherijfn  of  Shropshire,  These  are 
mentioned  merely  as  specimens. 

In  the  case  of  Ireland  no  account  of  the  Sheriffs  of  any 
county  had  been  published  as  a  separate  book,  though  some 
treatises  on  the  law  affecting  the  ofBce  and  on  its  duties  have 
appeared.  One  was  published  by  Matthew  Dutton,  8vo,  Dublin, 
1721.  The  lists  included  in  some  Irish  county  histories  are 
neither  numerous,  nor  full,  nor  accurate.  One  of  the  best  is 
that  in  Shirley's  Monaghan ;  perhaps  the  worst  that  in  Stuart's 
Armagh. 

The  County  Sheriffs  in  Ireland  are  selected  or  "  pricked"  by 
the  Lord  Lieuteuant  from  a  list  of  three  names,  furnished  to 
the  Crown  Judge  at  the  Summer  Assizes  by  the  Sheriff,  so  that 
practically  he  usually  appoints  his  successor.  Amongst  the 
"Irish  Rolls"  in  the  Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford  I  saw  the 
List  of  names  nominated  to  James,  Duke  of  Ormonde,  the  Lord 
Lieutenant,  15th  of  Charles  II.,  and  in  the  muniment  room  at 
Kilkenny  Castle  is  a  lioll  with  his  prickings  opposite  the 
selected  names — often  not  the  first.  See  Calendar  of  Carew 
MSS.,  i.,  p.  174. 

The  Sheriffs  were  formerly  obliged  to  pass  a  Patent  of 
appointment  and  were  lieavily  mulcted  therefor.  The  fees  were, 
in  1725,  regulated  by  an  Act  of  the  Irish  Parliament  (12  Gheo.  I., 
o.  4),  which  is  summarized  in  the  Liber  Munertim,  vi.,  37-8. 
It  enumerated  about  a  dozen  fees  amounting  to  £7  Is.  6(1. ^  in- 
cluding "  King's  silver,"  10«.,  and  "  chaff-wax,"  2«.  The  fees 
on  passing  accounts  amounted  to  £5  7^.  Sec.  13  gives  the 
Oath.     See  also  3rd  Geo.  III.,  c.  9. 

The  Act  5  &  6  William  IV.,  c.  55  (1835)  further  regulated 
the  appointments,  and  prescribed  that  they  were  not  to  be  as 
heretofore  by  Patent,  but  "  by  warrant  under  the  hand  of  the 
Chief  Governor."  It  provides  that  Sheriffs  are  no  longer  to  be 
"  apposed"  in  the  Court  of  Exchequer,  or  to  take  the  oath  "  to 
account  or  be  cast  out  of  court." 

The  Becord  OflBce  in  Dublin  contains  a  vast  number  of 
documents  relating  to  High  Sheriffs.  In  order  to  help  any 
persons  disposed  to  inquire  further  I  append  references  to  the 
principal  ones. 

Amongst  the  Chancery  (Hanaper  Office)  records  are  the 
Warrants  for  Appointment  (or  rather  for  the  issue  of  Patent  of 
appointment)  addressed  by  the  Lord  Lieutenant  to  the  Lord 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE.  255 

Clianoellor.  On  each  of  these  is  endorsed  the  Chancellor's 
direction  to  the  Clerk  of  the  Ilanaper  and  a  receipt  for  fees. 
The  Kildareones  run  from  1644  to  1813,  but  many  are  wanting. 
From  1741  they  are  on  printed  forms. 

Amongst  the  Eecords  of  the  Exchequer  (Revenue)  are :  — 

Names  returned  of  fit  persons,  1776-85. 

List  of  Sheriffs,  1781-1809.     I.  K.  11.  94. 

Names  of  Sheriffs,  1714-1823.     I.  K.  11,  99. 

Sheriffs'  accounts,  1639-1644. 

Sheriffs  who   have    not   paid   their  "Tots,''   1694-1720. 

5E,  193,9. 
Sheriffs  "quieted,"  1683-1833.     1.  K.  11.  95-8. 
Sheriffs'   Kecognizances   [1733-54],   1726-1832.     Index, 

p.  364. 

Of  these  I  have  examined  only  some  which  seemed  likely  to 
fill  gaps  in  the  Ulster's  Office  Lists  presently  to  be  described. 

In  that  great  but  imperfect  repertory  of  the  Official  History 
of  Ireland  the  Liber  Munerum  Publicorum  Hibenim^  issued  by 
the  Irish  Beoord  Commissioners,  and  for  a  time  suppressed,  two 
Lists  for  limited  periods  are  printed.  In  vol.  i.,  part  iv.,  155- 
60  is  given  a  list  of  Sheriffs  (as  well  as  of  "  Commissioners  "  or 
Justices  of  the  Peace)  during  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  1663-83, 
compiled  from  the  llecords  of  the  Hanaper  Office  in  the 
Chancery  of  Dublin.  At  p.  145  of  tlie  3rd  part  of  the  same 
volume  there  is  a  further  imperfect  list  of  the  Irish  High 
Sheriffs  in  the  reign  of  George  III.  It  extends  from  1761  to 
1815,  with  the  omission  of  1777-84.  The  succession  of  Sheriffs 
is  given  in  the  order  of  counties,  arranged  alphabetically,  from 
Antrim  to  Boscommon,  with  which  the  list  unfortunately  ter- 
minates in  the  ordinary  copies.  In  a  unique  copy,  however, 
now  before  me,  which  the  late  Bishop  Beeves  obtained  from  the 
Treasury,  several  additional  leaves  in  proof  are  added,  including 
tliose  containing  the  lists  of  Sheriffs  for  the  six  counties  from 
Sligo  to  Wexford. 

About  the  year  1858  correspondence  took  place  in  "Notes  and 
Queries"  (2nd  Series)  as  to  the  available  materials  for  the  compi- 
lation of  Lists  of  Irish  Sheriffs,  and  it  was  stated  (vol.  iii.,  76) 
that  the  "  most  perfect  known  list  "  was  to  be  found  in 
**  Exchequer  Notes"  of  the  late  James  J.  Ferguson,  but 
whether  these  were  in  print  or  MS.  was  not  stated,  nor  was  it 
made  clear  where  these  were  to  be  found.  The  Bev.  James  Graves 
of  Kilkenny,  replying  to  an  inquiry  of  mine,  stated  that  the 
Treasury  paid  £700  to  the  representatives  of  Mr.  Ferguson 
**  with  the  condition  that  his  MS.  collections  should  be  deposited 


256  HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUMTY  KILDARE. 

ia  the  Exohequor  for  the  publlo  benefit."  He  expressed  his 
belief  that  the  "  Exchequer  Notes  "  would  be  found  "  amongst 
the  mass  of  doouments  in  charge  of  Master  Hitohoook."  He 
asked  for  information  as  to  the  state  of  the  MSS.  and  inquired 
whether  thej  had  been  bound  and  arranged  so  as  to  be  available 
for  consultation.  No  reply  however  came,  nor  have  I  been 
able  to  find  amongst  the  Ferguson  MSS.  in  the  Record  Office 
any  list  of  Irish  Sheriffs  such  as  is  here  referred  to. 

In  Mr.  Graves'  communication  last  quoted  he  refers  to  tlie 
Memoranda  Bolls  of  the  Exchequer  and  the  Q-reat  Bolls  of  the 
Pipe  as  recording  the  names  of  Sheriffs  at  Easter  and  Michaelmas 
every  year.  The  latter  are  more  particularly  referred  to  in 
the  2nd  Beport  of  the  Keeper  of  the  Becords,  pp.  125,  131,  14'i. 
There  is  a  Boll  ("  de  comput.  Vice-comitum,")  of  Sheriffs' 
•*Tot8"  from  40^  Eliz.  to  21°  Jacobi,  and  thence  on  from 
1624,  tolerably  regularly,  for  all  counties,  possibly  down  to 
1739. 

The  most  accessible  modern  Lists  of  Irish  High  Sheriffs 
were  two  in  the  Office  of  Ulster  King  of  Arms,  and  these  the 
late  Sir  Bernard  Burke,  c.b.,  Ulster,  kindly  allowed  me  to 
transcribe  in  1880 — a  work  occupying  the  greater  part  of  a 
month. 

One  of  these  is  in  a  Manuscript  of  242  folio  pages,  lettered 
on  the  back  "  High  Sheriffs,  Constables,  &c."  It  is  in  tlio 
beautifully  clear  writing  of  tliat  great  archivist,  John  Lodge, 
Keeper  of  the  Birmingham  Tower  Becords,  &c.  &c.  The 
MS.  commences  with  11  pp.  of  curious  Miscellaneous  Notes, 
on  ten  subjects.  It  includes,  in  32  pp.  (which  I  copied). 
Lists  of  the  Governors  and  Custodes  Botulorum,  and  o( 
Constables,  Gaolers,  and  Keepers  of  prisons  in  the  several 
Counties  of  Ireland.  The  bulk  of  the  book  (pp.  50  to  142)  is 
occupied  with  the  Sheriffs,  from  the  year  1600  down  to  1772. 
Subsequently  are  given  particulars  of  entries  anterior  to  1600. 
Lodge  probably  compiled  these  Lists  with  a  view  to  completing 
his  sets  of  "  Patentee  Officers,"  which  were  subsequently  printed 
in  the  Liber  Mitnerum.  This  list  generally  gives  simply 
(1)  year,  (2)  surname,  (3)  Christian  name,  and  (4)  residence, 
but  in  the  case  of  early  entries  authorities  are  occasionally  cited, 
and  particulars  added. 

The  other  List  which  was  in  Ulster's  Office  belonged  to 
Sir  Bernard  Burke.  It  was  in  the  writing  of  a  clerk  of  his 
down  to  1858-9:  subsequent  entries  being  in  another  hand — 
occasionally  Sir  Bernard's  own.  It  contains  no  indication  as  to 
the  source  from  which  it  was  derived,  but  it  was  probably 
founded  on  Lodge's  List  as  far  as  1772.     It  differs  from  it 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE.  257 

however  in  a  good  many  partioulars,  omits  or  curtails  the  early 
references  given  hy  Lodge,  and  places  each  Christian  name  before 
the  surname  it  belongs  to. 

A  third  List  was  lately  found  in  Ulster  s  Office  by  the  present 
Ulster  King  of  Arms,  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.a.^  who  obligingly 
had  a  copy  of  it  made  for  me,  and  asked  me  to  compile  a  list  of 
Kildare  Sheriffs  for  this  Journal.  The  last  named  manuscript 
only  goes  as  far  as  Kilkenny,  inclusive.  It  appears  to  be  mainly 
a  transcript,  but  with  trifling  variations,  of  Sir  B.  Burke's 
copy,  like  which  it  ends  in  1870. 

The  following  List  is  only  intended  as  tentative.  It  probably 
<;an  never  be  completed,  but  it  is  capable  of  much  improvement. 
The  entries  may  serve  as  pegs  on  which  other  inquirers  can  affiic 
notes.  The  more  they  are  corrected  and  amplified  the  better  I 
shall  be  pleased.  A  beginning  has  been  made  by  Lord  Walter 
Fitz  Qerald  and  Mr.  Cooke-Trench  who  kindly  supplied  many 
of  the  notes  appended  to  the  list.  Tiiese  notes  might  have  been 
greatly  angmented  by  references  to  such  books  as  Burke's 
JLanded  Gentry  and  Peerages,  but  I  preferred  to  give  only  in- 
formation from  more  out-of-the-way  sources,  and  relating  chiefly 
to  the  earlier  and  more  obscure  entries 

I  have  in  the  main  followed  Lodge's  Manuscript  as  far  as  it 
goes,  and  then  the  other  Lists  referred  to,  noting  any  variations 
of  importance.  I  have  examined  the  Warrants  still  preserved 
in  the  Record  Ofiice  which  supplied  a  few  additional  particulars 
— chiefly  addresses — indicated  by  the  sign  "  W."  I  have  also 
found  mention  of  some  Sheriffs  who  escaped  Lodge's  notice,  in 
the  Fiauts  of  several  reigns  from  Henry  VIII.  to  Elizabeth, 
published  in  tlie  Appendices  to  the  Irish  Record  Office  Reports. 
Others  also  occur  in  the  Calendars  of  Documents  relating  to 
Ireland,  a.d.  1171  to  1307,  in  the  Public  Record  Office, 
London,  edited  by  H.  S.  Sweetman  (and  Or.  F.  Handcock), 
6  vols.  (Rolls  Series),  8°,  Lond.,  1875-86. 

The  Kildare  List  is  tolerably  complete  from  the  year  1592, 
but  Lodge  found  about  a  dozen  names  of  Sheriffs  appointed 
during  the  preceding  220  years,  and  the  Calendars  and  Fiants 
supply  about  another  score  during  that  time.  As  the  notices 
during  this  earlier  period  are  so  scanty,  I  have  thought  it  well 
to  givd  them  in  full,  arranged  chronologically,  without  attempt- 
ing to  exhibit  the  gaps.  In  the  later  period  every  year  is 
printed,  those  for  which  Sheriffs  are  as  yet  unknown  being  left 
blank,  and  the  notes  being  added  at  the  end. 

A  large  proportion  of  Elizabeth's  Fiants  relates  to  pardons 
granted  chiefly  to  native  Irish,  but  the  Sheriffs,  strange  to  say, 
are  frequently  included  in  these  pardons.     In  fact  it  seems  to 


258  HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 

have  been  the  fashion  then.  So  it  would  appear  that  the  law- 
keepers  were  often  law-breakers  at  that  period  ! 

In  the  Fiants  of  Henry  VIII.  there  is  no  mention  of  any 
Sheriff  of  Ejldare,  but  William  Higham,  one  of  the  yeomen  of 
the  Crown,  had  a  grant  for  life  of  the  office  of  "serjeant  or 
Bailiff  of  the  County  Kildare."  This  fiant  (which  is  exceptional 
for  being  in  English)  is  dated  at  Westminster,  20  June,  32*^, 
and  was  delivered  into  Chancery,  9  Sep.  following,  1540.  Could 
this  be  the  official  ancestor  of  the  Sub-sheriff  or  of  the  ranger  of 
the  Curragh  P 

The  years  entered  in  the  lists  are  usually  those  which  included 
the  greater  part  of  the  Sheriffs'  term  of  office.  That  is  an  inde- 
finite period,  not  exactly  concurrent  with  the  calendar  year.  The 
time  of  appointment  and  swearing  in  has  generally  ranged  from 
November  to  February,  but  a  Sheriff  remains  in  office  till  his 
successor  is  sworn  in. 


SHERIFFS  OF  KILDARE  BEFORE  lo92. 

N.B.—The  abbreviation   **  S.  of  K."    stands  for   Sheriff  of  KUdare, 

IS'OTICES  FBOM  SwEETMAN's  CALENDARS  (aBOVE  QUOTED)  ! 

A.D. 

1286. — ElCHARD  DE  PkNKKSTON. 
1292. HeNUY  DE  ROCHEFOKT. 

1293. — Th<ima8  Mavnsel. 

1298. — GlLKEKT  DE  SoTTON. 

1299. — William  Alexander  (elsewhere  spelled  "  Alysaundre  "). 
1300. — David  le  Mazbne  (elsewhere  called  David  Mazeneu). 
1301. — John  de  Coventry. 
1302. — Albert  de  Kenlee  (or,  as  in  another  place,  **  Kknleyr  "). 

!N"0TICE8  DEKIVED  MATNLY  FROM  LoDGE  kSD  THE  FlANTS  : 

1312.— Sir  John  de  Wellesley  (Burke's  Peerage,  "  Wellington  *'). 

1373. — William  Ballymoke. — He  had  a  Liberate  of  10  marks,  13  December,  1374, 

as  late  Sheriff,  for  a  vear  or  more  in  recompense  of  his  services  and  charge 

in  the  execution  of  that  office  (Rot.  Claus.  48  Kd.  III.  doi-so,  Roll  13). 
1379.— William  Wellesley,  of  Baronnith,  MSS.  Ulster's  Office. 
1385.— William  Wellesley.— [Same  again?  see  1403.] 
1386. — Sir    Maurice    Fitz-Eustacb,    Knt.,    appointed    during    pleasure.      Trym, 

26  January,  1385  (9  Ric.  II.,  facie  Roll  10). 
1402.— John    Fitz-Mohicb     [?  Eustace],    of    Blakchull    [Blackball  ?],    appointed 

(19  Sept.)  during  pleasure.     (3  Hen.  IV.,  f.,  R.  20.) 
1403. — William  Wellesley. — [Again  ^  see  1379  and  '85.]    During  pleasure,  Conall, 

4  Feb.,  1402  (4  Hen.  IV^,  l*i?./.,  R.  1)  with  a  fee  of  £20  a  yelir  out  of 

the  issues  and  profits  of  the  County,  in  consideratioji  of  his  great  services. 

(T.  B.  «  Birmingham  Tower,  4  Hen.  IV.,  l^p.f.  No.  123.) 
1416. — Sir  Richard  de  Wellesley,  Knight.     (Burke's  Peerage,  Wellington.) 
1423. — Thomas    Hatte   [Halle  f],    Esqr«,    June    18,    during    pleasure.     (T.    B., 

1  Hen.  VI.,  2^  p,f.  No.  33.) 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE.  259 

A.D. 

1424.— Sib  Eichard  Wbllbslbt,  Knt.,  was  succeeded  (T.  B.  3  Hen.  VI.,  /,   No. 

113)  by 
1425.— 81R  Edwaiid  Eustace,  Knt.,  appointed  during  pleasure,  May  11,  Drogheda. 

(T.  B.,  3  Hen.  VI.,  /.  No.  66.)     The  Eustaces  were  formerly  owners  of 

large  estates  in  Eildare,  and  still  have  some  property  near  Robertstown. 

See  this  Journal,  '92,  115. 
1502-4.--S111    William    Wooan,    Knt.,    of    Rathcoffey.      (Pedigree    by    Sir    W. 

Betham.) 
1556. — Njcholas  Eurtacb.     In  tlie  following  year  he  was  **(>f  Cradcekiston,  gent," 

and  had  a  paitlon.     [Fiants,  Phil,  and  Mary.] 
1557. — Patrick   Sarsfixld,  of  Tisteldelan    ["ow   Castledillon,   Co  Kildare]   gent. 

Pardon   to   him    and    Katherine    Fitz-Williams,  his    wife,   and    others. 

[Fiants,  Phil,  and  Mary.] 
1558. — Redmund  Fitzgerai.de,  of  Rathangan,  Co.  K.,  gent.,  alias  Redmund  oge, 

late   S.  of  K.,  hns  a  pardon  (with  another),  22  April,  1559.     [Fiants, 

1  Eli2.,  &c.     See  Index.] 
1558-1560. — Francis  Cohby,  of  Even  [now  Monasterevin],  gent.,  appointed  24  Jan., 

lo5|,  during  pleasure  (1  Eliz.  /.  23).     He  is  mentioned  several  times  in 

the  Fiants,  and  appears  to  have  continued  in  office  in  1560.    Later  on  he 

was  of  Stradbally,  Queen's  Co. 
1562. — Sir  Maurice  Fitz-Thomas  [Fitz  Gerald  of  Lacliagh,  Co.  Kildare],  Knt. 

(5  Eliz./.  6.)     (See  1673.)    Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald  has  his  pedigree. 

]S'0TICE8   OF    16tH    CeNTUBT    SHERIFFS  MAINLY  FROM   THE   F1ANT8   OF 

Elizabeth  : — 

1567. — John  Eustace,  of  Castelmartin,  Esq.,  S.  of  K.,  ha.s  a  pardon.  He  is  again 
mentioned  as  S.  of  K.,  20  June,  or  July,  1568«    See  1576  also. 

156f.— John  Davies,  Eso.  [?  of  Kill,  ob.  1618],  S.  ol  K.,  had  a  Commission  ^o 
execute  Martial  Law  in  the  County,  30  Jan.  He  (M'ith  others)  had  a 
pardon  as  **of  Harbartiston"  [=HobbardstonorHerbeitston?  Co.  K.],  late 
S.  of  K.,  26  June,  1570. 

15?§. — "William  Peppard,  Esquire,  S.  of  K.,  had  a  Commission  to  execute  Martial 
Law  in  the  Co.  K.,  Feb.  20.  In  157^  he  (and  13  of  "  his  men  ")  as  «*  of 
Levitstown,"  Co.  K.,  late  S.  of  K.,  had  a  pardon. 

1671. — Robert  Pypho  [sic.  ?  Phtpo.],  S.  of  K.,  and  others,  had  a  Commission  to 
execute  Martial  Law,  28  Sep. 

1573. — Pyers  Fitz-Gkmald,  S.  of  K.,  with  others,  had  a  Commiftsion  of  muster.  On 
July  12,  1674,  he  was,  as  Peter  or  Pers  F.-G.,  of  Ballysoiian,  Co.  K., 
gent.,  late  S.  of  K.,  in  consideration  of  his  services  when  Sheriff,  with 
Nich.  Lysaghe  of  Conall,  gent.,  and  29  of  his  men,  granted  a  pardon. 
The  name  recurs  4  times  to  1681. 

157i. — SirMorryb  Fitz-Gerald,  Knt.,  of  Leycaghe  [LackaghF],  S.  of  K.,  has  a 
Commission  to  execute  Martial  I.aw,  27  Feb.  See  1562.  He  d.  1575. 
Sec  engraving  of  his  tomb  and  memoir  of  the  family  in  this  Journal^  '94, 
245-64. 

1574. — Piers  Fitz- Garret,  gent-  (see  1673),  has  a  Commission  to  execute  Martial 
Law  in  the  County,  Dec.  7.  On  Sep.  20,  following,  as  Peter  Fitz- 
Gerald,  of  Grangemollyn,  Co.  K.,  E^q.,  late  S.  of  K.,  he,  with  John 
Stooks,  of  Hawestowne,  gent.,  Sub-Sheriff  [first  so  styled]  and  several 
others,  had  a  pardon. 

1576. — John  Eustace  [of  Castle  Marten],  Esq.,  S.  of  K.  [named  above  and  below  ?], 
had  a  Commission  to  execute  Martial  Law  in  tht'  County,  and  in  the 
following  year,  April  17,  he,  with  others,  had  a  pardon. 

1678. — Peter  Fitz-Gerald  [named  above  and  1681  !"],  of  Ballysonan,  gent.,  late  S. 
of  K.,  with  JoHK  Sherlock,  of  Naas,  gent.,  Sub-Sheriff,  and  others  had 
a  pardon,  July  22. 

1578. — Gerald  Fitz-Philip  Fitz  Gerald,  of  Allon  [now  Allen,  ob.  29,  August  1611], 
C<».  K.,  Esq.,  S.  of  K.,  with  4  others,  had  a  pardon,  Sep.  11.  Ix)rd 
Walter  Fitz  Gerald  has  his  pedigree. 


26o 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


1580. — John  Eustace,  of  Castle  Marten  (see  1576),  appears  as  S.  of  K.  in  a  list 

pricked  2o  Nov.,  1579,  by  Sir  William  Pelnam,  Lord  Justice.     [Carew 

MSS.  i.  174.]     But  he  died  in  1579. 
1581. — Pbris  [au;]  Fitz-Geuald  [abovenamed  1573-8?],  of  Ballesonan,  S.  of  E.,  had 

a  Commission  to  execute  Maitial  Law. 
1583. — Redmond  Brymoham  [sie  =  Bbrminoham,  of  the  Grange],  S.  of  K.,  and 

others  had  a  Commission  of  Muster. 
158f.— Thomas  Fitz  Gerald  [ot  Timahoe,  Co.  Kildare;  ob.  10,  June  1589],  S.  of  K., 

had  a  Commission  to  execute  Martial  Law  in  the  County,  Feb.  1. 
158^. — William  Eustace,  S.  of  K.,  and  others  had  a  commission  of  muster. 


LIST  FROM  1592,  FOUNDED  ON  LODGE'S  MS. 

{^Addresses,  Sfc.^  added  in  brackets  are  from  other  sources.     An  asterisk  (*) 
prefixed  to  a  name  refers  to  a  note  at  end  of  the  list,'] 


1592    Eustace,  . 

.     Maurice,         .... 

[Clongowes  Wood.] 

1593     FitzGerald,      . 

.     Sir  Richard,  Knt. 

1594     Sarsfield, 

.     John. 

.     John  [again  ?].  /    ' 

.     Sir  James  [Fitz  Pierce], 

[Turnings,  Co.  K.  (ob. 

1595     Sarsfield, 

24  Jan.,  1615.J 
[Ballyshannon,  Co   K.] 

1596  ♦Fitz  Gerald.     . 

„       Fitz  Gerald,     , 

.     John. 

1597  ♦Duke,      . 

.     Sir  Henry. 

,,     'Aylmer,  . 

.     Bartholomew, 

[Lyons.] 

1598    ['Fitz-Gerald, 

.    James.   FianU :  see  1606],     . 

1599 

1600 

1601     [♦Harbert, 

.     John,    

Cotsland,  =  ?  Cotlan- 
ston,Co.E.    Fiaiits.] 

1602    Nangle,   . 

.     Robert,           .... 

Ballysax. 

1603 

1604 

1605  ♦Fitz  Gerald,     . 

.    Rowland. 

1606  •Fitz  GeraM,     . 

.     Sir  James,  Ent.  (again?  vide 

[Ballyshannon,  Co.  K., 

1598), 

ob.  26  April,  1637.] 

1607     Eustace, 

.     William,        .... 

Castle-Murtin. 

1608     Butler,     . 

.     Pierce. 

1609     Price,       . 

.     Lewis. 

1610    Graham, 

.     Sir  Richard,  .... 

[Grangebeg  (ob.  7  Nov., 
1626)]. 

1611     Potts,       . 

.     Thomas. 

1612  ♦Cowley,  . 

.     Gerald  [see  1623], 

[Castlecarbery.] 

1613     Meares,    . 

.     William. 

1614     Stokes,     . 

.     Thomas,         .... 

Madenstowne. 

1615     Tighe,      . 

.     Richard. 

1616     Belyng,   . 

.     Sir  Henry  [see  1618],     . 

[Killashee.] 

1617     Pilsworth, 

.     Philip  [see  1622],  . 

'Bert.] 

1618     Beliiigs,   . 

.     Sir  Henry  [again  ?], 

[Killashee.] 

1619 

1620     Palmes,    . 

.     Stephen. 

1621     Palmes,    . 

.     Stephen  [again  ?] . 

1622     Pilsworth, 

.     Philip  [again  ],      .         .         . 

;Bert.] 

1623  ♦Colley,     . 

.     Sir  Henry,     .... 

'Costlecarbery.] 

1624     Weldon,  . 

1625 

1626 

.     Walter,          .... 

;Athy(ob.9Dec.l634.)] 

HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


261 


1627  ♦Archdall, 

William. 

1628 

1629 

1630 

1631 

1632 

1633 

1634     Fitz-Gerald, 

1635 

1636 

• 

Thomas,        .... 

[PofTimahoe,  Co.  K.] 

1637 

1638    Weldon, 

Robert,          .... 

[Rahinderry,    Queen's 
Co.] 

1639 

1640  ♦Gay8ton[orGar8tin?] 

John. 

1641     Borrowes    [or 

Bur- 

[Sir]     Erasmus     [afterwards 

rowe«]. 

^*Bart."], 

Grangemellon. 

1642     Borrowes, 

, 

Sir  Ei-asmus  [again  ?]. 

1643 

1044    Weldon,  . 

• 

Robert,          .... 

[Tullaghgorey]. 

1646 

1647 

1648 

1649 

1650 

1651 

1652  «Bellingham, 

1653 

1654 

• 

Henry. 

1655    Ponsonby, 

John, 

[P  Bishops  Court]. 

1656  ♦HeweUon, 

John. 

1657  ♦Salte,       . 

John. 

I608    Hunt,      . 

Raphael  [see  1661]. 

1659     Preston,  . 

Robert. 

1660 

1661     Hunt,      . 

Raphael. 

1662    Tighe.      . 

Richard. 

1663     Daws,    . 

Edward. 

1664     White,     . 

Walter,          .... 

[Uixlip.] 

1665  ♦  CoUey  [or  Cooley], 

Dudley,          .... 

rRathin&  Castlecarbury] 

1666     Hoey,      . 

• 

William,         .... 

[Cotsland,        CotUnds- 
town?] 

1667     Dixon,     . 

Richard,         .... 

[?  Colverstown.] 

1668     Sand«,      . 

William  (8uper3eded)[seel67l] 

„       Weldon,  . 

William. 

1669    Loftus,     . 

Thomas. 

1670     Meredith, 

Robert  [see  16791 
William  [again  ?J. 

[Shrowland&Greenhills] 

1671     Sandes.    . 

1672    Wellesley  [or 

Weis- 

ley],    . 

Garret  [or  Gerald], 
Sir  Walter,  Bart. 

[Dangan,  Co.  Meath.] 

1673     Borrowes, 

1674     Nevill,     . 

Richard  [see  1692], 

of  Furnace.] 
y  Parsonstown.] 

1675    Bermingham, 

Walter,          .... 

1676     S  wanton, 

James. 

1677     Carr, 

Thomas. 

1678    Baggott,  . 

Edward  [or  Edmond],     . 

[Wulterstown.] 

1679     Meredith, 

Robert  [again  ?]. 
John  [see  1685],    . 

1680    Ayhner,  . 

[Ballykenan,  or  Bally- 

cannon.] 


262 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


A.D. 

1681     Cooley  [or  Cowley], 

Henry, 

[Castlecarbery.] 

1682     Hewetson, 

, 

Thomas. 

1683     Shophflrd   [or 

Shep. 

hard],  . 

Arthur. 

1684     Shepherd, 

Arthur  [a^ain  P]. 

1685     Aylmer,  . 

John  [again  n. 
Sir  Arthur,  Knt. 

1686     Jones,      . 

1687  •Wogan,   . 

John. 

) 

1688  •Wogan,   . 

John  [again?  Lodge 

blank]. 
Robert. 

has  aS- 

[Rathcoffy.] 

1689    Luttrell,  . 

1690  ♦Sherlock, 

Edward. 

1691  ♦Atkins,    . 

Sir  Thomas,  Knt. 

1692    Neville,   . 

Richard  [again?],  . 

,        , 

[Furnace.] 

1693  ♦Annesley, 

Maurice. 

1694     BaiTy,      . 

James. 

1695    Medlicolt, 

George, 
Charles. 

•        • 

[Dunmuny.] 

1696     Kickaseys, 

1697     Borrowes, 

Sir  Kildare,  Bart,  [see 

1707] 

1698     Brereton, 

William. 

1699     WTiite,    . 

James. 

1700     Burke,     . 

Theobald,       . 

,        , 

[Palmerstown.] 

1701  ♦Annesley, 

Francis. 

1702  ♦  Annesley, 

Francis  [again  ?  Warrant  says 

1703^Keatinge, 

(lUiIIi  J. 

Maurice, 

,        , 

Narraghmore. 

1704    Jones, 

Thomas, 

. 

Osberstown. 

1705     Palfrey,   . 

Steplien- 

1706    Pratt,       . 

John. 

1 707     Borrowes, 

Sir  Kildare,  Bart,  [ag 

ain?]. 

Gilltown. 

1708    Paul,       . 

Jeffrey. 

1709     Dixon,     . 

Robert, 

• 

[?  Kilkea,  or  Colvere- 
town.] 

1710     Spring,    . 

Francis. 

1711  Povey,     . 

1712  Burgh,    . 

Richard. 

Thomas, 

, 

[Oldtown  (Naas).] 

1713     Ingoldsby, 

Henry, 

,        , 

1714     Ponsonby, 

Brabazon, 

. 

[Bishops  Court.] 
Grangebeg  [or  Graige- 
beg.] 

1716    Warren, 

Richard, 

• 

1716     Borrowes    [or 

Bur- 

rowes], 

Sir  Walter,  Bart., 

,        , 

Gilltown.] 
^Boleybeg.] 

1717  *Nuttall,   . 

Charles. 

. 

1718     Borrowes, 

Alexander. 

1719     Haynes  [or  H 

oines,] 

Major  John. 

1720     Stratford, 

John,    . 

, 

[Belan.] 

1721     Armstrong, 

Charles. 

1722     White,     . 

Henry, 

.        , 

Pitohardstown.    [W.] 
r?  Castlecarbery.] 
Palmerstown. 

1723  CoUey,     . 

1724  Burgh  [or Boui 

Henry, 

, 

ie,W* 

]John,     . 

,        , 

1725    Aylmer,  . 

Charles, 

, 

Ballvcnnnon. 

1720     Meredith, 

Richard, 

,        ^ 

[?  Shi-owland.] 

1727     Stratford, 

John,     . 

. 

;BelaT..] 

1728     Harnian, 

Robert, 

,        , 

Millicent,  near  Clane.3 

1729  ♦Garstin,  . 

James, 

,        , 

iCilmore. 

1730     Reddy,     . 

Daniel, 

, 

Branganstown. 

1731     Armstrong, 

Edmond  [or  Edward- 

-W],    . 

Moiristown. 

1732  ♦Digby,     . 

1733  Burgh,     . 

John,    . 

Landenstown. 

Thomas, 

,             , 

Oldtown [* Naas,'  W.] 

1734  ♦Colley,    . 

Dudley, 

. 

Rahin 

HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


263 


1735    Burke  [or 

Bourke}, 

Theobald,      . 

, 

,        , 

Palmerstown. 

1736  •Fish,       . 

• 

Joseph, 

• 

Castle-Fish  [of  *Tub- 
berogan,'  W.] 

[He  died  in  office,  and  was 

succeeded  by]  — 

„       Bourke,   . 

,        , 

John,    . 

.        •        • 

Palmerstown. 

1737    Bourke,  . 

John  [again], 
Henry,  Jun., 

... 

Palmeratown. 

1738     Dixon      . 

,        , 

.        •        • 

Kilkea. 

1739     Browne,  . 

,        , 

John,    . 

•        •        ■ 

Dunany  [*  Dunamy,'  W.] 

1740   Jan.l7,[*Warburton, 

George]. 

„       Feb.  19,  Arehbold,  . 

William, 

.                     •                    a 

Davidstown. 

1741    Ashe,      . 

Thomas, 

. 

Moone. 

[He  died  in  office,  and  was 

succeeded  by]— 

„       July  4,  M'Hanus,    . 

James  [vice  Ashe, 
James  [again], 

deceased]. 

Maynooth. 

1742    Dec.  7.  M'Manus,    . 

. 

Maynooth. 

1743    Dalyell,  . 

Thomas, 

Tincknevin. 

1744     Steele,     . 

Laurence,  Jan., 

Kilbride. 

1745    Bagott,    . 

John,    . 

Numy. 

1746    Jevers  [or 

levers],  . 

Augustin, 

Mount-Rice. 

1747     Browne,  . 

Francis, 

Kildare. 

1748    Walsh,    . 

Thomas, 

, 

Hallohoice. 

1749     Medlicutt, 

James, 

ArdscuU. 

1750    Rice, 

Stephen, 

Mount- Rice. 

1751     Boirowes, 

Sir  Kildare  Dixon 

Bart 

•»       • 

Gilton. 

1752     Pomeroy, 

Arthur, 

Carberry. 

1763     White,     . 

Thomas, 

Pitcherstown. 

1754     Fish, 

Robert  [see  1736], 

Castle-Fish. 

1755  •Wolfe,     . 

Philpot, 

Furnace. 

1766    Digby,     . 
1757     Hamilton. 

Simon,  Jun., 

?  LandenstOM'n.] 
'  )lane. 

James,  . 

1758    Hort, 

Josiah, 

, 

Hortland. 

1759  •  St.  Leger, 

John,    . 

, 

Grangemellon. 

1760     Donneilan, 

Jeremiah,  Jun., 

,        , 

Ravensdale. 

1761     Aylmer    . 

Sir  Fitz-Gerald,  Bart., 

Donadea. 

1762    Nevill,     . 

Arthur  Jones, 

Fornaghts. 

1763     Carter,     . 

Henry  Boyle, 

Castle -Martin. 

1764     Sherlock, 

William, 

Sherlockstown. 

1765     Warburton 

f     '        • 

Richard, 

Firmount. 

1766  'Spencer, 

James, 

Kathangan. 

1767  'Burgh,     . 

Williagh  [reeU  WiUiam" 

, 

Bert. 

1768     Eustace,  . 

WiUiam, 

, 

Cradockstown. 

1769  Tyrrell,   . 

1770  AVolfe,     . 

George, 

Dunt'ert. 

Theobald,       . 

, 

Castle  warden. 

1771     Henry,    . 

Joseph, 

, 

Straffan. 

1772    Eildare,  . 

Marquis  of  ["William  Fitz- 
Gerald,  commonly  called'*]. 

[Cai-ton]. 

1773    Neville,  . 

Richard, 

•        . 

Furnace. 

1774    Keating, . 

Maurice, 

Narraghmore. 

1776     Finlay,    . 

John,    . 

Corker. 

1776     Steele,     . 

Laurence, 

Rathbride. 

1777     Bagot,     . 

Christopher,  . 

Numey. 

1778  *  Keating, . 

Michael, 

Millicent. 

1779    Wolfe,    . 

John,     . 

Fumese. 

1780    Carter,     . 

Thomas, 

rCastlemartin,  W.] 
Killybeggs. 

1781     Brooks,    . 

Robert, 

1782    Power,    . 

Robert, 

Powersgrove  [now  Bir-< 
town  House.] 

1783    Aylmer,  . 

Michael,        . 

Grange. 

1784    Mills,       . 

Samuel, 

Fummys. 

1785    Hendrick, 

Edward, 

Kerdiffstown. 

264 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


A.D. 

1786 

Tyrell,     .         . 

1787 

Coates,     . 

1788* 

» Griffith,  . 

1789 « 

^  Browne,  . 

1790 

Keating, 

[m 

Mar.  6,  Taylor, 

1791 

Burdett,  . 

1792 

Sherlock, 

1793 

Keating, 

1794 

Powell,    . 

1796 

Aylmer,  . 

1796 

Avlmer,  . 

1797 

li  Touch, 

1798 

Tyrrell.  .         . 

1799 

Williams, 

1800 

Montgomery,  . 

1801 

Green,     . 

1802 

Tickell,  . 

1803 

Henry,    . 

1804 

Aylmer,  . 
Wolfe,     . 

1806 

1806 

Mills,      . 

1807 

Rice, 

1808 

Aylmer,   . 

1809 

Biirrowes, 

1810 

Cutchley, 

1811 

Finlay     . 

1812 
1813 

1814 
1816 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 

1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 


John,    . 

William, 

Richard, 

Wogun, 

Maurice  Bagenal  St 

John,    . 

Aithur, 


.  William, 

.  Maurice  Bagenal    St.    Leger 
[again  P],    . 

.  Eyre,     . 

.  Sir  Fenton,  Bart., 

.  Michael, 

.  Robert, 

.  Thomas, 

•  Adam,    . 

.  John,     . 

.  John,     . 

.  Thomas, 

.  John  Joseph, 

.  Michuel, 

.  Peter,    . 

.  William, 

.  Joshua, 

.  John,     . 

.  Sir  Erasmus  D.,  Bart., 

.  James  [see  1813], 

.  Thomas, 
[Blank  in  Lodge's  List.     No  Warrant  in 
Cutchlej;ror**Critch- 

ley,"  W.],  .  James  [again  P], 

Tyrrell,    .        .        .  Adam,    . 

[Blank  in  Lodge's  List.     No  Warrant  in 

Montgomery,  .         .  Snmuel, 

Carter,     .         .         .  William  Heniy, 
Hort,        .        .        .Sir  William,  Bart. 

Aylmer,  .         .         .  John, 

Henry,     .         .         .  Arthur, 

Mills,       .         .         .  Samuel, 

Roberts,  .         .         .  M.  C.  C, 

Moore,     .         .         .  Ponsonby, 

Burdett,  .        .        .  Capt.  George, 


Leger, 


ConoUy, 
Digby,     . 
Aylmer,  . 
Bourke,    . 
Borrowes, 
Archbold, 
O'Reilly, 
Fit  z -Gerald, 
Yates, 
I)e  Robeck, 
Bonham, 
Nangle,   . 
Cassidy,  . 
Lawless,  . 
Burgh,     . 
Barton,    . 


Edward, 

John,     . 

George, 

Thomas, 

Sir  Walter  Dixon, 

Robert, 

Dominick, 

Thomas, 

Benedict  Arthur, 

Henry,  Baron, 

John.     . 

John  Hyacinth, 

Harvey, 

Hon.  Edward, 

Walter  Hussey, 

Hugh,  . 


Bart. 


Clonnrd. 
Stapletown. 
Millicent. 
Cattle- Browne. 
Narmgbmore  [see  1793.1 
Einnea,vice  Keating,W.] 
Bella  Vista  [Secte 

**A'illa."] 
Sherlockstown. 


Narraghmore. 

.  Hillsborough. 

.  Donadea. 

.  Court -town. 

.  Hurristown. 

.  Kilreny. 

.  Williamstown. 

.  Oldtown. 

.  Kilkea. 

.  FLogstown,  W.] 

.  'Straffan,  W.] 

.  'Enortown,  W.] 

.  'Blackhall,  W.T 

.  [Tullylost,  W.J 

.  'Mountrice,  W.] 

.  Why  lorn. 

.  GiltOM-n. 

'   .  Grangebeg. 

.  Boleybay  [or  "  beg.**] 
Record  Office.] 

.  Grangebeg. 

.  Grange  Castle. 
Record  Office.] 

.  The  Knocks. 

.  Castle  Martin. 

.  Hortlands. 

.  Courto\ni. 

.  Lodge  Park. 

.  Fumess. 

.  Sally  mount. 

.  Moorefield  House. 

.  Longhtown  House  [and 

Bella-villa.] 

.  Castletown. 

.  Landenstown. 

.  Donadea  Castle. 

.  Palmerstown,  Naas. 

.  Davidstown. 

.  Kildangan  Castle. 

.  Geraldine. 

.  Moone  House. 

.  Killestni. 

.  Ballintaggart. 

.  Garrisker. 

.  Monasterevan. 

.  Lyons. 

.  Donore 

.  Straffan. 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


265 


A.D. 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 


Maunsell, 
Kildare,  . 
La  Touche, 
Hent-hy, 
Fitz-Gerald, 


1846    Dobbs, 


1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 

1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 

1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 


Southwell, 

Eustace,  . 

Beaunmn, 

Barton,    . 

Mansfield, 

Burrowes, 

Colthurst, 

Aylmer,  . 
Cane, 
O'Ferrall, 
Lewis,     . 
O'Kelly, 

De  Robeck, 
Be  Burgh, 
Barton,    . 
Sweetman, 
Henry,    . 
Gannon, 
Moore,    . 
McDonnell, 
Lawless, 
Maunsell, 
Archbold, 
Ireland,  . 


Bichard,        .... 
Marquis  of,   . 

John,    

O'Connor,      .... 
Hon.      William,     commonly 

called  Lord  William, 
CouM-ay  K.,  . 

Hon.  Col.  Arthur. 
Col.  Sir  Rowland. 
Edward  J.,  .... 
Nathaniel,  .... 
George  P.  L.,  .  .  . 
Robert  H.,  .... 
Charles,         .... 


[Here  Lodge's  List, 

1871  Dobbs,    . 

1872  Rynd,      . 

1873  Borrowes, 

1874  Mansfield, 
1876  Palmer,  . 

1876  O'Ferrall, 

1877  Kicolls,    . 

1878  Blacker,  . 

1879  O'Ferrall, 

1880  Hartley, 

1881  Eildare,  . 

1882  Trench,   , 

1883  De  Burgh, 

1884  Henchy, 

1885  Maunsell, 

1886  Crichton, 


Gerald  G.,     . 
Edward, 
Edward  M., 
Harvey, 
Penthony,     . 

Baron. 

Thomas, 

Hugh  Lynedoch,  . 

Patrick, 

Frederick  Hugh,    . 

N.J 

Richard, 

Francis  Edwurd  Joseph, 

Hon.  Valentine. 

John,    .         .         .        . 

Robert, 

Samuel  Gardiner,  . 


as  continued,  ends.    The  following  are 

.  Montagu  Wm.  Edward, 

•  Christopher,  .         .        .         . 

.  Sir  Erasmus  Dixon,  Bart.,     . 

.  George. 

.  Charles  Colley, 

.  Ambrose  More, 

.  George  Archibald, 

.  William, 

.  Dominick  More,     • 

.  Major  R.  Wilson,  . 

.  Marquess  of, 

.  Thomas  Frederick  Cooke, 

.  Thomas  John, 

.  Captain  H.  O'Connor, 

.  George  Woods, 

.  Col.  Hon.  Chas.  Frederick, 


Oakley  Park. 
Carton. 
Harristown. 
Stone  Brook. 

Carton. 

Castle-Dobbs,    Carrick- 
fergus  [Co.  Antrim]. 

[Baltrasney.] 

Furnace. 

Straffan. 

Morristown-Lattin. 

Giltown. 

Lucan    House     [Co. 

DubUn]. 
Donadea  Castle. 
St  Wolstan's. 
Kildangan. 
Kilcullcn. 
Borristown   [?  Barrilts- 

town]. 

Oldtown. 

Strnffan  House. 

Dmgtown. 

Lodge  Park. 

Larah. 

Eillashee. 

Dunfieith. 

Oakley  Park. 
Davidstown. 
Robertstown  [House, 
Naas]. 

from  Thorn's  Directory.] 

Castle- Dobbs,    Carrick- 
fergus  [Co.  Antrim]. 

Mount  Armstrong, 
Donadea. 

Barretstown  Castle, 
Ballymore-Eustaee. 

Mon  istown-Lattin, 
Naus. 

Rahan  House,  Eden- 
derry. 

Ballyna,  Moyvalley. 

Garisker,  Moyvalley. 

Castlemartin,  Kilcullen. 

Kildangan  Castle,  Mon- 
astereTan. 

Beech  Park,  ClonsiUa 
[Co.  Dublin.] 

Carton,  Maynooth. 

Millicent,  Naas. 

Oldtown,  Naas. 

Stonebrook,  Ballymore- 
Eustaee. 

Oakley  Park,  Celbridge. 

Mullaboden,  Naas. 


266 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE. 


A.D. 

1887  Wilson,    . 

1888  Sweetman, 

1889  RoberU,  . 

1890  Murphy, 

1891  Maunsell, 

1892  Wheeler, 


1893  Cane, 

1894  Aylmer, 

1895  Greene, 

1896  Aylmer, 

1897  Keogh, 


Robert  Mackay,     . 

Edmund,        .... 
Murinaduke      Wm.      Coghill 

Cramer. 
John  C,         .        .         .         . 
Capt.  Mark  Synnott,       .      -  . 
Williain  Ireland,    . 

Major  Richard  Claude,   . 
Hans  Hendrick,      . 
Thomas,         .        .         .        . 
Major  John  Algernon,    . 
Surgeon-Major  J.  R.,     . 

NOTES. 


Coolcarrigan,   DonadeAy 

Kiicock. 
Longtown,  Clane,  Na&s. 
Sallymount,  Bmnnocks- 

town. 
Osberstown,  Naas. 
Oakley  Pork,  Cel bridge. 
Annesborough  Hoii«<>y 

Robertatovrn. 
St.  "Wolstau's.Celbridge. 
Kerdiifstown,  Xaas. 
Millbrook,  Mageny. 
Courtown,  Kileoci. 
Castleroe  Lodge,  Magen  y . 


1596. — Sir  J.  Fitzpibucb.  So  I*odge  had  the  name,  but  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald 
identifies  him  as  Sir  James  fitz-pierce  Fitz-Gbhald,  of  Ballyshannon, 
Co.  K.,  ob.  24  Jan.  1615. 

1597. — Siu  H.  Dlkk. — From  Morrin's  Calendars  of  Patent  and  Close  Rolls  we  find 
that  Livery  of  the  possessions  of  Sir  Ilenry  Duke,  late  of  '*  Lecarrowlon- 
byo^g,'*  in  the  County  Roscommon,  was  granted  to  Sir  Joseph  Jephson 
and  Mury  Rush,  alian  Duke,  daughter  and  heiress  of  the  said  Sir  Henry. 
Chas.  I.     8"  (1632). 

1697.— Aylmer.     See  this  Journal,  '94,  295-307. 

1598. — J.  Fitzgerald,  Esq.,  S.  of  K.,  had  a  commission  to  execute  Martial  law  in  the 
County.     [Fiants].     See  again  1606. 

1601  ? — J.  Uaiibert  of  C,  late  S.  of  K.,  with  many  others  had  a  pardon,  12th  March, 
1602-3.     [Fiants].     Perhaps  Herbertstown  took  name  from  this  family. 

1605.— Rowland  Fitz  Gbr.vld. — Query  Rbumono  Fitz  Gerald,  of  Timahoe,  Co.K.  ? 
— (W.  Fitz  G.) 

1612-23. — CowLBY,  or  Collet.  Sir  Ileniy  died  6  July,  1637.  He  was  ancestor  of 
the  Duke  of  Wellington.  Their  property  (Castle  Carbery)  was  divided 
between  the  late  Lord  Harberton  and  his  brother,  Hon.  G.  F.  Colley.  St-e 
1665. 

1627. — W.  Akchdall.  Query  William  Arcubold,  of  Timolin?  or  Walter  A.,  of 
same  ?     See  the  Joumaly  '93,  205-6. 

1640. — Jambh  Garstino,  of  Smithstown,  barony  of  Salts,  is  said  to  have  had  his  house 
robbed,  6th  December,  1641.  He  perhaps  was  the  Major  James  Garstin 
who  was  appointed  Provost- Marsbull- General  of  the  forces  in  Ireland  by 
the  Commander-in-Chief,  Si-d  August,  1660,  "served  as  Sheriff  of  Louth, 
1668,  and  died  Januaiy,  1G77.  Could  he  be  this  "  John  Gayston  "  P  See 
1729  below. 

1652. — Brllinoham.  Perhaps  this  entry  has  been  made  here  in  mistake  for  Louth. 
H.  B.  was  M.P.  for  that  county.  He  died  1676,  and  was  buried  at 
Gemonstown,  renamed  Castle  Bellingham.  Will  dated  1676,  pr.  1677. 
A  descendant  of  his  M'as  created  a  Baronet  in  1796.*  I  cannot  find  that  the 
family  had  property  in  Kildare. 

1656. — John  Hewetson. — In  Kildare  Cathedral  is  a  monument  to  n  John  Hewetson, 
Esq.  (there  buried),  who  was  born  at  Settrington,  in  Yorkshire,  and  ditnl 
on  the  2nd  February,  1668,  Hged  45.  One  of  this  family  who  died  in  1783 
left  the  lands  of  Betughstown  to  endow  a  charity  school  in  Clane  Parish, 
still  existing. 

1657. — J.  Saltb. — He  may  have  derived  his  name  from  the  Barony,  which  in  turn 
derived  its  from  the  Salmon  leap  =  d^  saltu  Sahnotiis,  whence  Lach's-leap  = 
Leixlip. 

1666. — Dudley  Collby  or  Cowlby.  (See  1612,  23).  He  was  M.P.  for  Philipstown. 
Had  a  grant  of  lands  in  Kildare  in  1660.  He  mis  buried  in  Carbury 
where  is  an  elaborate  inscription  in  a  chapel  built  by  him.  His  son  Henry, 
and  grandson  Dudley,  became  S.  of  K.,  1681  and  1734.     See  also  1723. 


HIGH  SHERIFFS  OF  THE  COUNTY  KILDARE.  267 

A.B. 

1687-8. — WooAN. — This  family  owned  Clongowes,  &c.  There  is  an  interesting 
monument  to  them  in  the  old  churchyard  at  Clane.  See  memoir  of  the 
family  by  Rev.  1).  Murphy. 

1690. — Shehlock  of  JShtrlockstown  h     See  this  Journal^  '96,  33-47.     See  1764,  '92. 

1691. — Sir  T.  Atkins. — The  warmni  for  his  appointment  heais  at  its  heud  the 
autograph  '*  William  II.,"  and  bears  marks  of  a  red  wax  seal  (about  the 
size  of  a  florin),  being  tlie  only  one  sealed.  It  was  *' given  at  our  camp,  near 
Carlow,  1st  August,  1G90,  in  the  second  year  of  our  reign."  It  is  counter- 
signed **  Robert  South Mell,"  and  endorsed  **  The  King's  "Warrant."  It  is 
addre:<«cd  to  the  Commissioners  of  the  Great  Seal. 

1693,  1701. — M.  and  F.  Ankesley. — They  Mere  cadets  of  the  house  of  the  Rarons 
Mountnorris  and  Viscounts  Valentia.  In  the  17th  century  John  Annesley, 
2nd  son  of  the  Ist  Viscount,  was  seated  at  RuUyshannon,  Co.  K. 

1703. — Keatinoe.  2«aiTaghmore  was  sold,  and  purchased  by  John  La  Touche  of 
Hanistown. 

1717. — C.  NuTTALL  died  on  the  11th  February,  1772,  aged  50,  and  was  buried  in  the 
Nairaghmoie  Churchyard,  where  there  is  a  tablet  to  his  memory. 

1729. — J.  Gaustix. — An  ancestor  of  the  writer.  See  pedigree  in  Rurke^s  "  Landed 
Gentry."  I  have  the  bond  for  £2000  given  bini  as  indemnity  during  his 
*'8heriifwick  "  by  his  sub-sheritF,  "John  Scott,  of  Dublin,  gent,"  with 
seal  bearing  his  arms,  also  seuU  of  \\i^  sureties  Chrii>tO])her  Cnsack  of 
Rathaldron,  Co.  Meath,  Esq.,  and  Amy  Swcetman  of  sanie,  M'idow.  This 
J.  G.  was  in  the  following  year  High  Sheriff  of  Meath,  and  1  found  a  letter 
of  his  about  the  execution  of  a  culprit  at  Trim.  Kilmore,  which  is  given 
as  his  residence,  is  now  called  Woodlands,  and  is  near  Moy  valley. 

1732. — DiOBY  of  Landenstown. — The  last  of  the  family,  Miss  Eliza  1),,  died  in 
1896,  and  the  estate  has  now  passed  to  Lady  Henrietta  Guinness.  See 
Peerage,  &c. 

1734. — Dudley  Colley. — See  1665,  &c.  His  portrait  is  at  Rahan.  As  he  and  his 
brothers  left  no  issue,  the  Rabin  estate  passed  to  the  Palmer  family, 
consequent  on  the  mairiage  of  Charles  Palmer  to  his  sister. 

1736. — J.  F18H. — His  grandfather,  b.  1657,  settled  at  Kilkea  in  the  Co.  Kildare,  and 
d.  1694.  He  hinl^elf  appears  to  have  changed  the  name  of  his  seat 
Tubberogan  to  Castle  Fish.  He  died  in  othce.  Will  proved  in  Dublin. 
My  ancestor,  James  Garaiin,  of  liCragh  Castle,  Co.  Westnieath,  who 
appears  above  as  S.  of  K.,  1729,  and  was  S.  of  Meath  1730,  m.  his  only 
sister  Maria.  Robeit  F.,  of  Custle  Fish,  grandson  of  this  Joseph  F.,  was 
S.  of  K.  in  1754.  Admiral  F.,  of  Castle  Fish,  died  in  France  in  1834, 
ajt.  77,  and  I  think  the  family  is  now  extinct.  1  have  compiled  a  MS. 
pedigree  of  this  family  and  of  some  connected  with  it. 

1740. — G.  Wakbcrtox. — He  either  died  soon  after  appointment  or  did  not  serve,  as  a 
fresh  Warrant  was  issued  a  month  later.  No  address  is  given,  but  the 
Warburtons — including  the  author  of  **The  Crescent  and  the  Cross" — 
owned  Firmount  till  about  1860. 

1755, — Wolfe. — They  formerly  owned  Blackball  as  well  as  Forenaglits  (and  Bishop- 
land,  under  the  See  of  Dublin). 

1769. — St.  Lboek. — Grangemellon  is  now  a  ruin.  See  tliis  Journal ^  '92,  '95,  and 
Peerage,  **Doneraile."  Of  this  family  was  the  Colonel,  known  as 
"  Handsome  Jack,"  the  companion  of  George  IV.,  who  gave  his  name  to 
the  famous  race.  He  was  M.P.  for  Okehampton.  His  picture,  by 
Gainsborough,  is  in  the  gallery  at  Hampton  Court. 

1766. — Spexcer. — Spencer  Farm,  near  Rathangan,  where  the  late  Lord  Harbcrton 
resided  most  of  his  life,  belonged  to  this  family. 

1767. — BuuoH. — Bert  came  to  the  2nd  Lord  Seatonby  his  maniage  with  a  daughter  of 
Lord  Downes. 

1778. — Kbatino  of  Millicent. — Representative  of  Cutts  Harman  (see  1728)  on  whom 
it  was  bestowed  when  forfeited  by  the  abdication  of  James  II.  to  whom  it 
then  t)elonged. 

1788. — E.  Grupith. — He  was  Lessee  of  Keating. 

1789. — Browne,  Wogan.— Should  be  Michael  Wooan-Buowne.  Castle  Browne  is 
now  called  ClongOMCs-wood,  and  is  the  Roman  Catholic  College. 

vol.  II.,  FT.  IV.  Y 


(     268     ) 


The  Fitz  Oeraldfl  and  the  Mac  Kenzies.— There  is  at  Carton  a 
manuscrvpt  history  of  the  Clan  MacKenzie,  from  the  year  a.d.  1000 
to  the  y^ar  1720.  It  was  written  by  Dr.  George  MacKenzie,  m.d., 
Fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians  of  Edinburgh,  and  author 
of  "Lives  of  the  Scottish  Writers."  Br.  MacKenzie  was  the  son  of 
Colin,  2nd  son  of  George  MacKenzie,  2nd  Earl  of  Seaforth.  In  this 
history  of  his  clan  he  traces  their  origin  to  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald,  son  of 
John  Htz  Thomas  "more,"  Lord  of  O'Connelloe,  county  Limerick, 
ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Desmond,  and  brother  to  the  first  Baron  of 
Offaly.  In  1261  John  fitz  Thomas  "  more  "  Fitz  Gerald  and  his  three 
sons,  Maurice,  John,  and  Gerald,  engaged  in  a  fierce  battle  with  the 
Mac  Carthys,  at  Callan,  in  the  county  Keiry ;  with  the  exception  of 
Gerald  they  were  all  slain.  Gerald  eventually  fled  to  Scotland,  and 
took  service  under  Alexander  III.,  King  of  Scotland.  He  fought  at 
the  battle  of  Largs  against  Haco,  King  of  Norway,  and  in  reward  for 
his  services  was  granted  the  lands  of  Kintail  in  Koss-shire.  Dr.  Mac 
Kenzie  goes  on  to  describe  how  this  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald  was  known  in 
Scotland  as  "  Gerald  of  Callan,"  or  "  Callan  Gerald,  a  name  corrupted 
in  a  short  time  to  Colin.  He  had  the  good  fortune  on  one  occasion  to 
save  the  King's  life  in  a  hunting  match  by  slaying  an  infuriated  stag 
which  had  attacked  the  King;  for  this  act  he  was  granted  a  stag's 
head  for  his  coat-of-arms.  Colin  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald,  the  first  Baron 
of  Kintail,  married  the  Lady  Margaret  Stuart,  daughter  of  Walter, 
Lord  High  Chamberlain  of  Scotland,  and  dying  in  the  year  1278,  he 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Kenneth,  2nd  Baron  of  Kintail.  The  second 
Baron  mariied  Morba  MacDougall,  daughter  of  Alexander,  Lord  of 
Lorn;  his  death  took  place  in  1304,  when  his  son  Kenneth  became 
3rd  Baron  of  Kintail.  This  Kenneth,  among  the  Highlanders,  was 
called  Kenneth  mac  Kenneth  (after  his  father),  a  name  anglicised  to 
Mac  Kenny  or  MacKenzie,  and  thus,  from  Gerald  Fitz  Gerald's  grand- 
son sprang  the  Mac  Kenzies  of  Kintail,  Gairloch,  Hilltown,  Ord, 
Suddie,  Achilty,  F'airburn,  Davochmaluach,  Seaforth,  Eledcastle, 
Cromartie,  etc. 

W.  FiTzG. 


Sir  Thomas  Eustace,  Kt.,  Ist  Viscount  Baltinglass.— As  far  as  I 

have  discovered  no  peerage,  and  no  pedigree  or  genealogical  document 
in  Ulster's  Office,  gives  the  name  of  this  Sir  Thomas  Eustace's  father. 

In  the  Petition  of  1839,  wherein  the  Rev.  Charles  Eustace,  of 
Robertstown,  proved  his  descent  and  claimed  the  Viscounty  of  Baltin> 
glass,  this  Sir  Thomas  is  stated  to  be  the  nephew  and  heir  of  Sir 
Roland  Eustace,  Kt.,  Baron  of  Portlester,  who  died  on  the  14th  Dec., 
1496,  leaving  by  his  wife,  Maud,  daughter  of  Jenico  Dartas  (ob.  20th 


MISCELLANEA.  269 

Nov.,  1426),  five  daughters.  This  Sir  Roland  was  the  son  and  heir  of 
Sir  Edward  Eustace,  Kt.,  Lonl  Chief  Justice  of  Ireland,  who  died  in 
1454,  descended  (I  believe)  from  the  family  long  previously  settled. at 
Castlemartin. 

Now  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,  under  the  year  1579,  the 
following  vague  entry  occurs  : — 

**  Roland  Eustace,  the  son  of  Thomas,  son  of  Richard,  died." 
For  the  following  two  reasons  I  would  suggest  that  theThomashere 
mentioned  is  Sir  Thomas  Eustace,  Kt.,  Ist  Viscount  Baltinglass  : — 
(a)  Because  the  death  of  his  son  Roland  (?  2nd  Viscount  Baltinglass) 
being  mentioned  by  the  Four  Masters,  proves  that  he  was  a 
person  of  importance. 
{b)  The  Four  Masters,  when  mentioning  the  Viscounts  Baltinglass, 
do  not  give  them  their  title  ;  for  instance,  look  under  the 
year   1580,    where   they   mention   the  rebellion   of  James 
Eustace,  the  3rd  Viscount. 
Thus,    if  my  argument  is   correct,  Sir  Thomas  Eustace  (created 
Viscount  Baltinglass  on  the  29th  of  June,  1542,  and  died  on  the  30th 
July,  1549)  was  the  son  of  Richard  Eustace,  brother  of  Sir  Roland 
Eustace,  Baron  of  Portlester,  who  survived  him,  and  whose  heir  con- 
sequently was  his  nephew,  the  Sir  Thomas  Eustace  in  question. 

W.  FiTzG. 


Celtic  Bkonzr  Brooch  found  nrau  Cartlbdbrmot  in  1860, 

Now  at  Kilkea  Castle. 
The  coils  of  spiral  bands  were  (and  are  still)  on  it  when  discovered. 


(       270      ) 


About  the  month  of  May,  1895,  the  Iron  Implements,  figured  on  the 
opposite  page,  were  dug  up  while  excavating  the  hrick-heds  in 
connexion  with  the  works  of  the  Athy  Brick  Company.  The  field 
they  were  found  in  is  called  ^^Mahcr's  meadow,"  in  the  townland  of 
Barrowford,  and  one  mile  north  of  Athy.  Besides  the  implements 
many  skeletons  were  unearthed  and  rehuried.  Those  iron  implements 
were,  with  the  permission  of  the  owner,  Mr.  Telford,  of  Athy,  exhibited 
at  the  January  meeting  in  Naas,  in  1 896. 


On  page  38,  vol.  i.,  of  the  Journal,  the  Lattin  Alms-hoase  Inscribed 
Stones  are  mentioned,- and  it  is  there  stated  that  one  of  them  "is  not 
decipherable."  This  is  incorrect,  as  though  the  stone  is  in  a  very  bad 
state,  yet  I  was  just  able  to  make  out  what  was  on  it.  These  three 
mural  tablets  are  small  in  size  and  square  in  shape.  They  are  placed 
one  above  the  other  in  a  low  slated  cottage  facing  the  Sallins  road. 
Tlie  upper  one  is  a  light  coloured  sandstone,  in  very  good  preservation. 
The  middle  stone  is  a  red  one,  and  in  verj'  bad  condition  ;  while  the 
lower  one  is  of  limestone  in  fair  condition,  though  the  last  line  is  all 
but  chipped  away.     The  inscriptions  read  as  follows  : — 

Gul:  Latton  de  REBVILT  IN  WEALTH      MAKETH 

Morrislown  Anna  Y  YEAR  1702  MANY    FRIENDS 

Luttrel   de    Lut  BUT  THE   POOR  IS 

trelstown    Me  ^^  SEPERATED    FROM 

Fieri   Fecerunt  Patrick  Latin  HIS    NEIGHBOUR 

Anno    MQXC  Prouerbs..  .th-.  .£••* 

V 


The  Deer  Park  of  Maynooth  Castle.— On  page  231,  vol.  i.,  of  our 
Journal,  mention  is  made  of  this  Deer  Park  in  the  year  1618.  I  have 
lately  come  across  an  earlier  mention  of  it  in  a  MS.  called  "  The 
Calendar  of  Council  Book,  a.d.  1581-86,"  kept  in  the  Record  Office, 
Duhlin,  which  mentions  tlie — 

**  Recognizances  of  John  Hillan  of  Straffan  in  the  County  Kildare, 
yeoman  ;  George  King  of  Clontarf  in  the  county  of  Duhlin,  Gent" ; 
Nicholas  Lee  of  Straffan,  yeoman  ;  and  Roh^rt  Caddell  of  Duhlin, 
merchant,  in  £20  each,  that  tliey  do  from  henceforth  continue  to  he  of 
honest  and  good  behaviour,  and  do  not  lienceforth  kill,  or  consent  to 
the  killing  of,  any  more  of  the  Deare  of  Manoth  Parke,"  etc. 

This  is  dated  the  22nd  of  June,  1585. 

W.  FiTzG. 


*  Proverbs,  xix.  4, 


Ibon  Implbmenth  duo  up  at   Baruowfori),  nkar  Athy,  in  1895. 


(      272       ) 


^ttisi^erisi  to  ^t\ttie$* 

''Cawlcannon." — In  M'Leod  and  Dewar's  Gaelic  Dictionary,  I 
find,  **  Cal-ceanann,"  derived  from  **  Cal  "  =  kail,  cabbage ;  and 
**  Ceanainn  "  =  ceannfhionn,  i.e.  white  headed  (cean  =  a  head,  and 
fhionn  =  white).  ^  Devitt,  8.j. 


Tee-,  or  Tea-,  lane  in  Celbridge? — On  page  201,  vol.  ii.  of  the 
JoxTENAL,  there  is  a  doubt  expressed  as  to  whether  the  lane  leading  to 
the  old  (Kildrought)  churchyard  is  "  Tee-lane."  or  ''  Tea-lane."  The 
following  extract,  from  a  letter  written  by  Mrs.  Thorold  from  Dona- 
comper,  sets  the  matter  at  rest.  "The  right  name  is  Tea-lane,"  she 
writes,  **  and  the  origin  of  it  is  that  when  Mr.  Shaw  was  starting  the 
mill,  his  partner,  an  Englishman  named  Haughton,  brought  over  a  lot 
of  English  mill  hands,  for  whom  he  built  a  row  of  superior  cottages 
still  called  *  English-row.'  The  backs  of  these  cottages  came  near  to 
*  Tea-lane,'  then  called  *  Church -lane,'  and  the  Irish  inhabitants  of 
the  latter  were  so  astonished  at  the  quantity  of  Tea  that  the  well-to- 
do  English  drank  (as  evidenced  by  the  amount  of  tea  leaves  thrown 
out  at  the  back  of  '  English -row')  that  the  lane  soon  became  known 
as  Tea-lane.*  I  have  always  heard  it  so  called,  and  the  explanation  of 
the  name  has  just  been  confirmed  by  Mrs.  Barker,  of  Ardrass  House, 
near  Straff  an,  who  is  old  enough  to  remember  my  great-grandfather 
(the  Very  Rev.  Thomas  Trench,  Dean  of  Kildare,  who  died  in  1834). 
Our  old  coachman,  who  came  to  my  grandfather,  and  has  been  here 
for  64  years,  remembers  it  too,  and  says  Tea  was  a  luxury  unknown 
to  the  Irish  then ;  he  remembers  being  sent  by  his  mother  to  buy  one 
ounce  of  tea,  the  price  of  which  was  then  6rf." 


ArchsBological  Jottings. —  In  answer  to  the  question  in  the  Second 
Number,  of  vol.  ii.  of  the  Kildare  Arch^ological  Journal,  as  to  the 
date  on  which  a  Pattern  used  to  be  held  at  the  well  of  Tohereendownagh 
(the  correct  pronunciation  as  given  by  the  natives)  in  the  townland  of 
Ricardstown,  I  have  to  state  that  the  well  has  been  practically  dry  for 
many  years.  Up  to  thirty  years  ago  there  was  a  good  spring  and  a 
full  stream  from  it,  but  since  then  it  contains  nothing  but  the  surface 
water  from  an  adjacent  field  which  is  on  a  higher  level.  This  has 
been  attributed  to  the  washing  in  it,  by  a  neiglibouring  woman,  of 
some  dirty  linen. 

^Or  "Tay-lane"  as  they  call  it.  The  peasantry  always  correctly  pro- 
nounce a  word  spelt  with  a  double  '*  e  '*  or  an  "  -ie,"  but  a  single  **e"  or 
an  "ea"  and  "ei"  they  pronounce  "ay."  This  is,  I  believe,  the  same  in 
the  Celtic  language. 


ANSWERS  TO  QUERIES.  273 

A  retired  soldier  named  Hannigan,  who  lives  beside  it,  on  his 
return  from  the  wars  was  frustrated  in  his  efforts  to  clean  it  out  by  a 
hare,  which,  though  repeatedly  driven  away,  came  back  again  and  sat 
on  a  green  hillock  watching  him.  He  is  still  there  to  tell  of  it.  This 
well  is  situated  in  a  lonely  valley,  through  which  runs  a  stream 
separating  the  townlands  of  Eicardstown  and  Kildangan.  Beside  it 
grows  a  large  hawthorn  which  in  old  times  was  covered  with  rags,  and 
bead  stones  were  found  in  the  attempted  cleanings.  A  stone  with 
the  mark  of  a  knee  has  disappeared  from  beside  it. 

The  universal  tradition  is  that  there  never  was  a  pattern  lield  there, 
but  great  numbers  visited  it  for  the  cure  of  pains,  white  swellings, 
and  headaches.  An  old  man,  not  many  years  dead,  stated  that  when 
a  boy  he  recovered  the  lost  use  of  his  limbs  there.  There  is  another 
well  in  tlie  same  townland  called  the  Dhuch  (drink)  at  which  a  weekly 
dance  used  to  be  held,  hut  no  pattern.  A  much  liner  well  than  either 
is  that  of  Fuaran  (cold  spring),  in  the  adjacent  townland  of  Mylers= — 
town,  where  patterns  were  held  every  15th  of  August  and  29th  of 
September,  at  which  several  old  people,  still  living,  attended.  The 
last  one  terminated  in  a  faction  fight.  This  well  has  also  been  resorted 
to  for  the  cure  of  diseases— that  of  the  skin  in  particular.  It  is  a 
curious  fact  that  a  large  percentage  of  the  pilgrims  to  these  wells 
came  from  south-east  Wicklovv — many  even  from  Wexford.  It  would 
appear  from  this  that  the  O'Tooles — on  the  border  of  whose  principality 
the  wells  lay — in  their  forced  migration  from  south  Kildare — carried 
with  them  to  their  new  home  the  belief  in  tlieir  healing  powers,  and 
this  tradition  has  been  handed  down  through  their  descendants  for 
seven  hundred  years.  **  There  are  no  rivera  in  Damascus  like  the 
waters  of  Israel."  There  are  many  representatives  of  the  clan  O'Toole 
around  here  still.  Besides  the  two  townlands  mentioned,  there  are  the 
neighbouring  ones  of  Harristown  and  Walterstown. 

It  is  related  that  a  certain  man,  probably  one  of  the  Fitz  Geralds 
of  Numey  Castle,  owned  all  these  lands,  and  when  dying  divided 
them  between  his  four  sons,  liichaiti,  Myler,  Harry,  and  Walter. 

**  llie  race  of  the  black  pig  "  has  some  connexion  probably  with 
**  the  valley  of  the  black  pig,"  the  latter  I  believe  being  identical  with 
the  **  murdering  hollow"  near  the  old  Police  Barrack.  I  heard  the 
story  of  it  when  a  child,  but  have  lost  all  recollection  of  the  particulars. 
The  **  murdering  hollow"  was  so  called  because  of  the  great  number 
of  highwaymen  who  from  time  to  time  plied  their  trade  there, 
conspicuous  among  them  being  one  called  the  *'  morning  star."  After 
securing  their  booty  they  invariably  fled  to  **  the  concealments  " 
(hence  the  name),  a  low  and  swampy  locality  between  Monasterevin 
and  llathangan.  Once  there,  pursuit  was  useless  as  they  could  travel 
through  bogs,  with  short  intervals,  from  thence  to  Philipstown. 
Up  to  seventy  years  ago  there  was  no  direct  road  from  Monasterevin 
to  llathangan.  It  is  said  that  some,  at  least,  of  the  inhabitants  of 
**  the  concealments"  are  the  descendants  of  these  highwaymen. 

I  have  heard  that  "  the  leap  of  Allen  "  was  so  called  because  Finn 
M^Coole  used  to  exercise  his  hounds  by  jumping  them  over  a  chasm  or 
valley  there. 


274  ANSWERS  TO  QUERIES. 

The  mention  of  the  aliases  of  Caherstown  reminds  me  of  a  story  I 
heard  more  years  ugo  than  I  care  to  number.  Somewhere  in  or  near 
it  there  existed  long  ago  an  inn  called  by  the  strange  name  of  *'  Ten 
of  the  hundredy^  It  was  caUed  so  from  the  fact  that  of  every  hundred 
who  put  up  there,  only  ten  escaped  robbery  or  death.  At  length,  a 
man  living  some  distance  south  of  it  was  obliged  to  visit  Dublin  on 
business,  quite  an  event  in  those  days,  and  spent  some  time  in  his 
preparations.  Before  he  started  a  very  fine  and  intelligent  mastiff 
dog,  to  his  owner's  great  regret,  disappeared.  On  his  arrival  at  the  inn, 
and  when  preparing  to  go  to  bed,  the  lost  dog,  to  his  owner's  astonish- 
ment and  delight,  came  from  under  it,  and  by  every  means  in  his 
power  endeavoured  to  prevent  his  master  from  lying  down.  Suspect- 
ing something  wrong,  the  man  sat  up  awaiting  events,  and  sometime 
after  midnight  saw  to  his  horror  the  bed  and  the  floor  where  it  rested 
gradually  sink  and  disappear  into  a  lower  apartment.  Stealing  through 
the  window  he  got  his  horse,  and  defended  by  his  faitlif ul  dog,  made 
his  escape.  Next  day  a  large  quantity  of  human  remains  in  various 
stages  of  decomposition  was  found  in  a  subterranean  apartment. 
Needless  to  add,  the  culprits  were  executed  and  tlie  inn  levelled. 
1  read,  with  much  pleasure,  **Omurethi's"  account  of  the  Moat  of 
Ardscoll  (the  old  people  pronounced  it  so),  in  consequeme  of  my 
family  having  had,  some  years  ago,  an  interest  in  the  lands  on  the 
western  side  of  it.  These  lands,  as  well  as  those  on  the  other  sides, 
were  let  to  a  number  of  small  tenants,  so  that  the  locality  was  formerly 
very  thickly  inhabited.  I  remember  there  a  boxing  school,  a  ball-alley, 
a  dance-house  with  local  piper,  and  of  course  a  sheebeen.  The  men 
were  proficients  in  all  athletic  exercises,  and  were  the  finest  lot  of 
fellows  I  ever  saw. 

I  incline  to  Father  Shearman's  opinion  as  to  its  origin  and  use,  and 
to  the  idea  that  there  are  chambers  of  some  sort  in  its  interior.' 

1  have  a  distinct  recollection  of  a  dog  somewhat  taller,  but  lighter, 
than  an  ordinary  harrier,  following  a  fox  into  his  earth  in  the  moat, 
where  he  remained  four  or  five  days,  and  eventually  bored  his  way 
out,  quite  emaciated,  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  point  of 
entry.  He  could  be  heard  barking,  biting  roots,  &c.,  and  though  his 
owner  dug  for  him  at  various  places,  the  poor  animal  had  to  extricate 
himself  by  his  own  exertions.  I  think  it  quite  impossible  for  him  to 
do  so  if  the  mound  was  all  solid  earth. 

In  my  opinion  the  most  probable  derivation  of  the  name  bears  out 
Father  Shearman's  theory,  as  I  think  it  comes  from  Ard  seal  (scaul), 
which  is  as  near  as  possible  to  the  pronunciation  of  the  name  as  given 
by  the  old  natives  there  over  fifty  years  ago.  This  means  the  hill  or 
height  of  the  hero.  Another  possible  derivation  would  be  Ard  scumhal 
(bkool),  the  high  precipice. 

M.  DABBr. 


*  In  Noble  and  Keenan's  map  of  the  county  of  Kildare,  1752,  it  is  marked 
down  as  "  Ten  in  y*  hundred." 

*  A  large  boulder,  sunk  in  the  ground  at  the  base  of  the  Moat»  on  the 
south-east  side,  is  said  to  cover  the  entrance  into  a  cave. — W.  FlTzG. 


VOL.  n,  PT.  V. 


5SIDN' 


VOLUME  if,  NoT 


-J  O  TT  R  N  A  L 


rn     riu 


lOUNTY   KIIOARE  ARCHAOlOQtCAL  SOCIETY. 


r  n  ra  T  ^  N  T  <; . 


Cio    .  i*  ■  •!  ;^K>i*H 


r,  ^oWskD>  ^' 


TOH  STueeT, 


TBI  COUNGIl  Of  THE  COUNTlf  KILDABI  ABCHAOlOeiCAL  SOOIRV. 

THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 

'^ice-'^xesibcnl : 

The  Rev.  Mathew  Devitt,  s.j. 

Council : 

Thomas  Cooke-Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a. 
The  Rev.  Edward  OXearv,  p.p. 
Thomas  J.  de  Burgh,  Esq.,  d.l. 
Ambrose  More  O'Ferrall,  Esq.,  d.l. 

<l&on.  %teasnvex: 
Hans  Hendrick-Avlmer,  Esq.,  Kerdiffstown,  Sallins. 

Sson.  Secretaries: 

Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  m.r.i.a.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Mageney. 
Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.a.,  U/sfer,  44  Wellington  Road,  Dublin. 

ibon.  @5ifor: 

The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a.,  Sherlockstown,  Sallins. 


f 


/ 


JOURNAL 


OF   THE 


AND 

jS^urrounbing  Distticts. 


DONACOMPER  CHURCH} 
By  W.  T.  KIRKPATRICK,  J.P. 

THE  name  of  '' Donacomper "  signifies  "the  church  at  the 
confluence,"  or  "  the  church  at  the  meeting  of  the  waters/' 
from  the  Irish  words  "  domnach/'  a  church,  and  "  comar," 
confluence.  The  Ordnance  Survey  Letters  in  the  Rojal  Irish 
Academy  state  that  there  is  no  confluence  nearer  than  that  of 
the  Biver  Rye  with  the  Liffey  at  Leixlip,  two  and  a-half  miles 
from  Donacomper ;  but  as  there  is  a  stream  called  the  ''  Shin- 
keean/'  which  passes  under  the  public  road  less  than  100  yards 
from  the  west  end  of  the  church,  and  runs  through  Donacomper 
demesne  and  into  the  Liffey  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  off, 
there  is  no  need  to  go  to  Leixlip  in  search  of  a  confluence,  and 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  is  this  stream  and  the  Liffey  which 
give  the  name  to  the  place. 

Father  Hogan,  in  his  Paper  on  St.  Wolstan's,  suggests,  in 
the  absence,  as  he  believed,  of  a  neighbouring  confluence,  that 
the  meaning  may  be  "  domnach,*'  a  church,  and  "  comphair- 
tidhe  "  (pr.  comfairee),  a  companion.  But  all  the  authorities 
agree  that,  if  there  is  a  confluence,  the  other  is  the  natural 
meaning. 

*  For  the  ground  plan  of  the  old  church,  I  am  indebted  to 
Mr.  A.  Congreve,  who  was  good  enough  to  make  it  for  me. 

For  the  sketch  of  the  interior  of  the  ruin,  I  am  indebted  to  Miss 
Stokes,  who  has  most  kindly  presented  the  block  to  the  Society ;  and 
for  the  extracts  from  the  wills  and  funeral  entries,  I  have  to  thank 
Lord  Walter  FitzGei-ald. 


278 


DONACOMPER   CHURCH. 


Father  Hogan  says  that  Donacomper  mast  have  had  a 
history  of  its  own,  even  prior  to  the  establishment  of 
St.  Wolstan's,  becaase  from  the  "  Book  of  Armagh  "  we  learn 
that  every  church  called  "Domnach"  was  founded  by  St  Patrick 
himself,  and  there  he  spent  a  night.  There  is  a  tradition  that 
a  market  used  to  be  held  in  old  times  in  front  of  Donacomper 
Church  ;  and  Father  Hogan  states  that  the  present  town  of  Gel- 
bridge  only  really  commenced  its  existence  with  the  advent  of 
the  Dongan  family  to  Castletown  in  1616,  and  that  whatever 
little  importance  the  place  had  for  some  hundreds  years  before 
must  have  been  due  to  its  connection  with  St.  Wolstan's  and 
Donacomper.  Even  so  late  as  1690,  in  one  of  the  State  papers, 
James  Warren  is  described  as  parish  priest  of  Dennycomfert 

**  Donacomper  "  seems  to  have  been  spelt  in  a  great  number 
of  di£ferent  ways.  In  the  funeral  entry  of  Mary  Fleming, 
daughter  of  William  Baron  of  Slane,  and  wife  of  Sir  Thomas 
Alen,  who  died  8th  November,  1622,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church  of  Donacomper,  8rd  December,  1622,  it  is  spelt  ''Donna- 
compare;"  while  in  that  of  Sir  Thomas  Alen,  who  died  1626,  it 
is  spelt  "  Donnacompar."  * 

The  funeral  entry  of  Jno.  Alen,  who  died  at  Bishop's  Court, 
March,  1636,  states  that  he  was  interred  in  **  the  Parish  churche 
of  Downecumper,  '*  where  his  wife  also  was  buried ;  while  a 
Chancery  Inquisition  of  1639  says  that  ''Robert  Alen  was  seised 
in  fee-tail  of  St.  Wolstan's  and  Donacomper ; "  and  the  will 
of  *'  Patrick  Alen  of  St.  Wolstan's,  als.  Alenscourt,"  dated  July 
5th,  1720,  directed  that  he  was  ''  to  be  buried  in  my  ancestors' 
tomb  in  the  church  of  Donaghcomper." 


'  On  the  Ordnance  Survey  maps  it  is  spelt  Donaghcomper. 


DONACOMPEK  CHURCH.  279 

The  following  description  of  the  church  of  Donacomper  was 
written  for  me  by  the  late  M.  H.  Bloxam,  f.s.a.,  in  1875,  when 
he  was  paying  a  visit  to  Ireland  preparatory  to  the  issue  of  the 
-eleTenth  and  last  edition  of  his  well-known  work  on  Gothic 
architecture : — 

"  DONACOMPER. 

**The  old  church,  now  in  ruins,  consists  of  a  nave,  chancel,  and 
chapel  adjoining  the  church  on  the  north  side.  The  whole  appears  to 
have  been  constructed  in  the  twelfth  century  {circa  a.d.  1160),  but 
windows  of  the  fourteenth  century  (circa  a.d.  1360)  have  been  inserted. 
A  .semicircular  arch  divides  the  north  chai)el  from  the  chancel.  This 
springs  from  A  plain  abacus  string  course,  with  the  under  part  chamfered. 
In  the  east  wall  of  this  chapel  is  a  Piscina,  an  insertion  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  indicative  of  an  altar.  These  ruins  are  overgrown  with  trees 
and  ivy,  which  probably  conceal  many  details  ;  but  in  the  chapel  windows 
of  the  fourteenth  century  have  been  inserted. 

"Matt.  H.  Bloxa^, 

**  September  4th,  1875." 

In  a  sketch  which  I  have,  on  an  old  deed  of  the  year  1770, 
the  church  is  represented  as  roofed  in,  and  with  a  tower  at  the 
west  end  ;  but  of  this  tower  only  one  wall  now  remains.  Beside 
the  door,  on  the  north  side,  is  a  receptacle  for  holy  water.  Be- 
neath the  side  chapel  lies  the  vault  of  the  Alen  family.  Until 
about  three  years  ago,  the  slab  which  covers  it  lay  fallen  in  at 
one  comer,  and  made  it  possible  to  get  into  the  vault,  which  is 
full  of  the  bones  and  skulls  of  the  Alens.  The  top  of  the  vault 
shows  the  marks  of  the  osier  wattles,  which  were  evidently  used 
to  support  it  when  it  was  being  built.  The  slab,  which  is  very 
heavy,  bears  the  following  inscription,  partly  defaced : — 

[This  S]epulchre  is  The 
Buri]al  Place  of  The 
Fa]mily  of  Alens  of 
Alenscourt. 

The  advowson  of  the  church  was  made  over  to  Sir  John 
Alen  in  16B8,  the  same  year  in  which  he  received  the  grant  of 
the  lands  of  St.  Wolstan's,  Donacomper,  and  Kildrought ;  and 
Lewis's  ''  Topographical  Dictionary  of  Ireland,"  published  in 
1837,  states  that  up  to  a  few  years  prior  to  that  date  there 
was  a  monument  to  Sir  John  Alen,  with  his  effigy,  in  Dona- 
comper Church.  It  is  very  much  to  be  regretted  that  this  has 
disappeared,  as  it  would  have  been  of  great  interest  to  us  now. 
Donacomper  was  the  regular  burying-place  of  the  Alen  family. 
Sir  John  Alen's  brother  and  successor,  Thomas  Alen,  was  buried 
here ;  and  a  second  brother  of  his,  William  Alen  of  Castletown, 
Kildrought  (i.e.,  Celbridge),  from  whom  were  descended  the 


28o  DONACOMPER   CHURCH. 

Alens  of  Palmerstown,  Co.  Dublin,  was  also  buried  here.     His 
will,  dated  October  16th,  1558,  begins  as  follows : — 

'*  In  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Son  &  Holy  Goste.  I  Willm  Alen, 
of  Castleton  of  Kyldroght,  in  the  Countie  of  Kyldare,  hoole  of  mynde 
&  in  pfecte  memory  the  xvi  day  of  October  in  the  yere  of  ChristeB  incar- 
nacyon  after  our  computacyon  a  thowsande  fyve  hundred  with  fiftie  and 
eight,  doo  make  my  wylle  &  testament  as  foloweth — *  Ffyrste  I  comende 
my  sowle  to  almyghtee  God  the  creator  of  me,  &  my  body  to  be  buryede 
in  the  church e  of  Donaghcomper,  where  it  shall  plese  my  broder  Sr  John 
Alen  ;  &  to  the  reparacyon  of  the  sayd  churche  I  give  ten  shillings  st«r- 
linge  after  Irland  rate,  &  to  my  paryshe  churche  of  Kildroght  other  ten 
shillings.  And  I  ordeyne  &  constitute  of  this  my  last  wylle  &  testament 
my  broder  Sr  John  Alen,  Knyght,  late  loi*d  chancellor  of  Irland,  &  my 
broder  Thomas  Alen,  clerke  of  the  naper  [i.e.,  the  *hanaper'],  my 
executoi*s,"  &c.,  &c. 

John  Alen  of  St.  Wolstan's,  who  succeeded  his  father,  Thomas 
Alen,  by  his  will,  dated  February  24th,  1609,  says  : — "  I  will  my 
body  to  be  buried  in  the  church  of  Donnacomper,  where  my 
father  was  buried.*'  His  son,  Sir  Thomas  Alen,  married,  first, 
Mary  Fleming,  daughter  of  William  Baron  of  Slane,  and  the  fol- 
lowing extract  from  the  Funeral  Entries  relates  to  her  funeral: — 

**  Mary  daughter  of  Fleming  Lorde  of  Slane  (sister  to  Christofer 
Lorde  of  Slane),  &  wife  to  Sir  Thomas  Allen,  of  S.  Wolstan'a  or  Allen's 
Court,  Knight  &  Baronet,  deceased  the  8th  of  November,  1622,  &  was 
buried  in  the  chui-ch  of  Donacompare  the  3rd  of  December,  1C22, 
viz. : — 

The  poore. 

Sir  Thomas  Allen's  men. 

The  Penonne  by  Mr.  Nicholas  Allen. 

Mr.  Fleming  of  Glankey  and  his  brother. 

Mr.  Fleming  of  Creavagh  &  Mr.  Robt.  Allen. 

Mr.  Allen  of  Palmerstou  and  Mr.  Wm.  Allen. 

Albon  Leveret,  Athlone  Pursuivant  of  Armes. 

Daniel  Molyneux,  Ulster  King  of  Annes. 

Sir  Wm.  Hill  Mr.  Bamewall 

supporting  the  The  Corpes  of  Cryckston 

paall.  8Uj)porting  the 

paall. 
attending  the  chief e  mourner 

Tlie  Lfml  of  I  Mrs.  Katherine  I  Mr.  James 

Slane.  |  Fleming.  |  Fleming. 

Foure  Gentlewomen  2  and  2  attending 

the  chiefe  mourner 

one  of  Sir  Thomas  Allen's  men 

other  Gentlewomen  2  and  2 

Waytinge  Women." 

When  the  present  road  from  Celhridge  to  Dublin  was  made, 
it   was  cut  right  through  Donacomper  churchyard.     The  old 


DONACOMPER  CHURCH.  28 1 

high-road  passed  through  Castletown  along  the  river  bank,  and 
it  was  probably  changed  about  the  time  that  Castletown  House 
VTBS  built  (i.e.,  in  1726). 

In  1703  the  rectory  of  Donacomper  was,  in  pursuance  of  an 
Act  of  2  William  III,  assigned  to  augment  the  vicarage  of  Clon- 
dalkin,  and  tithe  rent-charge  is  now  payable  out  of  the  lands  of 
Donacomper  in  respect  of  Clondalkin  parish. 

The  oldest  tombstone  in  churchyard,  of  those  whose  inscrip- 
tion can  be  deciphered,  bears  the  following  inscription : — 

"Here  Lyeth  the  Body  of  Nicholas  Walsh  who  dyed  Feb.  the  11th 
1711  being  brother  to  Peter  Walsh  of  Dunaughcomper  by  whom  this 
Htoiie  hath  been  laid  for  himself  and  his  posterity.  Hero  also  lyeth  the 
IxKly  of  the  aforesade  Peter  Walsh,  who  dyed  the  24  daye  of  Febry 
1720  aged yeai*s." 

Another  tombstone  bears  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  Erected  by  Stephen  Coyle 

To  the  memory  of  his  posterity 

Here  lieth  his  Father 

George  Coyle  who  departed  this  life  May  the  18th  17JX) 

aged  75  years 

Also  his  brother  Thomas  Coyle 

who  deimrted  May  the  21st  1793 

aged  36  years 

Here  lieth  his  Dear  Mother  Ann  Coyle 

who  departed  this  life  February  the  15th  1797 

aged  85  years 

Stej)hen  Coyle  departed  30th  January  1809 

aged  GO  years 

Js.  Coyle  departed  20th  February  1818 

aged  68  years 

Geo.  Coyle  departed  March  4th  1818 

aged  64  years." 

Another  stone,  which  was  *'*  erected  bj  Mrs.  Mary  Johnson 
of  Celbridge  in  1810,"  bears  the  following  lines  : — 

**  Though  not  in  sight  in  memory  dear 
Two  affectionate  nephews  lie  liuried  here.** 

Another  tombstone  is  inscribed  thus : — 

"  Erected  by  Thomas  Talbot 

To  the  memory  of  his  posterity. 

Here  lieth  the  remains  of  his 

Father  James  Talbot  departed 

March  the  20th  1793  aged  54  years. 

Also  his  brother  William  Talbot "  &c. 
**  Also  his  mother  Catherine  Talbot" 

(&  two  of  his  children). 


282  DONACOMPER   CHURCH- 

The  inscription  on  another  stone  runs  thus  :— 

**  Memento  Mori. 


^^This  stone  was  erected  by  Laughlin  Dignam  of  Celbridge  in 
memory  of  hLs  beloved  son  Mr.  Michael  Dignam  Timber  Merchant  late 
of  Bii^efoot  St  in  the  City  of  Dublin  who  departed  this  life  May  the 
10th  eighteen  hundred  and  twenty-three  aged  30  years. 

*^  Silence  alas  beneath  this  stone  decayed 
Virtue^s  darling  the  poor  man's  friend  is  laid 
His  generous  heart  aJive  to  others'  grief 
Still  urged  his  hand  to  minister  relief 
He  who  dried  the  orphan  and  widow's  tears 
Was  snatched  away  by  death  in  bloom  of  years 
His  parents  and  his  loving  friends  that  bear  his  names 
In  mourning  strains  yoiur  earnest  pity  claims 
Too  good  to  stay  in  a  fleeting  world  like  this 
Oh  may  his  soul  enjoy  eternal  bliss.     Amen." 


(     283     ) 


ST.   IVOLSTAATS.^ 
By  W.  T.  KIRKPATRICK,  J.P. 

THE  priory  of  St.  Wolstan's  was  founded  in  the  year  1202 
(or,  according  to  Ware,  1205)  for  canons  of  the  order  of 
St.  Victor,  by  Richard,  first  prior  of  the  place,  and  Adam  de 
Hereford,  in  memory  of  St.  Wolstan,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  then 
newly  canonized  by  Pope  Innocent  III ;  and  the  first  part  of 
the  building  there  was  commonly  called  acala  cali,  the  steps  of 
heaven.  De  Hereford  granted  to  Richard,  the  first  prior,  the 
lands  on  the  River  Lifiey  and  the  church  of  Donacomper,  which 
existed  before  the  foundation  of  the  monastery.  There  is  a 
tradition  that  the  church  was  connected  with  the  monastery  by 
an  underground  passage,  but  there  is  no  trace  of  it  to  be  seen. 

In  1271  William  de  Mandesham,  or  Kavesham,  seneschal  to 
Fulk,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  granted  to  the  priory  the  lands  of 
Tristildelane,  now  Gastledillon,  with  the  appurtenances  thereto 
belonging,  in  Franckalmoigne.  He  increased  the  number  of  the 
canons,  and  obliged  them  to  celebrate  duly  his  and  his  wife's 
anniversary,  on  which  day  they  were  to  feed  thirty  poor  men,  or 
to  give  them  in  lien  thereof  one  penny  each,  under  the  penalty  of 
100  shillings,  to  be  paid  to  the  Archbishop  on  every  such  failure, 
and  a  further  penalty  of  100  shillings  to  be  expended  on  the 
cathedral  church  of  St  Patrick.  In  1810,  when  Stephen  was 
prior,  Nicholas  TaafFe  gave  for  ever  to  this  priory  the  manor  of 
Donacomper,  which  was  valued  at  £3  6s.  8d.  yearly.  Having, 
however,  been  granted  without  licence,  it  was  subsequently 
seized  into  the  king's  hands,  but  was  restored  to  the  priory  in 
1880. 

In  1814  the  churches  of  Stacumney  and  Donaghmore  were 
granted  to  the  sole  and  separate  use  of  the  prior.  The  church 
of  Killadonnan,  now  known  as  Killadoon,  also  at  one  time 
belonged  to  the  priory. 

*  The  materials  on  which  thin  Paper  Ib  based  are  chiefly  drawn  from 
the  "  MonaHticum  Hibemicum,"  Ware's  "Antiquities  of  Ireland"  (pub- 
lished 1706),  O'Flanagan^s  **  Lives  of  the  Lord  Chancellors  of  Ireland," 
and  an  interesting  Paper  by  the  Bev.  M.  F.  Hogan,  formerly  Roman 
Catholic  Curate  of  Celbridgc,  published  in  The  EccUsiaMical  Record  for 
March,  1892. 


I— 


I     £ 


u    5 


^  < 


a? 


ST.   WOLSTAN's.  285 

In  1686  Henry  VIU  seized  on  the  priory  and  all  its  belong- 
ings, which  are  set  forth  in  the  inquisition,  and  appear  to  have 
been  very  extensive.  They  included  lands  in  Straffan,  Irish- 
town,  Kildronght,  Donacomper,  Stacumney,  Donaghmore,  Killa- 
doon,  Castledillon,  Tipperstown,  Loughlinstown,  Coolfitch, 
Simmondstown,  Ballymakelly,  Ardres  (or  Ardrass),  and 
Kilmacreddock,  Ballykorkeran,  Backbieston  (or  Backweston), 
InchebartoUy  Coldreny,  Lucan,  &c.  Bichard  Weston  was  the 
last  prior  in  1586,  and  by  an  Act  of  that  year  it  was  provided 
that  he  should  have  and  enjoy  in  the  priory,  for  his  life,  a 
decent  chamber  with  a  chimney,  with  wood  and  other  neces- 
saries for  his  firing,  and  proper  diet,  both  as  to  eating  and 
drinking,  all  of  which  was  valued  at  £4:  annually;  and  that 
Gerald  Aylmer  and  Thomas  Luttrell,  by  and  with  the  authority 
of  the  said  Act,  should  reserve  to  themselves  and  their  heirs, 
during  the  life  of  the  said  Bichard,  the  annual  sum  of  £4i  out  of 
the  lands  aforesaid  for  the  use  of  the  said  Bichard  Weston. 

The  manor  of  Kildrought,  now  known  as  Castletown,  which 
was  separated  from  the  priory  by  the  Biver  Liflfey,  was  in  the 
fourteenth  century  in  the  possession  of  the  Geraldines,  and  we 
read  that  Maurice  Earl  of  Kildare,  who  died  in  1890,  was  a 
munificent  benefactor  to  the  priory  of  St.  Wolstan's. 

With  the  dissolution  of  the  monastery,  the  connection  of 
St.  Wolstan's  with  the  Alen  family  ^begins.  John  Alen,  who 
came  from  Coteshale,  in  Norfolk,  went  to  practise  at  the  Irish 
Bar,  and  became  Master  of  the  Bolls  in  1534.  He  was 
appointed  a  clerk  in  Parliament  from  1534  to  1586,  with  a 
salary  of  2s.  per  day  during  the  Parliamentary  session. 

By  letters  patent,  on  December  1,  1538,  he  had  a  gi*ant  of 
the  site,  circuit,  and  lands  of  the  late  monastery  of  St.  Wolstan's, 
the  manor  of  Donaghcumper,  the  manor  of  Kildronght,  and 
other  denominations  of  land  in  Co.  of  Kildai*e  for  ever,  by  the 
service  of  one  knight's  fee,  rent  £10. 

On  the  death  of  Sir  John  Barnewall,  Lord  Trimleston,  in 
1538,  John  Alen  was  appointed  Keeper  of  the  Seal,  and  in  1539 
Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland.  By  letters  patent  of  82  &  83 
Henry  YIII,  he  was  appointed,  with  others,  justice  of  the  peace 
for  Co.  Meath,  from  which  it  appears  that  the  Lord  Chancellor 
was  not  ex  officio  a  magistrate. 

In  1539-40  a  Boyal  Commission  issued  to  him  and  others, 
appointing  them  to  act  as  deputies  to  Thomas  Cromwell,  whom 
the  King  had  constituted  his  Vicar-General  and  Vice-Begent  in 
ecclesiastical  matters ;  and  in  April  of  the  same  year  they  were 
entrusted  with  the  suppression  of  the  religious  houses. 

*  "Lives  of  the  Lord  Chancellors  of  Ireland." — O'Flanagan. 


286  ST.   VVOLSTAN'S. 

While  Alen  was  Chancellor^  a  step  towards  legal  education 
was  taken,  and  the  monastery  of  the  Friar  Preachers  was  turned 
into  an  Inn  of  Chancery  ancillary  to  the  InnS'  of  Court  in 
England.  He  was  deprived  of  the  Great  Seal  through  the  new 
Viceroy,  St  Leger,  who  was  appointed  in  1541;  but  by  a  letter 
from  the  Lord  Protector  Somerset  and  the  Lords  of  the  Council 
in  England,  when  Kitog  Edward  ascended  the  throujB,  addressed 
to  the  Lord  Deputy  and  Council  in  Ireland,  **  Master  Alan  "  was 
to  have  the  restoration  of  all  his  leases,  offices,  goods,  and 
chattels,  notwithstanding  the  sun*ender  of  his  office  of  Chan- 
cellor, with  liberty  to  convey  his  goods  without  search  or  seizure 
into  England ;  '*  also  the  constableship  of  Maynooth,  with  the 
arrear  of  the  fee,  and  the  rest  of  his  offices,  the  farm  of  Kyle, 
and  all  his  farms,  leases,  and  things,  notwithstanding  his 
absence." 

Queen  Mary  appears  to  have  held  him  in  much  esteem,  and 
in  1568  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Lord  Deputy  and  Chancellor, 
refening  to  him  in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Having  licensed  our  trusty  servant,  Sir  John  Allen,  late  Chancellor 
of  that  our  realm,  to  rei)air  thither  and  demire  or  return  at  his  pleasure, 
and  considering  the  trusty  functions  which  he  had  for  a  great  time  there, 
both  under  our  father  and  brother,  and  his  long  experience  and  travail 
in  public  affairs,  we  judge  him  worthy  of  such  trust,  as  he  is  meet  always 
to  remain  one  of  the  Privy  Council,  and  in  respect  of  his  infirmities  and 
age,  we  mind  not  that  he  should  be  compelled  to  go  to  any  hosting  or 
joumies  but  when  he  conveniently  may." 

He  was  of  the  same  family  as  John  Alen,  Archbishop  of 
Dublin,  who  assisted  Henry  YIII  in  the  suppression  of  the 
religious  houses,  and  who,  when  flying  from  Thomas  FitzGerald, 
then  in  rebellion  against  King  Henry,  took  boat  from  Dublin, 
but  was  driven  on  shore  near  Clontarf,  sought  shelter  in  Artane, 
where  he  was  discovered,  dragged  from  his  bed,  and  murdered. 

When  St.  Wolstan's  passed  to  the  Alens,  it  became  known 
as  Alen's  Court.  Sir  John  Alen  died  between  1688-91  without 
issue,  being  succeeded  by  his  brother  Thomas  Alen  of  Eilkeele 
(or  Eilteel),  clerk  of  the  Hanaper.  They  were  followed  by  a  long 
line  of  Alens,  who  intermarried  with  (among  others)  the 
families  of  Lord  Gormanston,  Lord  Dunsany,  the  Luttrells,  the 
Sarsfields,  &c. 

The  last  of  the  Alens^  connected  with  St.  Wolstan's  spent  a 
good  deal  of  his  time  in  France,  where  he  was  called  the  Count 
de  St.  Wolstan.  He  was  an  officer  in  the  regiment  of  Berwick, 
and  fought  with  the  Irish  Brigade  in  the  battle  of  Fontenoy  in 

^  Vide  vol.  i,  p.  341,  of  the  Journal. 


ST.   WOLSTAN'S.  287 

1746.  In  consequence  of  the  active  part  he  had  taken  with  the 
French  in  their  wars  with  the  English,  both  in  Europe  and 
India,  he  lost  all  rights  to  his  Irish  possessions,  and  they  were 
sold  in  1752  by  the  Court  of  Exchequer  to  Dr.  Robert  Clayton, 
Bishop  of  Glogher,  who  bequeathed  them  to  his  niece,  Anne, 
wife  of  Dr.  Thomas  Biemard,  Bishop  of  Eillaloe.  Father  Hogan 
states  that  the  house  of  St.  Wolstan's  was  built  from  the  ruins 
of  the  abbey,  after  the  design  of  Mr.  Joshua  Allen,  who  was  no 
relation  of  the  St.  Wolstan  Alens,  but  was  well  known  for  his 
skill  in  architecture,  and  planned  the  unfinished  house  at 
Jigginstown  for  the  Earl  of  Strafford.  ^During  the  rebellion,  and 
for  about  the  drat  twenty  years  of  this  century,  St.  Wolstan's 
was  a  school  kept  by  Mr.  John  Coyne,  and  it  was  purchased  by 
the  grandfather  of  the  present  owner  in  1822.  Donacomper 
was  purchased  in  the  same  way  by  my  grandfather,  William 
Kirkpatrick,  in  1815,  prior  to  which  he  had  lived  there  for  some 
few  years. 

The  remains  of  St.  Wolstan's  priory  consist  of  two  gateways, 
a  tower,  and  two  fragments,  and  there  are  steps  by  which  the 
tower  and  gateways  can  be  ascended. 

By  the  river  belbw  the  weir  is  a  well  called  the  "  Scholar's 
Well,"  and  near  it  are  what  are  said  to  be  the  longest  stone,  the 
largest  bone,  and  the  deepest  hole  (in  the  LifFey)  in  all  Ireland. 
Close  by  is  a  monument  to  Bobert  Clayton,  Bishop  of  Clogher, 
and  his  wife.  It  consists  of  an  urn  on  a  granite  pedestal,  which 
bears  the  following  inscriptions : — 

On  the  front : — 

•'P.  M.  S. 

Roberti  Clayton 
GloghereiiBis  Episcopi 

& 

CatherinsB  Donnellan 

Conjugis  optimce." 


On  the  back : 


On  one  side : — 


*  Sursum  Corda. " 


"  Renaacenteir  ('/  renascentur) 
Quae  jam  cecidere 

Cadentque 
Quaa  nunc  sunt." 

On  the  other  side : — 

*'a8  dying 
yet 
we  live. 
May  Ist,  1756." 


288 


ST.   WOLSTAN'S. 


St.  Wolstan's  was  used  as  a  summer  residence  by  the  Marquis 
of  Buckiugbam,  wbo  was  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland  from 
December  16th,  1787,  to  January  5th,  1790,  having  previously 
as  Earl  Temple  held  the  same  ofiSce  in  1782  ;  and  he  built  the 
garden  wall  at  St.  Wolstan's,  which  is  a  remarkably  fine  one, 
and  was  built  with  flues  for  the  purpose  of  heating  it. 

Just  below  the  demesne  of  St.  Wolstan's  the  LifFey  is  spanned 
by  a  bridge,  consisting  of  three  irregular  arches,  called  New- 
bridge, and  which  was  built  in  1308  by  John  le  Decer,  Mayor 
of  Dublin.  There  was  a  proposal  in  the  early  part  of  this  cen- 
tury to  pull  down  this  bridge,  as  being  too  narrow,  and  to  build 
another ;  but  it  was  strongly  resisted  by  Mr.  Richard  Cane, 
Major  Cane's  grandfather,  who  offered  to  build  another  bridge 
lower  down  at  his  own  expense,  if  he  was  allowed  to  divert  the 
road  and  enclose  the  old  bridge  in  his  demesne :  but  though  the 
Grand  Jury  would  not  consent  to  this,  the  matter  dropped. 


'  The  Newbridge"  at  St.  Wolstan's. 
I3uilt  aftU  1308. 


(     289     ) 


KILDARE:  ITS  HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES.  ^ 

[Read  at  the  Meeting  of  the  Co.  Kildare  Archfeological  Soc., 
Sept.  17th,  1896.] 

By  the  ijltb  REV.  DENIS  MURPHY,  S.J.,  M.R.I.A. 

THE  history  and  antiqaities  of  Kildare  naturally  suggest  a 
division  in  the  remarks  which  I  shall  make .  on  both,  viz., 
ecclesiastical  and  civil ;  and  first  of  the  ecclesiastical  antiquities. 
The  name  of  Kildare  is  derived  from  two  Irish  words,  kill,  dara, 
the  church  of  the  oak ;  and  though  now  applied  to  an  extensive 
district,  by  all  our  Irish  annalists  it  is  used  exclusively  of  the 
place  where  the  ecclesiastical  establishment  stood,  namely,  the 
town  of  Kildare.  The  surrounding  territoiy  was  so  called  only 
after  it  was  reduced  to  shire  ground  by  the  English.  The  ancient 
name  of  this  was  Drumcriath;  it  was  comprised  within  the 
district  called  Offaly.  "  The  Life  of  St.  Brigid,"  by  Cogitosus 
(which  is  the  second  of  the  six  given  by  Colgan  in  bis  lYiadis 
Thaumaturgce  Acta,  the  Acts  of  the  Wonder-working  Three, 
namely,  Patrick,  Columba,  and  Brigid,  the  three  Patrons  of 
Ireland),  gives  the  origin  of  the  name : — 

*'  The  people  of  Leinater  besought  Brigid  to  stay  among  them.  And 
when  the  most  glorious  virgin  came  to  her  country,  she  was  received  with 
great  honour  and  joy  by  the  whole  province,  and  a  cell  was  assigned  to 
her,  in  which  this  saint  of  God  afterwards  led  a  wonderful  life.  There 
she  built  a  monastery  for  many  nuns,  and  there  grew  up  a  large  city, 
which  is  to-day  the  metropolis  of  Leinster.  It  is  called  in  Irish  Kildara, 
which  interpreted  means  the  cell  of  the  oak.  For  there  was  a  very  tall 
oak  there,  which  Brigid  loved  much,  and  she  blessed  it :  the  stock  of  it 
remains  still.  And  no  one  will  dare  to  cut  off  any  part  of  it ;  and  whoso- 
ever can  break  off  a  little  of  it,  he  thinks  it  a  great  favour,  hoping  there- 
from God's  help,  since  many  miracles  have  been  wrought  by  that  wood 
through  the  blessing  of  St.  Brigid." 

This  writer  then  goes  on  to  speak  of  the  founding  of  the 
monastery : — 

**  The  church,"  says  Cogitosus,  **  contains  the  glorious  bodies  of 
Oonlaeth  and  Brigid,  resting  in  monuments  which  are  placed  on  the  right 
and  left  of  the  decorated  altar,  and  which  are  adorned  with  various 
ornaments  of  silver  and  gold,  of  gems  and  precious  stones,  with  crosses 
of  ^old  and  silver  hanging  over  them.     When  the  number  of  the  faithful 


290  KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY   AND  ANTIQUITIES. 

of  both  sexes  had  increased,  the  church  was  enlarged  and  raised  to 
'a  menacing  height,*  and  decorated  with  paintings.  It  had  within  it 
three  ample  oratories,  which  were  divided  from  one  another  by  boarded 
partitions  under  one  roof  of  the  larger  house,  in  which  one  partition 
was  decorated  and  painted  with  images  and  covered  with  linen  cloth, 
extended  the  whole  breadth  of  the  church  from  wall  to  the  other  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  church.  The  wall  has  at  its  two  extremities  two 
doorways.  By  the  door  on  the  right-hand  side  the  chief  bishop,  together 
with  his  regular  school,  and  with  those  who  are  deputed  for  the  sacred 
offices  to  immolate  the  holy  sacrifice  of  the  Lord  ;  and  by  the  other 
door,  on  the  left  of  the  aforesaid  cross,  will  enter  only  the  abbess,  with 
her  nuns  and  faithful  widows,  to  enjoy  the  banquet  of  the  body  and 
blood  of  Christ;  and  then  by  another  wall  dividing  the  pavement  of 
the  house  into  two  equal  paits,  and  extending  from  the  east  side  as  far 
as  the  wall  running  across  in  breadth.  And  this  church  has  many 
windows,  and  one  omamentiAl  door  on  the  right  side,  by  which  the  priest 
and  the  faithful  of  the  male  sex  enter,  and  another  door  on  the  left  side, 
by  which  the  congregation  of  virgins  and  of  the  faithful  women  are 
accustomed  to  enter ;  and  thus  in  one  very  great  basilica  a  great  people, 
different  in  order  and  degrees  and  sex,  separated  by  walls,  pray  to  the 
Omnipotent  Lord  in  different  order,  but  with  one  mind." 

The  same  author  says  it  was  a  sanctaary  in  which  the 
regalia  of  kings  were  placed.  A  right  of  sanctaary  was  attached 
to  it  also,  giving  to  accused  persons  protection  from  immediate 
punishment,  which  would  be  often  inflicted  with  undue  haste 
and  severity. 

*'  And  worthy  Brigid,  solicitous  about  the  churches  in  many  provinces, 
and  resolving  in  her  mind  that  nothing  could  be  managed  without  a  high 
priest,  who  would  consecrate  churches  and  institute  ecclesiastical  grades 
m  them,  called  an  illustrious  solitary  adorned  with  all  virtues  from  her 
lonely  life  in  the  desert,  and  having  gone  to  meet  him  herself,  brought 
him  that  he  mi^ht  rule  the  church  in  episcopal  dignity  together  with  her. 
And  the  so  anointed  head  and  principal  of  all  the  bishops  and  the  most 
blessed  mother  ruler  of  the  nuns,  by  a  happy  association  and  by  tlie 
practice  of  all  virtues,  afterwards  erected  then*  principal  church.  And 
through  the  merits  of  both,  their  cathedral,  like  a  fructifying  vine,  with 
branches  spread  in  all  directions,  extended  its  influence  throughout  the 
whole  land  of  Hibemia." 

In  the  Telere  of  Eughey  the  Guldee,  Brigid  is  styled  "  the 
chaste  head  of  the  nuns  of  Eird."  St.  Columkille  calls  her  the 
maiden  of  everlasting  goodness,  the  golden  torch,  the  tree  that 
bears  flowers,  the  pillar  of  the  kingdom  after  Patrick,  the 
favourite  of  the  royal  Queen.  Jean  de  Bruxelles  says  she  was 
superioress  of  thirteen  thousand  monks,  and  Porter  adds  that 
the  houses  of  canonesses,  not  only  throughout  all  Ireland,  but 
even  in  England  and  Belgium,  derive  their  origin  from  her. 
And  an  ancient  writer  speaks  of  her  as  the  abbess  to  whom  all 
the  abbesses  of  Scotia  pay  veneration. 


KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY   AND  ANTIQUITIES.  29I 

From  ''  The  Life  of  St.  Brigid/'  by  Gogitosus,  written  aboat 
the  year  800,  we  learn  that  the  church  of  Kildare  contained 
then  her  relics  and  those  of  St.  Conlaeth,  the  first  Bishop  of 
Kildare.  In  885  the  Danes  plundered  Kildare,  and  carried 
away  the  shrines  in  which  the  relics  were  placed.  The  relics 
were  probably  saved  from  desecration,  and  part,  or  perhaps  the 
whole,  of  them  taken  to  Down,  for  it  would  seem  that  he^  was 
anxious  to  make  Down  a  place  of  great  importance,  the  capital 
of  the  northern  part  of  Ireland ;  and  he  supposed  the  transfer  of 
the  relics  of  the  three  patron  saints  of  Ireland  would  aid  him 
very  much  in  his  designs.  Cardinal  Vivian  was  sent  from  Rome 
by  Pope  Urban  III  as  Legate  to  assist  at  their  transfer.  The 
day  on  which  it  took  place,  June  9bh,  was  celebrated  as  a  festival, 
and  had  a  special  office  in  the  Breviary.  The  transfer  was 
looked  on  as  the  fulfilment  of  an  ancient  prophecy  of  St. 
Columkille : — 

'*  My  prosperity  in  guiltless  Hy, 
And  my  soul  in  Deny ; 
And  my  body  under  the  flag. 
Beneath  which  are  Patriok  and  Brigid." 

A  special  privilege  attaches  to  the  church  of  Kildare,  viz., 
that  the  bishop  has  precedence  of  all  the  other  bishops  of  Ire- 
land except  the  Bishop  of  Meath  ;  he  ranks  first  because  Tara, 
the  seat  of  the  Ardrigb,  was  in  his  jurisdiction.  I  called  the 
attention  of  our  late  lamented  Vice-President  to  this  ancient 
right,  and  he  told  me  he  was  aware  of  it,  and  that  in  the  Irish 
Ecclesiastical  Directory  of  that  year  he  had  the  diocese  of 
Kildare  inserted  before  that  of  any  other  diocese  of  the  province 
of  Dublin. 

De  Burgo,  author  of  "  Hibernia  Dominicana,"  a  history  of 
the  Dominican  Order  in  Ireland,  says  that  in  1770  he  saw  the 
head  of  St.  Brigid  in  a  chapel  dedicated  to  her  in  the  Priory  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist  at  Lumear,  three  miles  from  Lisbon.  The 
clergy  of  the  church  say  the  Office  and  Mass  of  the  saint  on 
the  1st  of  February  each  year,  at  which  the  members  of  a 
sodality  erected  in  honour  of  St.  Brigid  assist.  Cattle  and  sheep 
are  brought  at  that  same  time  to  the  church  to  be  blessed.  A 
stone  set  in  the  wall  near  the  entrance  to  the  church  says  that 
near  it  are  buried  the  three  Irish  knights  who  brought  there  the 
head  of  the  blessed  St.  Brigid,  in  memory  of  whom  the 
sodality  of  the  saint  erected  this  monument  in  the  month  of 
January,  1288. 


*  The  writer  of  the  article  gives  no  name. — Ed. 

AA 


292  KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES. 

There  is  in  the  Maseum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  a  brass 
shoe  or  slipper,  gilt  and  richly  omamented,  which  was  popularly 
known  as  St.  Brigid's  Slipper,  and,  no  doubt,  encased  a  real 
shoe.  It  bears  an  inscription  showing  the  use  to  which  it  was 
applied : — 

HOC  EST  JURAMENTVM  NATVRALE. 

Another  inscription  on  it  shows  that  it  was  preser?ed  in 
Loughrea,  Co.  Galway,  where  there  are  still,  at  a  short  distance 
from  the  Carmelite  convent,  the  remains  of  a  small  church 
dedicated  to  St.  Brigid,  in  which,  no  doubt,  it  was  preserved.  It 
runs  thus:— 

'*  locb  Feicb  ANNO  DOMINO  1410. 

S.  Brigida  Virgo,  Kildariensis,  Hibemiae  Patrona. 

St.  John  Baptist." 

At  Glastonbury  some  relics  of  St.  Brigid  were  preserved  with 
great  veneration.  "  It  is  a  common  custom  of  the  Irish,"  says 
Spelman,  ''to  come  and  venerate  the  relics  of  their  patron 
Brigid,  who  left  here  some  tokens  [insignilas'],  a  necklace,  a  bag, 
and  some  implements  for  weaving.  They  are  still  exhibited  in 
memory  of  her  holiness,  and  they  cure  different  diseases." 

A  good  deal  of  what  we  know  about  Kildare  in  somewhat 
later  times  comes  down  to  us  in  the  works  of  Giraldus  Cam- 
brensis,  Gerald  of  Wales,  a  half-brother  of  Maurice  FitzGerald, 
who  paid  two  visits  to  Ireland  with  Prince  John,  one  in  1188, 
the  other  with  the  same  prince  in  1185.  His  works  have  been 
lately  issued  in  the  Rolls  Series,  in  seven  volumes,  edited  by 
Dymock.  He  was  a  keen  observer  of  men  and  things,  though 
as  a  historian  he  is  not  reckoned  worthy  of  much  credit  "  He 
was,"  says  Dymock,  ''  replete  with  the  exact  qualities  the  very 
reverse  of  what  are  needed  to  form  an  impartial  historian ;  a  man 
of  strong,  impetuous  feelings  and  violent  prejudices,  with  a 
marvellously  elastic  self-confidence  that  nothing  could  put  down." 
Of  his  relatives  he  is  always  the  encomiast,  while  of  those  of  the 
Anglo-Normans  who  were  not  related  to  him  he  speaks  invari* 
ably  ^ith  a  sneer  or  a  gibe.  Indeed,  the  main  object  of  one 
of  his  works  seems  to  be  the  glorification  of  himself  and  his 
relatives.  He  speaks  here  as  an  eye-witness,  as  is  obvious  from 
the  detailed  account  which  he  gives.  Among  the  mirabilia  or 
wonders  of  Kildare  he  sets  down  the  falcon  which  used  to  perch 
on  the  top  of  the  lofty  tower,  the  Fire-house,  and  the  Book  of 
Kildare : — 

''In  Kildare,  which  the  glorious  St.  Brigid  rendered  illustrious,  many 
miracles  are  worthy  of  recoil.  First,  there  is  the  inextinguishable  fire  ; 
not  because  it  cannot  be  put  out,  but  because  the  nuns  and  holy  women 


KILDARE  :   ITS   HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES.  293 

supply  materials  to  the  fire  so  carefully  and  accurately  that  it  has  remained 
without  being  quenched  ever  since  the  time  of  the  holy  virgin  through 
such  a  lapse  of  years.  In  the  saint^s  time  there  were  here  twenty  nuns, 
she  being  the  twentieth.  Never  since  has  the  number  increased.  And 
when  each  one  in  her  turn  watches  the  fire  for  a  night,  when  the 
twentieth  night  comes,  the  nun,  having  laid  on  it  the  wood,  says:  'Brigit, 
take  care  of  your  fire.'  And  the  wood  is  found  to  be  consumed  in 
the  morning,  and  the  fire  still  lighting.  And  though  so  vast  a  quantity 
of  wood  hath  been  in  such  a  length  of  time  consumed  in  it,  yet  the 
ashes  have  never  increased." 

In  1226  it  was  extinguished  by  Henry  de  Loundres,  Arch- 
bishop of  Dublin  from  1218  to  1228.  It  has  been  charitably 
suggested  that  perhaps  the  archUshop  put  out  the  fire  because, 
the  custom  not  having  been  used  in  other  places,  it  might  seem 
to  have  taken  its  origin  from  an  imitation  of  the  vestal  virgins 
instituted  by  Numa  Pompilius  for  the  preservation  of  a  perpetual 
fire.  Be  that  as  it  will,  without  doubt  this  custom  of  preserving 
a  fire  in  that  convent  by  the  nuns  of  St.  Brigid  for  the  poor  and 
strangers  was  continued  down  afterwards  to  the  suppression  of 
the  monasteries  in  the  time  of  Henry  YIII.     (MS.  in  R.I.A.) 

Perhaps  the  practice  was  derived  from  that  of  the  Old  Law 
as  set  down  in  the  Book  of  Leviticus,  v.  12 :  ''  The  fire  on  the 
altar  of  God  shall  be  burning,  and  shall  not  be  put  out.'' 

I  may  remark  that  De  Loundres  was  known  by  the  name  of 
Scorch  Villein,  because  he  cast  into  the  fire  the  leases  of  the 
tenants  of  the  See  of  Dublin,  whom  he  had  cited  to  appear  in 
his  Court,  and  exhibit  their  titles  to  the  lands  which  they  held. 
They  forced  him,  however,  by  threatening  to  bum  the  house 
over  his  head,  to  give  them  favourable  teims. 

Stanihurst,  who  wrote  his  "Description  of  Ireland'*  in  1584, 
says  **  there  was  in  Kildare  an  ancient  monument  named  the 
Firehouse,  wherein  Gambrensis  says  there  was  a  continual  fire 
kept  up  night  and  day,  and  yet  the  ashes  never  increased.  I 
travelled  of  set  purpose  to  the  town  of  Kildare  to  see  the  place, 
where  I  did  see  such  a  monument  lyke  a  vaute,  which  to  this 
day  they  call  the  Firehouse."  Brewer  says,  in  his  ''  Beauties  of 
Ireland/'  published  in  1825  :  ''  A  lateral  part  of  the  chapel  of 
St.  Brigid,  locally  termed  the  Firehouse,  in  which  this  ceaseless 
fire  was  maintained,  is  still  standing  near  the  pillar  tower.  It 
was  a  low  and  narrow  cell  of  stone."  Edmund  O'Dwyer,  Bishop 
of  Limerick  from  1646  to  1654,  wrote  a  Latin  poem  on  the  fire 
of  Kildare ;  and  Moore  alludes  in  one  of  the  Irish  Melodies  to 
''the  bright  lamp  that  shone  in  Kildare's  holy  fane."  It  is 
strange  that  it  is  not  mentioned  by  any  writer  of  the  Lives  of 
St.  Brigid.  Gambrensis  is  the  firat  who  mentions  it.  In  the 
"  Annals  of  Boyle,"  under  the  date  802,  Kildare  is  called  the 


294  KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY   AND   ANTIQUITIES. 

Church  of  the  Fire  ;  and  the  monastery  was  sometimes  called 
the  Monastery  of  the  Fire. 

This  is  the  very  vivid  description  which  he  gives  of  the 
Book  of  Kildare  : — 

*'  Among  all  the  miraculous  things  at  Kildare,  nothing  Ruq^rbed  me 
so  much  as  that  wonderful  book,  said  to  have  been  written  from  the  dicta- 
tion of  an  angel.  The  l)ook  contains  the  four  Gospels  according  to  St. 
Jerome's  version,  and  is  adorned  with  almost  as  many  illuminated 
figures  as  it  has  pages.  Here  you  see  the  majesty  of  the  Divine  coun- 
tenance, there  the  mystic  figures  of  the  Evangelists,  together  with  other 
designs  without  number,  which,  if  carelessly  surveyed,  seem  rather  blots 
than  intertwined  ornaments,  and  appeared  to  be  plain  work  where 
there  was,  in  truth,  nothing  but  intricacy.  But  on  close  examination 
the  secrets  of  the  art  were  evident ;  and  so  delicate  and  subtle,  so 
laboured  and  minute,  so  intertwined  and  knotted,  so  intricately  and 
brilliantly  coloured  did  you  j^erceive  them,  that  you  were  ready  to  say 
they  were  the  work  of  an  angel,  and  not  of  man.  The  more  intently 
I  examined  them,  the  more  was  I  filled  with  fresh  wonder  and  amaze- 
ment. Neither  could  Apelles  do  the  like.  Indeed,  mortal  hand  seemed 
incapable  of  forming  or  painting  them.*' 

He  goes  on  to  tell  of  the  manner  in  which  the  book  was 
written : — 

'*  The  first  night  preceding  the  morning  on  which  the  writer  was  to 
commence  the  book  an  angel  stood  by  him  in  his  sleep,  showing  him 
a  picture  painted  on  a  tablet,  which  he  held  in  his  hand,  and  said  : 
*  Think  you  that  you  can  depict  this  representation  on  the  first  page  of 
the  lK)ok  which  you  are  about  to  write  ?  *  The  scribe,  distrusting  his 
skill  to  complete  a  work  so  artistic  and  unusual,  answered  that  he  could 
not.  The  angel  then  said  :  *  On  to-morrow  morning  ask  your  mistress 
to  offer  prayers  to  the  Lord  for  you,  that  He  may  assist  you  both  in 
mind  and  body,  so  that  you  may  be  able  to  see  and  apprehend  the  task 
proposed  to  you,  and  be  able  to  execute  it.'  After  this  the  angel  again 
appeared  to  him  on  the  next  night,  showing  the  same  picture  and  also 
many  others,  all  of  which  the  scribe,  apprehending  through  the  aid  of 
Divine  grace,  fixed  faithfully  in  his  memory,  and  carefully  reproduced  in 
their  proper  places  throughout  the  volume.  In  this  way  was  the  book 
w^ritten,  the  angel  showing  the  pattern,  St.  Brigid  praying,  and  the 
scribe  copying." 

Whether  this  book  was,  as  some  think,  the  Book  of  Kells, 
now  presei-ved  in  the  Library  of  Trinity  College,  or  some  other, 
we  can't  say.  I  should  think  it  was  one  of  the  many  books 
then  in  the  Irish  monasteries,  for  it  is  highly  probable  that  in 
such  a  famous  place  as  Kildare — famous  not  only  for  the 
reverence  paid  to  its  patron  saint,  but  also  as  a  great  school — 
there  would  be  such  books,  rivalling  in  beauty  the  Books  of 
Kells,  St.  Moling's,  or  of  Dimma. 

He  then  goes  on  to  speak  of  *'  the  very  beautiful  plains  which 
^re  called  St.  Brigid's  pastures" — in  these  po  one  has  ever  dared 


KILDARE:    ITS   HISTORY   AND  ANTIQUITIES.  295 

to  set  a  ploagh — of  the  falcon,  which  from  St.  Brigid's  time 
used  to  fregnent  this  place,  and  perch  on  the  top  of  the  lofty 
tower,  and  was  called  St.  Brigid's  hird.  It  was  killed  by  a 
peasant  with  a  stick  as  it  was  eating  a  bird  which  it  had 
seized,  and  being  so  tame  it  did  not  take  flight  at  the  man's 
approach.  The  references  to  Kildare  will  be  found  in  chapters 
xxxyii  to  xxxix  of  the  2nd  Distinction,  at  pp.  120  to  124  of 
volume  y,  Dymock's  edition. 

The  Town  of  Eildabe. 

It  is  not  easy  to  say  with  certainty  when  and  why  the  town 
and  district  of  Kildare  came  into  the  hands  of  the  FitzGeralds. 
The  town  was  first  the  habitat  of  Richard  Earl  of  Pembroke, 
surnamed  Strongbow,  who  married  Eva,  daughter  of  Dermot 
M'Murrough.  William  Marshal,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  married  the 
daughter  and  heiress  of  Strongbow,  and,  being  lord  of  all  Leinster, 
bad  jurisdiction  throughout  the  whole  province.  He  had  five  sons 
and  five  daughters.  His  sons  in  succession  held  the  seigniory,  but 
all  died  without  issue.  The  daughters  married  into  families  of  the 
English  nobility,  and  the  lordship  was  divided  between  them. 

William  de  Vesci,  in  right  of  his  mother  Agnes,  one  of  the 
daughters  of  Sibilla  Countess  of  Ferrers,  to  whom,  as  one  of  the 
sisters  of  William  Marshall  the  younger,  the  County  of  Kildare 
was  assigned,  was  entitled  to  a  part  of  Kildare.  Now,  this 
William,  then  Justiciary,  had  a  quarrel  with  John  Fitz Thomas, 
liOrd  of  Oflfaly,  later  first  Earl  of  Kildare.  Offelan  was  originally 
Maurice  FitzOerald's  grant.  So  says  Maurice  Regan,  Dermot 
Murrough's  Latemer: — 

'*  The  same  Richard  (Strongbow)  then  gav<) 
To  Maurice  FitzGerald 
Naas  gave  the  good  Earl 
To  FitzGerald  all  the  honour 
That  is  the  land  of  Offelan 
Which  belonged  to  McKelan  the  traitor." 

Holinshed,  or  rather  Stanihurst,  thus  describes  the  quarrel : — 

''De  Vesci  was  a  stem  man,  and  full  of  courage.  He  called  John  Earl 
of  Kildare  before  him,  charging  him  with  foul  riots  and  misdemeanours  ; 
for  that  he  ranged  abroad,  and  sought  revenge  u|>on  private  displeasure 
out  of  all  order,  and  not  for  any  advancement  of  the  public  wealth  or  ser- 
vice of  his  sovereign.  The  Earl,  impatient  to  have  himself  touched  by  the 
Justice  as  to  evil-doing,  answered  thus  :  '  By  your  honour  and  mine,  my 
lord,  and  by  King  Edward's  hand  [for  that  was  considered  no  small  oath 
in  those  days  among  the  Irish],  you  would,  if  you  durst,  impeach  me  in 
plain  terms  •  of  treason  felony,  for  where  I  have  the  titles  you  have  the 
deece  of  Kildare.     I  wot  well  how  great  an  eyesore  I  am  in  your  sight,  so 


296  KILDARE:    ITS  HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES. 

that  if  I  might  be  handsomely  trussed  up  for  a  felon,  then  might  my 
master ,  your  son,  become  a  gentleman . '  'A  gentleman, '  quoth  the  J  ustice, 
*thou  proud  Earl.  I  tell  thee  the  Vescies  were  gentlemen  before  Kildare 
was  an  earldom,  and  before  that  Welsh  bankrupt,  thy  cousin,  feathered  his 
nest  in  Leinster.  But  seeing  thou  darest  me,  I  will  surely  break  thy 
heart. '  And  therewith  he  called  the  Earl  a  notorious  thief  and  a  murderer. 
Then  followed  facing  and  bracing  among  the  soldiers,  and  high  words  and 
terrible  swearing  on  both  sides,  until  either  part  appeased  his  own.  The 
Lord  Justice  hotly,  after  leaving  his  deputy,  William  Howe,  took  the  sea 
and  hasted  over  to  the  King.  Kildare  immediately  followed,  and  as 
heinously  as  the  Lord  Justice  accused  him  of  injustice,  Kildare  no  less 
appealed  him  of  treason.  For  trial  thereof  the  Earl  asked  the  combat, 
and  Yescie  refused  not.  But  yet  when  the  lists  were  provided,  Yescie  was 
slipt  away  unto  France,  and  so  disherited  of  all  his  lands  in  the  County  of 
Kildare,  which  were  bestowed  upon  the  Earl  and  his  heirs  for  ever." 

Another  account  says: — 

^^In  open  court  FitzGerald  accused  De  Yesci  of  having  solicited  him  to 
enter  into  a  treasonable  conspiracy,  and  offered  to  maintain  the  charge  by 
wager  of  battle.  The  challenge  was  accepted  by  De  Yesci ;  but  Edward  I 
interposed,  and  summoned  both  parties  before  him  at  Westminster.  On 
the  appointed  day  De  Yesci  appeared  in  arms,  and  offered  to  engage 
FitzGerald ;  but  the  latter,  though  summoned,  did  not  appear.  The  con- 
troversy was  by  mutual  consent  submitted  to  the  King.  De  Yesci  trans- 
ferred his  lands  to  the  King,  by  whom  some  of  them  were  granted  to 
William  de  Wellesley  for  life,  and  subsequently  to  John  FitzThomas,  who 
obtained  the  title  of  Earl  of  Kildare." 

So  Grace's  Annals.  On  the  other  hand,  Dowling,  in  his 
Annah,  says: — 

*'  Meyler  FitzHenry  exchanged  Kildare  for  Leix  to  subdue  the  O'Mores, 
whom  Hervey  could  not  bring  to  any  manner  of  peace,  because  he  was  a 
brutal  and  bloodthiraty  man." 

In  1247  William  de  Yesci  surrendered  the  castle  and  manor 
and  County  of  Kildare  to  King  Edward,  and  the  King  directed 
his  Justiciary,  John  Wogan,  to  take  possession  of  them.  In  1816 
Edward  II,  by  letters  patent,  declared  that  he  had  granted  to 
John  FitzThomas  the  castle  and  town  of  Kildare,  with  its  appur- 
tenances, under  the  title  of  Earl  of  Kildare,  and  set  him  over  it 
as  Earl  thereof. 

I  have  seen  it  stated  that  Kildare  was  given  to  John  Fitz- 
Thomas for  his  services  to  the  English  Crown  during  Bruce's 
invasion  of  Ireland  (1814  to  1816).  Indeed,  historians  are  not 
at  all  agreed  as  to  how  OflFaly,  the  territory  of  the  O'Connors,  and 
later  of  the  De  Berminghams,  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
FitzGeralds.  Offaly,  so  called  from  Bossa  Failghe,  eldest  son  of 
Gathair  Mor,  supreme  King  of  Ireland  in  the  beginning  of  the 
second  century,  included  originally  the  present  baronies  of  East 


KILDARE:  ITS  HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES.  297 

and  West  Offaly  in  Go.  Eildare,  those  of  Portnahinch  and  Tinne- 
hinch  in  Qaeen's  Co.,  and  the  portion  of  the  King's  Go.  comprised 
in  the  diocese  of  Eildare  i^nd  Leighlin. 

Offelan  incladed  the  baronies  of  Glane,  Salt,  and  the  greater 
part  of  the  baronies  of  Ikeathy  and  Ochteranney.  The  tribe 
Offelan  took  later  the  name  of  O'Brain  (O'Byrne),  and  after  the 
conquest  were  driven  into  the  hills. 

The  Monastery  of  Eildare,  being  so  near  the  seaboard,  was 
one  of  the  first  places  attacked  by  the  Danes.  In  885  the 
Oratory  of  Eildare  was  plundered  by  the  foreigners  of  Inver  De 
(probably  Wicklow).  In  836  a  Danish  fleet  arrived  in  the 
Liffey ;  and  those  who  came  on  it  destroyed  Eildare  by  fire  and 
sword,  and  took  away  the  shrines  of  St.  Bridget  and 
St.Gonlaeth.  Again  in  848  it  was  plundered  by  the  foreigners,  and 
in  888,  887,  895,  915,  916,  924,  926,  927,  928,  940,  962,  977, 
981,  998.  Some  of  the  Irish  chiefs,  who  seem  to  have  learned  the 
lesson  from  the  Danes,  ravaged  it  too.  Then,  in  835,  Teedleneedh, 
Eing  of  Gashel,  seized  Forame,  Abbot  of  Armagh,  and  all  the 
congregation  of  Patrick  there.  In  927  it  was  plundered  by  the 
Danes  of  Dublin  under  Godfrey.  And  in  1155  the  Abbess 
of  Eildare  was  forcibly  taken  from  her  cloister  by  Dermot 
McMorrough,  and  compelled  to  marry  one  of  her  people,  at  whose 
taking  he  killed  170  of  the  townsmen  and  house. 

We  read  also  that  Eildare  was  burned  several  times.  The 
buildings  being  then  usually  of  wood,  fell  easily;  but  they 
were  at  least  as  readily  re-erected. 

Lists  of  the  Abbots  and  Abbesses  of  Eildare,  many  of  them 
honoured  publicly  as  saints,  will  be  found  in  Dr.  Gomerford's 
history  of  the  diocese. 

Th2  Gastle. 

It  may  have  been  built  by  William  de  Vesci.  It  was  handed 
over  to  John  FitzThomas,  with  the  lands  about  it,  by  John 
Wogan,  the  Justiciary,  in  1816.  In  1310  William  de  Wellesley 
was  Gonstable.  In  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century  it 
was  a  place  of  refuge  for  priests  fleeing  from  persecution.  They 
always  found  protection  there  from  the  Gountess  of  Eildare, 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Lord  Delvin,  wife  of  Gerald,  fourteenth 
Earl  of  Eildare.  In  the  war  of  1641  it  was  taken  by  the 
Gonfederates  and  Parliamentarians;  and  in  February,  1650, 
when  Golonel  Hewson  was  ordered  to  march  from  Dublin  and 
join  him  before  Eilkenny,  he  took  Eildare  on  his  way.  He 
writes  to  the  Speaker  of  the  Parliament  of  England  from  Bally- 
sonan,  8rd  of  March,  1650  :  "  After  I  had  surprised  the  strong 


298 


KILDARE:    ITS   HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES. 


fort  upon  the  Bog  of  Allen  and  taken  Castlemartin,  and  placing 
a  garrison  therein,  I  marched  with  a  party  of  1,000  horse 
and  foot  into  the  Island  of  Allen,  and  surrounded  Kilmaog 
therein ;  hut,  finding  it  not  feasible  to  storm  without  guns,  I 
marched  to  Bathbride  and  Ponser*s  Grange,  and  took  them,  and 
placed  two  strong  garrisons  there,  which  did  give  me  good 
footing  in  the  Co.  Kildare.  Then  sent  a  party  and  took  Kildare, 
Hertwell,  and  CoUingstown/* 

Then  he  goes  on  to  describe  the  siege  of  Ballysonan.  A  copy 
of  a  contemporaneous  print  will  be  found  in  the  first  volume 
of  the  Kilkenny  Archaeological  Society's  Journal.  Lord  Edward 
FitzGerald  and  his  wife  Pamela  lived  here  for  some  time. 


The  Carmblitb  Convent  at  Kildare  in  1790. 
Drawn  by  Austin  Cooper. 

The  Carmelite  Convent  was  founded  for  Carmelite  monks 
in  1260  by  William  de  Vesey. 

One  of  the  monks  of  this  convent  was  David  O'Bugey,  who, 
says  Ware,  "  became  eminent  for  an  uncommon  share  of 
learning,  first  at  Oxford,  and  afterwards  at  Treves,  in  Germany. 


KILDARE  :   ITS  HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES.        •  299 

He  was  Provincial  of  his  Order,  and  held  chapters  of  the  Order 
at  Ardee  and  Dublin.  He  was  a  philosopher,  rhetorician,  and 
divine,  and  the  most  learned  in  all  that  country  in  both  civil  and 
canon  law»  and  as  such  was  by  many  called  the  lamp,  the 
mirror,  and  the  ornament  of  all  the  Irish  nation.  So  Bale 
out  of  John  Bloxam's  'Epistles.'  And  Stanihurst,  in  bis 
'Description  of  Ireland,'  says  'that  the  nobility  and  states 
in  causes  of  weight  would  have  recourse  to  him  as  to  an  oracle ; 
that  he  was  in.  philosophy  an  Aristotle,  in  eloquence  a  TuUy, 
in  divinity  an  Augustin,  and  in  canon  law  a  Panormitan. 
He  wrote  (1)  '  Sermones  ad  Glerum,'  (2)  '  Epistolas  12 
ad  diversos,'  (8)  '  Propositiones  disputates/  (4)  '  Lectiones 
Trarrenses,'  (5)  *  Regulas  quasdam  Juris,'  (6)  *  Intra  Gerardum 
Bonomensem,'  and  (7)  '  Commentarios  in  Biblia  Sacra.'  He 
lived  in  1320,  and  afterwards  died  at  a  very  advanced  age  at 
Kildare,  in  the  monastery  of  his  Order,  and  was  buried  there." 

Ralph  Kelly  later.  Archbishop  of  Gashel  from  1845  to  1861, 
learned  in  Kildare  a  knowledge  of  the  Latin  tongue,  and  profited 
in  it  so  well  that  he  was  sent  to  Pope  Clement  YI  as  advocate 
of  his  whole  Order.  At  the  dissolution  of  the  monastery  the 
house  was  sold  for  £1,  It  included  then  a  church  and  belfry,  a 
dormitory,  hall,  and  two  chambers,  a  messuage,  a  garden,  and  a 
close  of  one  acre. 

There  are  certain  figures  here  which  are  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  the  Grey  Abbey,  to  preserve  them. 

1.  The  upper  portion  of  a  figure  under  a  Gothic  canopy,  with 
a  double  or  archiepiscopal  cross. 

2.  Figure  of  our  Lord  crowned  with  thorns,  with  words 
**  Ecce  Homo  ^'  at  the  side  of  the  head,  also  under  canopy. 

3.  The  Crucifixion,  On  one  side  the  B.V.  On  the  other 
St.  John.    Glories  at  their  heads. 

The  Franciscan  Convent,  called  at  times  the  Grey  Abbey, 
was  founded  in  1260  by  William  de  Vesci.  The  building  was 
completed  by  Gerald  Fitzmaurice,  first  Lord  Offaley. 

A  famous  monk  of  this  monastery  was  Brother  Michael, 
surnamed  of  Kildare,  who  lived  about  1808.  I  cannot  give  you 
any  details  about  him,  for  neither  Ware,  in  his  "  Writers,"  nor 
O'Reilly  makes  mention  of  him.  We  have  two  works  of  his 
extant,  a  satirical  poem  against  the  secular  clergy,  a  small  part 
of  which  is  given  in  facsimile  in  Mr.  Gilbert's  *'  Facsimiles  of 
Irish  National  MSS.^'     The  original  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

Another  work  of  his  is  ''  De  Factura  Novae  Yillae  de  Ross 
Ponte,''  or  the  Welding  of  New  Ross,  the  object  being  to  pre- 
serve the  town  and  its  contents  from  "  the  gi'eedy  snatching  of 
the  Irish    enemies."    Holinshed  tells  how  this  building  was 


300  KILDARE:    ITS  HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES. 

brought  about : — "  One  of  the  Irish  came  to  the  town,  and 
spying  a  piece  of  cloth  on  a  merchant's  stall,  he  and  the 
merchant  stood  dodging  one  with  the  other  in  cheapening  the 
ware ;  the  horseman  made  wise  as  though  he  would  have  drawn 
to  his  purse  to  defray  the  money.  The  cloth  in  the  meantime 
being  tucked  up  and  placed  before  him,  he  gave  spurs  to  his 
horse  and  ranne  away  with  it.  The  townsmen  being  pinched  at 
the  heart  that  the  rascal  should  in  such  scornful  wise  give  them 
the  stampaigne,  not  so  much  weighing  the  slendemess  of  the 
loss  as  the  shamefulness  of  the  foyle,  put  their  heads  together 
and  built  the  wall.'^ 


^-..--..v 


^/ y:K:  /,f..'  r/GrcyAbbey  , Kttfi^rv. 


Thb  Franciscan  Adbby  at  Kildarb  in  X784. 
Drawn  by  Austin  Cooper. 


It  has  been  translated  by  L.  £.  L.  (Letitia  Landon),  Mi*s. 
MacLean,  and  it  is  given  in  Grofton  Croker's  ^^  Songs  of 
Ireland":— 

**  I  have  a  whim  to  speak  in  verse, 
If  you  will  list  what  I  reheiirse  ; 
For  an  unheeded  talc,  I  wisse, 
Not  worth  a  clove  of  garlic  is. 


KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES.  30I 

Candlemas  it  was  the  day 

They  began  to  delve  in  clay, 

Marking  out  afore  to  shew 

Where  the  future  wall  should  go. 

Soon  was  traced,  and  there  were  hired 

Workmen  ;  all  the  task  desired. 

Yet  small  advance  these  fellows  made, 

Though  to  labour  they  were  paid. 

So  the  council  met  again. 

Such  a  law  as  they  })assed  then — 

Vintners,  drapers,  merchants  all 

Were  to  labour  at  the  wall 

From  the  early  morning  time 

Till  the  day  was  in  its  prime. 

More  than  a  thousand  men,  I  say, 

Went  to  the  goodly  work  each  day. 

Monday  they  began  their  labours, 

Gay  with  banners,  flutes,  and  tambours. 

The  youths  advanced  in  turn 

With  their  banners  proudly  borne  ; 

And  the  priests,  when  Mass  was  chaute<l, 

In  the  fo88  they  dug  and  panted. 

Tuesday  came — coatmakers,  tailors, 

Fullers,  cloth-dyers,  and  idlers, 

Wednesday  other  hands  down  came. 

Thursday  came  the  fishermen. 

And  the  hucksters  followed  them. 

But  on  Saturday  the  stir 

Of  blacksmith,  mason,  carpenter. 

Then  on  Sunday  there  came  down 

All  the  dames  of  that  brave  town. 

On  the  rami^rts  there  were  thrown 

By  their  fair  hands  many  a  stone ; 

Who  had  there  a  gazer  been 

Many  a  beiiuty  might  have  seen, 

Many  a  sau'let  mantle  too, 

Or  of  green  or  russet  hue. 

When  their  gentle  hands  had  done 

Piling  up  the  heaps  of  stone, 

Then  they  walked  the  foss  along. 

Then  they  said  a  gate  they'd  make 

Called  the  Ladies'  for  their  sake."  ' 

The  following  Earls  were,  I  find,  buried  in  the  Franciscan 
Convent  of  Eildare : — 

1.  Gerald,  third  Lord  Offtily,  who  died  at  Rathmore  in  1286. 

2.  John,  first  Earl  of  Kildare,  who  died  at  Laraghbryan  in 
1816. 

8.  Thomas,  the  second  Earl,  who  died  at  Maynooth  in  1328. 
4.  Richard,  the  third  Earl,  who  died  at  Ratbangan  in  1899. 


'  The  original,  in  Norman-French,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 


302  KILDARE:   ITS   HISTORY   AND  ANTIQUITIES. 

5.  Gerald,  the. fifth  Earl,  who  died  in  1410. 

6.  Gerald,  the  elevekith  Earl,  who  died  at  London  in  1688. 

7.  Henry,  the  twelfth  Earl,  who  died,  at  Drogheda  in  1597. 

8.  Gerald,  the  fourteenth  Earl,  who  died  in  1611. 

9.  Gerald,  the  fifteenth  Earl,  who  died  at  Maynooth  in  1C20. 
Henry,  the  last  of  the  Earls  of  Eildare,  who  was  buried  in 

the  Franciscan  Abbey. 

Here,  too,  was  buried  in  1859  the  Lady  Joan  de  Burgh, 
Countess  of  Kildare,  and  wife  of  Thomas  FitzJohn,  second 
Earl  of  Kildare,  and  mother  of  Richard,  the  third  Earl. 

In  1808  Lord  Peter  de  Benningham  was  buried  here.  One 
writer  says  he  was  a  victorious  leader  against  the  Irish,  and 
Holinshed  speaks  of  him  as  "  one  that  hath  been  no  small 
scourge  to  the  Irish." 

In  1810  a  Provincial  Chapter  of  the  Order  was  held  here. 
In  1885  Friar  Andrew  Leynagh,  guardian  of  this  house  of  Friars 
Minors  at  Eildare,  was  sent  as  the  King's  ambassador  to  the 
islands  of  Scotland  to  treat  with  John  Lord  of  the  Isles  about 
various  matters  concerning  his  estate. 

At  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries  this  house  was  given 
to  David  Sutton,  at  an  annual  rent  of  2s.  8d. 

A  plate  at  p.  88,  vol.  ii,  of  *'  Grose's  Antiquities "  gives  a 
north-east  view  of  the  Grey  Abbey  very  much  as  it  is  now ;  wnd 
the  following  epitaph  on  a  gravestone  in  the  churchyard  : — 

'*  Here  lies  Jean  Hay, 
Who,  night  and  day, 
Was  honest,  good,  and  just. 
Her  hope  and  love 
Was  tinn  above. 
In  which  place  was  her  trust. 
Her  spirit  left  her  terrene  part 
With  joy  to  God,  where  was  her  heai-t. 
On  the  4th  day  of  January,  1706-7." 

There  is  another  print  at  page  25  of  the  first  vol.  of  Grose, 
said  to  be  of  the  Grey  Abbey ;  but  in  reality  it  is  a  print  of  the 
cathedral,  the  view  being  taken  from  the  south  side. 


BiB^op  Wellebj^ey's  Effigy,  1639,  at  Great  Connell  Abbey, 


^ 


Thb  Ruins  of  Great  Conneli.  Ahuey  in  1781. 
Drawn  by  Austin  Cooper. 


GREAT  CONNELL  ABBEY,  CO.  KILDARE. 
By  lord  WALTER  FITZGERALD. 

THE  remains  of  this  Abbey  are  situated  1^  mile  to  the  north 
of  the  town  of  Newbridge.  According  to  Dr.  Joyce  the 
name  means  "  a  habitation/'  and  was  often  applied  to  an 
ecclesiastical  establishment.  The  present  name  is  an  anglicized 
form  of  the  Irish  word  "  Congalaith,"  or  "  Congbhail,"  which 
in  other  parts  of  Ireland  appears  now  as  Conwal. 

The  Conneli  district  is  now  split  np  into  several  townlands ; 
and  amongst  others  may  be  mentioned  Gonnellmore,  Great 
Conneli,  Little  Conneli,  and  Old  Conneli,  at  which  latter  place 
is  an  ancient  churchyard,  lying  close  to  a  finely  preserved  moat, 
or  pagan  tumulus. 

After  the  suppression  of  the  O'Byme  Sept,  in  whose  territory 
Conneli  lay,  the  first  Norman  proprietor  of  the  place  was 
Meiler  FitzHenry,  who  was  so  named  from  his  father  having 
been  the  illegitimate  son   of  King  Henry  I  of  England ;   he 


GREAT   CON  NELL  ABBEY,  CO.   KILDARE.  305 

was  short  in  stature,  of  dark  complexion,  with  black  eyes,  and 
remarkable  for  his  impetuous  but  unreasoning  military  ardour/ 
Hugh  De  Lacy,  the  King's  Viceroy  in  Ireland,  had  given  him 
Ardnurcher,  in  Meath,  and  from  Strongbow  he  received  Kildare, 
with  adjacent  lands,  which  he  subsequently  exchanged  for  Leix 
(a  territory  now  comprising  most  of  the  Queen's  County), 
where  a  castle  was  erected  for  him  at  Timahoe  by  Hugh  De 
Lacy,  his  wife's  unde.^  Through  his  grandmother,  Nesta^ 
daughter  of  Rhys  ap  Gruffydh  ap  Tudor  Mawr,  Prince  of 
Southern  Wales,  mistress  of  Henry  I,  and  afterwards  wife  of 
Gerald  Fitz Walter,  Constable  of  Pembroke  Castle,  whose  son 
was  Maurice  FitzGerald  (to  whom  Maynooth  was  granted  by 
Strongbow),  Meiler  FitzHenry  and  the  latter  were  closely 
related.  After  having  been  Viceroy  of  Ireland  twice  (from  1199 
to  1203,  and  from  1204  to  1208),  Meyler  died  in  the  year  1220, 
and  his  body  was  buried  in  the  Chapter  House  of  Council,  a 
Monastery  which  he  had  founded  in  the  year  1202,  under  the 
invocation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  and  St.  David,  and  which  he 
had  filled  with  Regular  Canons  from  the  Monastery  of  Llanthony, 
in  Monmouthshire.  According  to  the  Historian,  Dr.  Hanmer, 
who  compiled  his  "  Chronicles  of  Ireland"  in  the  year  1571,  the 
following  inscription  was  cut  on  his  tomb : — 


''  Conduntur  tumulo  Meylcri  nobilis  ossa, 
Indomitus  domitor  totius  gentis  Hibemiae." 


That  is— 


'*  Entombed  are  the  bones  of  him  they  noble  Meyler  call, 
Who  was  the  tameless  tamer  of  the  Irish  nation  all.'' 

A  year  after  the  foundation  of  Great  Connell  Abbey,  "  The 
Annals  of  the  Four  Masters"  state  that  (in  1203)  ''Faelan  mac 
Faelan/  Lord  of  Hy  Faelain,  died  in  the  Monastery  of  Conga- 
lath."  In  a  note  to  this  entry,  Dr.  O'Donovan  remarks  that  it 
is  strange  that  the  chief  of  the  O'Byrnes  should  die  in  this 
Monastery  a  year  after  its  erection,  and  concludes  that,  after  the 
subjugation  of  his  Sept,  he  consented  to  become  a  Monk  in  the 
great  Abbey  erected  in  his  territory  by  the  Norman  Knight. 

In  1220  William  Mareschal  gi*anted  a  charter  to  this  Priory, 
and  died  the  same  year. 

In  1252  Thomas,  Prior  of  Conall,  ^as  chosen  by  the 
Chapter,  on  the  22nd  of  April,  Bishop  of  Leighlin.  He  died  on 
the  25th  of  April,   1275.    At  the  present  time  there  is  lying 


*  Vide  Giraldus  Cambrensis.        '  Gilbert's  '*  Irish  Viceroys,"  p.  58. 
*For  an  account  of  the  Offelan  district,  see  vol.  i,  p.  164,  of  the 
Journal, 


Portion  of  a  Bishop's  Effigy,  in  the  Relioben  Churchyard, 
?«EAR  Great  Connell  Abbey. 


GREAT  CONNELL  ABBEV,  CO.   KILDARE.  307 

near  the  mearing  ditch  on  the  west  side  of  ''  the  Beliceen  " 
churchyard  (which  is  opposite  to  the  entrance  gate  of  (^onnell- 
more  House,  and  a  few  perches  to  the  east  of  Great  Connell 
Abbey)  the  Effigy  of  a  Bishop.  It  is  not  improbable  that  this 
may  be  the  Thomas  in  question.  The  Effigy  occupies  the  full 
breadth  of  the  stone,  leaving  no  space  for  an  inscription ;  the 
lower  end  is  broken  off  and  lost,  and  the  remaining  portion  is 
broken  in  two  across  the  neck.  The  head  reclines  under  a 
canopy  ornamented  on  the  right  front  side  with  oak  leaves  and 
acorns,  and  on  the  other  with  trefoils ;  on  either  side  of  the 
head  is  an  angel  bearing  in  both  hands  an  incense-burner  (like 
the  Bishop's  Effigy  in  Kildare  Cathedral) ;  the  sides  of  the 
canopy  are  ornamented  with  a  large,  handsome  foliage  design. 
The  left  hand  holds  a  fleur-de-lys-headed  crozier,  and  the  right 
rests  on  the  chest  in  the  benediction-giving  posture.  The 
temporary  platform  on  which  the  Effigy  rests  is  partly  built  up 


h.J-^^ 


with  a  slab,  bearing  an  eight-armed  floreated  cross  cut  in  low 
relief.  This,  the  Bishop's  Effigy,  and  two  portions  of  an  altar 
tomb  (apparently  belonging  to  the  Wellesley  Monument  at  Great 
Connell  Abbey),  were  probably  brought  here  from  the  Abbey. 

In  1880  this  Priory  was  included  in  the  number  of  Religious 
Houses  into  which,  by  the  Act  of  Richard  II,  it  was  forbidden 
to  admit  any  native  Irishmen  to  profession.  In  1324,  Dean 
Butler  writes,  Edward  II  complained  to  the  Pope  that  the 
Irish  refused  to  admit  Englishmen  into  their  Monasteries; 
and  in  1837  Edward  III  says  that  his  father  had  ordered  that 
no  Irishmen  should  be  admitted  into  any  English  Monastery, 
but  had  afterwards  revoked  the  order,  and  he  now  orders  that 
all  loyal  Irish  be  admitted  in  the  same  way  as  Englishmen. 
In  the  famous  Parliament  of  Kilkenny  in  1366,  the  exclusion 
of  Irishmen  from  English  Monasteries  was  again  enacted ;  and 
in  1880  a  writ  was  sent,  among  others,  to  the  Abbots  of  Bal- 
tinglass  and  Dowysk  (now  Graigue-na-managh)  and  the  Priors 
of  Conall  that  the  above  order  was  to  be  strictly  adhered  to.^ 


*  V'xdt  thu  Most  Rov.  Dr.  Coiuerford's  **  Dioceses  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin." 


308  GREAT  CONNELL  ABBEY,  CO.   KILDARE. 

In  1895  a  Patent  Boll,  dated  the  26th  of  May,  mentions 
Bobert  Greves  as  Prior  of  the  Abbey  "  Beatas  Mariae  de  Gonale." 

In  1406  the  Prior  of  Connell  is  recorded  in  "  Marlborough's 
Chronicles '  as  having  "  fought  valiantly  and  vanquished  200  of 
the  Irish  that  were  well  armed,  slaying  some  of  them  and 
chasing  others;  and  the  Pryor  had  not  with  him  but  twenty 
Englishmen."     This  occurred  on  the  Gurragh. 

In  1412  Philip  Stoyll  was  elected  Prior,  and  continued  so 
till  1418.     (King  and  Ware.) 

"  The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,"  under  the  year  1447, 
record  that — 

"  In  the  summer  and  autumn  of  this  year  there  raged  a  great  Plague, 
of  which  the  Prior  of  Bally boggan  (Co.  Meath),  the  Prior  of  Connala  (i.e. 
Great  Connell),  and  a  great  number  of  others  in  M eath,  Leinster,  and 
Munster,  died." 

This  Plague,  according  to  Duald  Mac  Firbis,  followed  a 
terrible  famine  which  took  place  in  the  previous  spring. 

In  1458  an  enrolment  of  the  thirty-sixth  year  of  Henry  VI*s 
reign  describes  this  Priory  as  entirely  wasted  by  the  Irish  enemy, 
and  grants  to  the  Prior  the  rectory  and  towns  of  Morristown  and 
Ladytown. 

In  1476  this  Priory  was  in  a  decree  styled  "  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal keys  of  the  County  of  Kildare ;  *'  and  it  sets  forth  that 
several  grants  of  the  late  Abbot  to  various  of  the  Irishry  had 
impoverished  the  Priory.  "  These,'*  it  goes  on  to  say,  "con- 
sidering the  good,  true  heart  of  Esmond,  the  new  Prior,"  are 
accordingly  made  void,  with  the  proviso  that  that  act  was  not  to 
prejudice  any  man  of  the  English  nation. 

In  1486  a  Nicholas  was  Prior  ;  he  was  amongst  those  who 
took  part  with  Lambert  Simnel,  the  false  claimant  to  the  throne. 
Two  years  later  he  received  the  royal  pardon. 

In  1519  Walter  Wellesley  was  Prior,  and  at  this  time  the 
King  endeavoured  unsuccessfully  to  have  him  promoted  to  the 
See  of  Limerick  ;  in  the  following  year  the  Earl  of  Surrey 
recommended  him  for  the  See  of  Cork  ;  but  the  appointment  did 
not  take  place.  In  1529  he  was  promoted  to  the  Bishopric  of 
Kildare,  still  retaining  by  dispensation  his  Priory,  which  he  con- 
tinued to  hold  up  to  the  period  of  his  death.  He  was  for  some 
time  Master  of  the  Rolls.  The  Act  of  Parliament  in  1537, 
which  confiscated  the  Abbeys  of  the  Pale,  did  not  touch  Con- 
nell ;  Bishop  Wellesley,  still  Prior,  by  his  influence  warded  off 
the  blow.  Later  on  he  wrote  from  Conall  to  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  on  the  15th  May,  1589,  by  the  bearer,  Canon  Nimeas  of 
Conall,  begging  for  the  protection  of  his  monastery,  which  he 
now  hears  is  to  be  suppressed  after  all.     He  goes  on  to  say  that 


GREAT  CONNELL   ABBEY,  CO.   KILDARE.  309 

^'  the  liberty  which  you  obtained  from  the  King  for  the  Honse  of 
Conally  when  I  was  last  with  you  in  England,  almost  caused  my 
death,  for  when  the  Earl/  being  at  Gonall,  in  the  hall  at  table 
at  which  no  fewer  than  800  persons  were  seated,  heard  of  that 
liberty,  he  went  into  a  great  rage,  and  drew  out  a  long  Irish 
knife,  so  that  I  could  with  difficulty  escape  from  him,  and  as 
long  as  he  lived  I  durst  not  speak  of  it."  ^  Again,  nine  days 
later,  the  Bishop  wrote  to  Thomas  Cromwell,  the  Lord  Privy 
Seal,  when  he  says :  ''  You  will  receive  by  the  bearer,  one  of 
the  brethren  of  the  Monastery  of  our  Lady  at  Gonnall  (which 
Monastery  the  King  made  in  commendam  to  my  Bishopric  of 
Kildare)  an  hobby'  of  this  land's  breeding."  He  goes  on  to 
beg  him  to  use  his  influence  for  the  protection  of  his  posses- 
sions here,  ''  which  wholly  lie  in  the  wild  Irish  amongst  the 
King's  rank  rebellers  ;  and  rather  for  that  the  said  Monastery 
is  of  foundation  of  the  noble  Meyler  FitzHenry,  son  of  King 
Henry  II,  so  that  no  brother  is  elected  unless  he  be  of  a  very 
English  nation,  in  consideration  whereof  the  wild  Irish  rebellers 
do  daily  do  their  utmost  to  impoverish  the  said  Monastery.''  ^ 

On  the  receipt  of  the  order  for  suppressing  all  the  Monas- 
teries and  Abbeys  in  Ireland,  the  Lord  Deputy  (Lord  Leonard 
Gray)  and  the  Council  petitioned  the  King  from  Dublin  on 
the  21st  of  May,  1539,  that— 

*'  Six  houses  should  stand  and  continue,  changing  their  clothing  and 
rule  into  suche  sorte  and  ordre,  as  the  King's  grace  shall  will  them  : 
which  six  houses  are  named — Saint  Marie  Abbey,  adjoyning  to  Dublin,  a 
house  of  White  Monks  ;  Christes  Churche,  a  house  of  Chanons  situate  in 
the  middis  of  the  Citie  of  Dublin ;  The  Nunrie  of  Grace  Dieu,  in  the 
Countie  of  Dublin  ;  Conrudl,  in  the  Countie  of  Kildare  ;  and  Kenlys 
(Kells)  and  Grerepont  in  the  Countie  of  Kilkenny.  For  in  those  houses 
commenly,  and  other  such  like,  in  defaute  of  comen  innes,  which  are  not 
in  this  land,  the  Kinge's  Deputie,  and  all  other  his  Grace's  Counsaell  and 
Officers,  also  Irishmen,  and  others  resorting  to  the  Kinge's  Deputie  in 
ther  quarters,  is  and  hath  bene  most  comenlie  loged  at  the  costes  of  the 
said  houses.  Also  in  them  yonge  men  and  childer,  both  gentlemen 
childer  and  others,  both  man  kynd  and  women  kynd,  be  brought  up  in 
vertue,  lernyng,  and  in  the  English  tongue  and  behavior,  to  the  grete 
charges  of  the  said  houses  ;  that  is  to  say,  the  women  k^Tid  of  the  hole 
Englishrie  of  this  land,  for  the  more  part,  in  the  said  Nunrie  and  tlie 
nmn  kynd  in  the  other  said  houses.  Also  at  every  hosting,  rode,  and 
jomey,  the  said  houses  on  ther  propre  costes  fyndethe  as  many  men  of 
warr,  as  they  are  apoynted  by  the  Kinge's  Deputie  and  Counsaill  for  the 
same.  And  if  they  were  suppressed  the  profite  of  them  should  scarslie 
fynd  so  many  men  of  waiT,  according  to  the  rate  of  the  Kinge's  wages,  as 
they  now  standing  do  fynde  and  hathe  found  ;   over  and  besides  the 


*  Not  named.  *  Brewer's  **  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ire." 

^  I.e.,  horse.  *  Brewer's  **  Calendfir  of  St*ite  Papers,  Ire." 


310  (IREAT   CONNELL  ABHEY,  CO.   KILDARE. 

yerelie  payment  both  of  subsidie,  also  the  twentieth  parte  of  ther  smale 
revenue,  withe  also  ther  first  frutes  at  every  change  of  hede  rulers."  * 

In  spite  of  this  recommendation,  this  Monastery  was  sap- 
pressed  two  years  afterwards. 

Bishop  Wellesley's  death  took  place  in  the  year  1539,  and 
he  was  buried  in  his  Monastery  of  Connell.  His  monument 
took  the  form  of  an  altar  tomb,  the  sides  of  which  are  now  badly 
shattered,  and  many  pieces  are  missing.  On  the  covering  slab 
of  the  tomb  lies  the  EfiSgy  of  the  Bishop,  well  and  boldly  cat. 
A  Latin  inscription,  incised  and  in  the  black  letter,  runs  down 
the  two  longer  sides ;  it  commences  near  the  left  side  of  the 
bishop's  head,  and  is  continued  from  the  top  of  the  opposite 
side  downwards  ;  the  date  was  never  finished  :    the  sculptor  had 


completed  the  M  and  one  C ;  then  follow  the  outlines  of  two 
other  Cs ;  and  so  it  remains.  The  head  of  the  Effigy  rests  under 
a  canopy,  which  is  supported  on  either  side  by  an  angel,  each 
holding  a  shield  bearing  the  Bishop's  coat  of  arms,  viz. — "Argent, 
on  a  cross  sable,  five  escallops  of  the  first."  The  feet  rest  on*  a 
bracket,  ornamented  with  a  foliage  design,  and  near  the  left  foot 
are  two  paws  of  some  animal  that  is  now  chipped  ofi*. 

The  inscription  (which  has  the  usual  contractions,  and  is  in 
one  or  two  places  deficient  of  letters,  owing  to  breaks  in  the 
stone),  when  perfect,  ran  as  follows : — 

**  Hie  jacet  frater  Walterus  Wellysley  quondam  episcopus  Darensis  ac 
hujus  douius  Coineiulatiirius,  cnjus  animie  propitietur  Deus,  Qui  obiit 
Anno  Domini  MCCC  (ccxxxix)." 

That  is— 

**  Here  lies  Friar  Walter  Wellysley,  formerly  Bishop  of  Kildare  and 
Commendatory  Prior  of  this  House,  on  whose  soul  may  GikI  have  mercy, 
who  died  in  the  year  of  the  I^ord  1539." 


»  "  State  Papers  of  Henry  VIII,  Ire.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  130. 


GREAT   CONNELL  ABBEY,   CO.   KILDARE.  3II 

The  length  of  the  slab  is  6  feet  3  inches,  and  the  breadth 
8  feet  2  inches ;  the  material  is  limestone.  Its  present  position 
is  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the  entrance  gate  to  the  burial- 
ground  ;  other  portions  of  the  tomb  are  also  built  over  and  on 
the  other  side  of  the  gateway.  The  panel  over  the  gate 
represents  the  Crucifixion,  with  the  Virgin  Mary  on  our  Lord's 
right,  and  St.  John  on  the  left.  Another  large  panel  contains 
the  ''  £cce  Homo ; "  our  Lord,  clothed  in  the  purple  robe  and 
crown  of  thorns,  is  shown  seated,  bound  hand  and  foot,  with  a 
hammer,  pincers,  and  rope  near  him.  Below  the  ''  Ecce  Homo  " 
a  double  panel  is  built  into  the  wall,  measuring  27^  inches  in 
height ;  it  contains  two  niches  of  different  shapes,  both  elabo- 
rately ornamented  with  birds  and  floral  devices.  In  one  niche 
is  a  Bishop,  and  at  his  feet  a  toad  and  a  snake,  representing 
St.  Patrick ;  in  the  other  is  a  saint,  holding  in  both  hands  a 
chalice,  representing  St.  John. 

Small  portions  of  other  panels  are  built  here  and  there  into 
the  gateway  on  the  inside  and  outside,  and  another  piece  is 
serving  as  a  headstone  to  a  modern  grave  half-way  down  the 
burial-ground ;  while  in  the  neighbouring  burial-ground,  called 
"  the  Reliceen,"^  built  into  a  low  wall,  are  two  portions  of  panels, 
probably  belonging  to  this  tomb,  as  one  bears  a  shield  with  the 
Bishop's  arms  (described  above),  and  the  other  represents  a 
saint  with  a  battle-axe  in  his  right  hand,  and  a  long  carpenter's 
saw  in  his  left,  the  usual  emblems  of  the  brothers  St.  Simon  and 
St.  Jude. 

In  the  possession  of  Dr.  J.  M.  Neale,  of  Newington  House, 
near  Feighcullen,  five  miles  off  as  the  crow  flies,  is  a  panel 
belonging  to  the  Wellesley  monument,  which  was  several  years 
ago  carried  off,  and  is  now  used  as  an  ornament  in  the  garden. 
In  this  case  the  panel  contains  a  saint  representing  St.  James 
the  Less,  as  the  figure  holds  a  long  club. 
'  It  is  more  than  likely  that  other  portions  of  this  tomb  are 
scattered  about  the  neighbourhood. 

On  the  28rd  of  April,  1541,  Robert  Wesley,  the  last  Prior 
of  Connell,  surrendered  his  Monastery  to  the  Crown. "^  This 
he  did  "  voluntarily  and  with  the  consent  of  the  commu- 
nity,*' as  the  phrase  ran ;  because  when  the  surrender  was 
voluntary,  the  Prior  and  the  Friars  could  come  to  terms,  and 
get  pensions;  if  they  resisted,  they  were  forcibly  evicted; 
consequently  almost  all  the  surrenders  of  the  Monasteries  in 
Ireland  were,  so  called,  voluntary.  Robert  Wesley's  yearly 
pension  was  £18  6s.  8d. 

*  A  Belick  means  a  burial-ground,  and  **  reliceen,"  or  **  religeen,"  is 
a  diminutive  of  it. 

'  Morrin's  **  CalencUr  of  Patent  and  Close  Rolls,  Ireland." 


312  GREAT  CON  NELL  ABBEV,  CO.   KlLDARE. 

The  Priory  and  its  possessions  were  now  leased  to  Gerald 
Satton,  who  is  styled  of  Castleton  of  Kildronght,  now  Castle- 
town beside  Celbridge.  On  Angast  the  16th,  1541,  his  name 
appears  as  one  of  the  arbitrators  in  a  quarrel  between  Brian 
O'Connor  of  Offaly,  chief  of  his  nation,  and  his  brother  Cahir. 
The  arbitrators'  names  in  this  case  are  given  as — Sir  William 
Birmingham,  Baron  of  Carbury,  David  Sutton  of  Connall, 
Co.  Eildare,  Gent.,  James  FitzGerald  of  Osberstown  in  the  same 
County,  Gent.,  and  Richard  McKenegan.^ 

In  1551  a  lease  in  reversion  for  twenty-one  years  was  made 
to  Edward  Bandolfe^  of  the  demesne  and  possessions  of  the 
Abbey  of  Connall,  then  in  the  possession  of  Gerald  Sutton.^  Ten 
years  later  the  Queen  wrote  to  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  Ireland 
ordering  a  new  grant  of  a  lease  in  reversion  for  twenty-one 
years  to  be  made  out  for  Edward  Bandolfe,'  who  appears  to 
have  been  a  colonel  in  the  English  army  in  Ireland  at  this 
time. 

About  the  year  1567  Sir  Edmond  Butler,  Knt.,  of  Clo- 
grennan,  obtained  a  lease  for  six  years,  to  commence  on  the 
expiration  of  Edward  Bandolfe's  lease,  of  this  Abbey  and  its 
possessions.  He  afterwards  conveyed  the  same  to  Sir  Nicholas 
White  of  Leixlip,  Master  of  the  Bolls,  who  surrendered  them 
to  the  Crown,  and  was,  in  1579,  regranted  them  during  his 
interest  therein.  Ten  years  later  the  Privy  Council  recom- 
mended to  the  Queen  that  Sir  Nicholas  should  be  granted  the 
fee-farm  of  the  Priory  of  Connall,  with  other  lands  in  the  county, 
as  he  had  civilized  the  country  thereabouts  by  his  residence  ; 
and,  they  said,  it  was  he  who  had  caused  Teige  mac  Gillapatrick 
O'Connor  and  Connor  mac  Cormac  O'Connor  to  do  battle  in  the 
inner  court  of  Dublin  Castle  on  the  12th  of  September,  1583, 
whereby  the  former  was  slain.^  This  was  in  consequence  of 
each  accusing  the  other  of  treason.  The  historian  Hooker 
remarks  ''that  the  combat  was  fought  with  such  valour  and 
resolution  on  both  sides  (with  sword  and  target)  that  the 
spectators  wished  that  it  had  fallen  on  the  whole  Sept  of  the 
O'Connors  than  on  those  two  gentlemen."* 

According  to  an  Inquisition  taken  at  Kilmainham  on  the 
20th  December,  1606,  the  possessions  of  this  Abbey  in  the  Co. 
Kildare  were  the  townlands  of  Connall,  Ballymone,  Clonyngs, 
Lowiston,  Old  Connall,  Walsheston,  Oldtown,  Eildare,  Bosberie, 
Skavelston,  Moreton,  Bichardston,  Ballisax,  KilcuUen,  Grange- 


*  Brewer's  **  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Ireland." 

*  Morrin's  '*  Calendars."        *  Hamilton's  "  Calendar." 

*  Hamilton's  '*  Calendar." 

*  Vide  O'Connor-Morris's  "Dublin  Castle,"  p.  18. 


GREAT  CON  NELL  ABBEV,  CO.   KILDAKE.  313 

clare,  Roberteston,  Ardkill,  and  Collenston ;  the  churches, 
rectories^  chapels,  and  tithes  of  Roseberie,  Skavelston,  and 
Moreton,  Ricbardston,  Cornelscourt,  Ratheines,  Kilmaege,  Con- 
nail,  Ladiston,  Lowthston,  Harberston,  Dowdingston,  Bowdens- 
ton,  Carnalway,  Eildingan,  Lackagh,  Bala^  Dubeston  in  the 
parish  of  Kilhelam,  Fecullen,  Old  Connall,  Barreston,  Morreston, 
Biller,  Kilrine,  and  Carbry,  all  in  the  County  Kildare ;  besides 
large  possessions  in  the  Qaeen's  County. 

On  the  14th  of  May,  1781,  Austin  Cooper,  the  antiquary, 
visited  these  ruins,  and  drew  a  sketch  of  the  then  existing 
remains ;    he  describes  their  condition  in  these  words : — 

"The  Abbey  of  Great  Conncll  is  so  decayed  that  scarcely  any  descrip- 
tive account  can  be  given  of  its  remaining  ruins.  One  part,  which  I 
Huppose  to  be  both  nave  and  choir,  but  between  which  no  distinct  seiwira- 
tion  can  be  made,  measures  about  200  feet  long  and  25  feet  broad,  in  part 
whereof  are  two  entire  Gothic  windows,  the  only  ones  which  have  resisted 
the  ravages  of  time,  &c, 

"  There  are  very  extensive  ruins  adjoining,  in  which  are  some  pillars, 
&<:.,  with  curious  capitals.  In  the  choir  are  the  remains  of  some  stalls, 
»nd  buried  among  the  ruins  is  the  tomb  of  a  bishop  (I  suppose  Wellesley) 
in  relievo,  in  his  robes,  with  a  canopy  over  his  head  ;  it  is  broke  across 
the  neck,  and  the  lower  part  is  scarcely  to  be  seen. 

"There's  likewise  here  a  large  house  with  a  mill,  &c.,  in  a  decayed 
state  ;  a  parish  church,'  lately  built  and  not  finished  ;  and  on  an  adjoin- 
ing hill,  a  small  H(iuare  house,  with  pediment  fronts,  seemingly  a  turret 
belonging  to  the  Abbey. 

"On  the  opix)site  side  of  the  high  road  is  Old  Connell,  remarkable 
only  for  a  large  circular  mount,  encom|jassed  with  a  ditch." 

The  late  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Comerford,  in  his ''  Dioceses  of  Eildare 
and  Leighlin  "  (from  which  I  have  made  several  extracts  in  this 
Paper),  at  the  end  of  his  account  of  Great  Connell,  mentions 
that  nearly  all  the  remains  described  by  Austin  Cooper  were 
thrown  down  at  the  beginning  of  the  century,  and  the  materials 
used  in  the  erection  of  the  military  barracks  at  Newbridge,  and 
at  the  same  time  the  Castle  of  the  Sarsfields  at  Rosbery,  in  this 
parish,  was  also  demolished. 

Some  distance  away  to  the  south-east  of  the  ruins  is  a  Holy 
Well  dedicated  to  St.  Augustine,  which  name  it  probably  derives 
from  the  great  doctor  and  Bishop  of  Hippo,  to  whom  the  fathers 
who  occupied  this  monastery  trace  their  origin.  In  former  times 
this  well  was  resorted  to  for  cures — a  practice  to  a  certain 
extent  still  existing.  I  have  been  told  that  some  forty  or  fifty 
years  ago  the  proprietor  of  Connellmore,  to  prevent  the  people 
from  using  this  well,  built  a  wall  round  it ;  thereupon,  right 
beside  the  kitchen  fire  in  his  house,  a  flow  of  water  sprang  up^ 

'  At  the  Reliceen. 


314 


GREAT  CONNELL  ABBEY,  CO.   KILDARE. 


causing  great  inconveniencey  and  this  lasted  until  the  Holy  Well 
was  again  made  free  to  the  public. 

The  barracks  of  Newbridge,  I  have  since  heard,  were  not  the 
only  buildings  erected  out  of  the  material  taken  from  the  ruins 
of  the  Abbey,  as  some  thirty  years  ago  a  Colonel  Grey,  then 
tenant  of  the  place,  rebuilt  the  old  residence  of  the  Powells,  and 
largely  used  stones  drawn  from  the  Abbey  buildings,  which  were 
thrown  down  for  the  purpose.  In  consequence,  it  is  said,  no 
tenant  of  Connellmore  remains  for  any  length  of  time  there. 


Hisnor  Wlllesley's  Coat  ok  Arms 
On  a  stone  in  the  Rclicccn  churchyard. 


315     ) 


ANCIENT  N A  AS:  OUTPOSTS  AND  LONGSTONES. 
By  T.  J.  DE  BURGH,  D.L. 


Introduction. 

IN  my  former  articles  on  Ancient  Naas  I  have  refeiTed  to  the 
castles,  raths,  walls^  &c.,  which  formed  the  actual  defences 
of  the  town.  Many  of  these  have  entirely  disappeared,  and  of 
the  rest  bat  little  remains  to  remind  us  that  Naas  in  olden 
times  was  one  of  the  most  formidable  strongholds  of  Leinster, 
and  the  scene  of  numerous  sieges,  battles,  cruel  outrages,  and 
sanguinary  reprisals.  During  the  sixteenth  century  it  was  the 
main  defence  of  the  south-western  frontier  of  the  Pale,  which 
extended  from  old  Kilcullen  on  the  west,  by  Rathmore,  Rath- 
coole,  and  Tallaght,  to  the  sea  at  Dalkey. 

Lines  of  Outposts. 

But  we  may  probably  go  back  to  a  much  earlier  period  if  we 
wish  to  trace  the  origin  of  the  line  of  castles  and  raths  which, 
commanding  practically  every  southern  slope  from  Old  Kilcullen 
to  Fumess  Hill,  form  a  continuous  line  of  military  outposts, 
erected  apparently  to  guard  the  fortified  towns,  such  as  Bally- 
sonnau  and  Naas,  from  sudden  inroads  of  an  enemy  advancing 
from  the  southward.  Between  Ballyshannon  and  Killashee 
there  were  to  be  seen,  100  years  ago,  and  probably  are  now, 
remains  of  at  least  four  castles  and  fourteen  raths,  besides  the 
small  artificial  mounds  which  may  have  been  used  for  outlying 
pickets,  and  the  positions  where  the  formation  of  the  ground 
made  an  artificial  structure  unnecessary.  From  Rathaskcr  to 
Furness  Hill  we  can  see  to  this  day  the  remains  of  at  least  six 
castles  (Rathasker,  Killashee,  MuUacash,  Black  Hall,  Athgarrett, 
and  Haynestown),  and  at  least  ten  raths  (two  near  the  Watch 
House  cross-roads,  two  at  Punchestown,  one  each  at  Blackball, 
Tipper,  Athgarrett,  Wolfestown,  Rathmore,  and  Furness). 

Thus  we  have,  on  a  line  some  nine  miles  in  length,  at  least 
thiity-four  fairly  defensible  positions,  and  probably  a  careful 
search  would  reveal  many  more. 


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ANCIENT   NAAS:  OUTPOSTS  AND   LONGSTONES.       317 


Desceiption  of  Castles. 

Little  remains  of  any  of  the  above-mentioned  castles ;  but  that 
little  shows  that  they  were  solidly  built  of  stone  and  mortar, 
with  walls  8  to  4  feet  thick,  and  well  provided  with  loopholes. 
Blackball  Castle,  which  was  formerly  inhabited,  I  hear,  by  a 
family  named  Behan,  has  its  west  end  still  standing  some  80  feet 
high,  and  some  care  has  evidently  been  taken  to  preserve  what 
remains  of  it ;  but  most  of  the  ancient  fortresses  appear  to  have 
been  demolished,  and  their  material  used  for  building  farm- 
houses. 

Close  to  the  eastern  Punchestown  rath  are  to  be  seen  the 
ruins  of  what  is  now  called  Punchestown  House  or  Castle, 
formerly  the  property  of  a  Lord  Alen,  probably  the  then  repre- 
sentative of  the  family  of  Alens,  who  in  1685  received  from 
James  II  a  grant  of  the  manor  of  Typer,  or  Allenswood,  which 
included  Haynestown,  Pouthestown  (Punchestown),  Rathmore, 
Craddockstown,  &c.  Most  of  these  lands  had  been  previously 
(in  1540),  by  Patent  Roll,  conveyed  from  Sir  Thomas  Rawson, 
Knight,  Prior  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  to  the 
Alens,  '*  because,''  as  was  stated,  **  the  said  preceptory  was 
situated  in  the  marshes  near  the  Irish  enemies,  the  Tholes^ 
where  resistance  and  defence  are  necessarily  required." 

A  Rawson  appears  to  have  lived  there  as  late  as  1798,  accord- 
ing to  local  tradition ;  for  I  am  informed  that  at  that  time  one 
Rawson  was  shot  at,  but  not  killed,  at  the  spot  where  the  gate 
leading  on  to  the  race-course  now  stands. 

The  sites  of  the  old  fishponds  are  still  visible,  and  seem  to 
indicate  that  it  was  at  one  time  in  the  possession  of  some 
religious  order. 

Raths. 

The  raths  are  all  much  the  same  form — circular  earthen 
forts,  varying  from  30  to  350  yards  interior  diameter,  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  ground,  and  surrounded  by  one  or  two  lines 
of  ramparts  separated  by  deep  ditches.  The  object  of  such  a 
formation  as  the  latter  seems  to  have  been  to  enable  the  defenders 
of  the  outer  rampart,  when  driven  in  by  assault,  to  retire  along 
the  ditch  and  enter  the  enceinte  by  the  rear. 

It  may  be  well  here  to  note  the  difiTerence  between  a  rath  and 
a  moat — terms  often  confused.  A  rath  was  a  fortification,  and 
had  always  a  rampart;  while  a  moat  was  a  burial-place,  and  was 
flat  at  the  top. 

The  rath  at  Furness  is  the  only  one  I  know  of  in  this 
neighbourhood  of  which  the   inside  of  the  rampart  is  revetted 


3l8       ANCIENT  NAAS:  OUTPOSTS  AND  LONGSTONES. 

with  stonework.  Some  few  raths  are  square,  like  the  one  at 
Tipper. 

The  shape  of  the  raths,  and  the  fact  that  few  of  them  have 
any  apparent  entrance-way,  would  suggest  that  these  structures 
were  not  merely  intended  as  posts  of  observation  or  stations  for 
outlying  pickets  in  the  modern  sense  of  the  word,  whose  duty 
would  be  to  fall  back  on  their  supports  in  case  of  attack;  but  that 
they  were  meant  to  offer  a  serious  resistance  to  an  advancing 
enemy,  so  as,  if  it  were  not  possible  to  repulse  them,  to  delay 
them  sufficiently  to  enable  the  main  body  to  muster  and  form  in 
their  rear. 

For  we  must  remember  that,  in  dealing  with  the  ancient 
tuaths  or  clansj  and  septs  or  families,  no  military  leader 
could  absolutely  command  the  presence  for  any  length  of  time  of 
the  component  parts  of  his  army.  Even  the  septs,  and  much 
more  so  the  tuaths,  which  were  gatherings  of  septs,  had  separate 
responsibilities  and  powers,  and  could  at  any  time,  although  they 
had  agreed  upon  a  war,  withdraw  without  dishonour  from  a  battle 
from  pique  or  any  other  reason. 

These  raths  are,  as  a  rule,  erected  on  the  brow  of  a  hill,  with 
steep  slopes  to  the  front,  and  command  a  good  stretch  of  gi-ound 
before  them.  For  example,  take  the  raths  on  the  slope  to  the 
northward  of  Punchestown  stand-house.  They  command  the 
valley  in  which  lies  the  race-course,  and  on  the  opposite  hills  we 
see  what  were,  perhaps,  the  raths  '^of  the  Irish  enemy,  the 
O'Tooles,"  now  called  the  "  Eing,"  and  the  Danish  rath,  which 
are  evidently  only  erected  to  resist  attack  from  the  north-westward. 
Who  knows  what  sanguinary  scenes  this  now  peaceful  valley  may 
have  witnessed,  horseshoe-shaped,  and  commanded,  as  it  was, 
on  three  sides  by  raths  and  castles  from  Mullacash,  on  the  west 
by  Watch  House,  Punchestown,  and  round  to  the  Danish  fort 
above  Silliott  Bog  ? 

Even  now,  without  turning  a  sod,  it  would  be  no  child's  play 
to  dislodge  a  small  and  determined  party  from  some  of  these 
raths.  Look  at  the  ''Ring,"  once  a  circular,  but  now  only  a  semi- 
circular, entrenchment,  thrown  up  on  the  summit  of  a  commanding 
eminence,  about  half  an  L*ish  mile  north-east  of  Silliott  Bog.  Its 
diameter  is  about  800  yards,  and  it  has  but  one  rampart  and  ditch. 
It  slopes  steeply  towards  the  north-west.  About  a  quarter  mile  to 
its  south-west  can  be  seen  the  high  rath  known  as  the  Danish 
fort.  It  occupies  a  commanding  position,  and  its  north-western 
slope  is  almost  precipitous.  It  is  eminently  calculated  for  defence, 
and  there  is  nothing  to  impede  a  retreat  into  the  hills  beyond — 
hills  probably  covered  in  ancient  days  with  dense  wood.  Even 
now,  were  modern  troops  called  upon  to  defend  Naas  from  an 


ANCIENT   NAAS:   OUTPOSTS   AND   LONGSTONES.       319 

enemy  advancing  from  the  south,  they  woald  assaredly  select  for 
their  first  line  of  defence  much  the  same  positions  where  the  old 
castles  and  raths,  extending  from  MuUacash  to  Furness  Hill,  bear 
silent  witness  to  the  troubles  and  warlike  proclivities  of  "the  good 
old  times/'  when  we  worked  on  the  simple  plan,  that  "  he  might 
take  who  had  the  power,  and  he  might  keep  who  can." 

Such  was  the  continual  warfare  between  the  various  tribes 
among  themselves,  occasionally  varied  by  joint  action  against 
a  common  enemy,  that  it  is  hopeless  to  try  to  assign  these  raths 
to  any  particular  epoch  in  our  national  history.  Most  of  them 
could,  in  case  of  necessity,  be  thrown  up  by  100  men  in  a 
day  with  proper  intrenching  tools  ;  but  does  not  their  shape, 
their  position,  the  fact  of  their  having,  as  a  rule,  no  entrance, 
exclude  the  supposition  that  they  have  been  erected  since  the 
days  of  even  the  rudest  artillery?  Nor  would  comparatively 
modem  history  have  been  absolutely  silent  on  the  subject, 
which,  so  far  as  I  know,  is  the  case,  if  they  only  dated  from  the 
fourteenth  to  the  eighteenth  centuries.  Some  of  these  raths 
may,  of  course,  date  from  the  first  Norwegian  invasion,  about 
795  A.D.,  or  from  that  of  the  Danes  in  851.  Some  historians 
attribute  the  north  moat  in  Naas,  and  what  is  now  called  the 
Danish  rath,  to  the  Danes,  who  held  Dublin  even  after  the 
Battle  of  Clontarf,  in  1014,  until  the  Norman  invasion. 

LONOSTONES. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  the  raised  plateau,  which  is  partly 
defended  by  what  we  may  call  the  four  Punchestown  raths,  is 
the  presence  of  those  extraordinary  relics  of  antiquity  known  as 
the  longstones  or  menhirs.  Two  of  these  are  close  to  the 
Watch  House,  Beggar's  End  Road ;  a  third  is  on  Mrs.  Melia's 
farm  at  Newtown  ;  and  another  in  the  centre  of  the  iFurness 
rath. 

The  more  westerly  longstone  is  15  feet  high,  and  leans 
westward  at  an  angle  of  15  degrees  from  the  perpendicular. 
At  2  feet  from  the  ground  the  circumference  is  10  feet  9  inches  ; 
the  east  and  west  faces  are  roughly  8  feet  8  inches,  and  the 
north  and  south  faces  2  feet  4  inches  broad  at  the  same  level.  It 
tapers  to  a  diameter  of  about  18  inches  at  top,  and  has  the 
appearance  of  having  had  originally  four  smooth  sides,  of  which 
the  angles  have  been  worn  off  by  the  action  of  the  weather. 

The  more  easterly  Punchestown  stone,  720  yards  nearly  due 
east  of  the  other,  is  18^  feet  above  ground,  and  leans  eastward 
at  an  angle  of  85  degrees  from  the  perpendicular.  At  2  feet  above 
ground  level  the  circumference  is  10  feet  7^  inches;  and  its 


320       ANCIENT   NAAS  :   OUTPOSTS  AND   LONGSTONES. 

horizontal  section  would  be  a  rough  oblong  8  feet  by  2  feet 
9  inches.  It  tapers  to  a  diameter  of  2  feet  about  1  foot  from  the 
top,  where  it  has  evidently  been  broken  off. 

Owing  to  the  fact  of  similar  seams  of  some  conglomerate 
running  through  each  of  these  stones  in  the  same  plane  and 
bearing  the  same  marks,  one  would  think  that  they  had  both  i 

been  originally  cut  from  or  broken  off  the  one  rock.  However, 
the  material  of  which  the  seam  is  composed  is  harder  than 
and  protrudes  beyond  the  granite  in  the  west  stone^  while  in 
the  east  stone  the  contrary  is  the  case. 

What  is  known  as  the  Newtown  Cross  is  evidently  also  a 
longstone,  of  which  the  top  has  in  modern  times  been  shaped 
into  a  rough  cross.  It  is  much  smaller  in  every  way  than  the 
Punch estown  longstones.  It  is  shown  on  the  1783  maps  as  a 
longstone,  and  as  a  cross  on  the  Ordnance  Survey  map  of  1837. 

The  longstone  in  the  centre  of  Furness  rath  bears  a  great  | 

resemblance   to  the  East   Punchestown   stone,  stands  17  feet  | 

above  ground,  and  is  of  the  same  breadth  at  2  feet  above  ground 
level,  but  is  in  a  vertical  position.  I 

At  Kilgowan,  Mullamast,  and  Harristown  are  also  to  be  seen 
smaller  gi*anite  stones,  varying  from  6  to  8  feet  in  height.  I 
propose,  however,  to  direct  your  attention  chiefly  to  the  four 
largest  which  I  have  described. 

Now,  what  are  these  longstones,  as  they  are  generally  called, 
and  why  are  they  found  on  positions  both  suited  for  determined 
defence  and  actually  defended  by  raths  ?  They  are  all  of 
practically  similar  dimensions,  in  similar  upright  positions,  and 
of  ponderous  weight.  They  must  extend  a  long  way  down  into 
the  ground  in  order  to  retain  their  positions.  There  is  a  local 
tradition  that  a  Lord  Alen,  after  undermining  the  east  stone  to 
a  considerable  depth,  unsuccessfully  endeavoured  to  drag  it  down 
by  yoking  to  it  a  team  of  seventeen  oxen. 

Lastly,  why  are  they  all  of  granite,  a  stone  foreign  to  the 
neighbourhood,  and  not,  as  I  understand,  to  be  found  nearer  than 
the  Ballyknocken  quarries  in  Co.  Wicklow  ? 

It  seems  to  me  that  they  must  have  been  either  of  religious 
origin,  or  landmarks,  or  commemorative  monuments. 

But  I  think  the  two  latter  hypotheses  are  incompatible  with 
ancient  local  history.  Where  we  find  these  longstones  there 
was  no  boundary  that  we  know  of,  nor  do  we  read  of  territorial 
magnates  adjusting  their  mearings  at  the  cost  of  drawing  huge 
rocks  weighing  scores  of  tons  from  far  distant  hills.  Nor  was 
there  at  hand  any  lack  of  the  materials  of  which  the  ordinary 
Irish  cairns  were  formed  over  the  gi*aves  of  their  heroes,  that 
the  populace  should  be  impelled  to  honour  their  memory  in 
such  an  unaccountable  way. 


ANCIENT   NAAS:  OUTPOSTS   AND   LONGSTONES.       32I 

I  think  the  most  plausible  explanation  is  that  they  were 
drawn  and  erected  there  from  religious  motives — drawn  by 
crowds  of  natives  over  hill  and  dale,  either  on  account  of  some 
religious  value  attributed  to  the  granite  stones  themselves,  or 
drawn  from  some  spot,  sacred  in  the  eyes  of  the  people,  to 
another,  where  their  presence  would  act  upon  the  popular  mind, 
and  induce  the  natives  to  defend  to  the  uttermost  a  line  which 
the  religious  and  military  leaders  had  selected  for  their  main 
and  most  effective  stand  before  final  retreat  within  their  walled 
towns.  There  is  a  local  tradition  to  the  effect  that  on  this  spot 
a  sanguinary  battle  was  fought  between  the  O'Bourkes  and  the 
O'Connors,  in  which  the  chief  of  the  latter  was  slain. 

The  combined  military  and  religious  theory  is  supported  by 
ancient  Irish  history.  We  read  that  Tuathal  Techmar,  King  of 
Ireland,  after  successfully  concluding  his  campaign  against  his 
treacherous  son-in-law,  Eochy,  King  of  Leinster  (whose  palace 
was  at  Naas),  about  160  a.d.,  secured  his  power  by  building 
raths  and  duns  about  this  ever-coveted  region,  the  fertile  plains 
between  the  Liffey  and  the  Boyne.  His  policy  was  to  form  a 
chain  of  communication  by  means  of  raths,  and  to  erect  his 
duns  in  the  religious  centres  of  the  natives,  thus  using  their 
religious  system  in  order  to  secure  their  allegiance  by  holding 
all  their  principal  shrines  in  his  power. 

Whatever  truth  there  may  be  in  such  explanations,  certain 
it  is  that  an  intimate  association  existed  between  the  defensible 
positions  and  the  sites  to  which  have  been  attributed  a  religious 
character  by  ancient  legends ;  and  it  is  unlikely  that  such  an 
association  should  in  so  many  cases  be  purely  accidental. 

These  megalithic  or  stone  structures  have  been  ascribed 
to  the  Celts,  and  were  supposed  to  have  been  erected  by  their 
priests,  the  Druids  ;  but  that  theory  can  have  but  little  weight 
when  we  consider  that  the  ethnographical  range  of  the  Celtic 
races  does  not  correspond  with  the  geographical  distribution  of 
these  rude  stone  monuments.  For  there  is  nothing  peculiar  to 
Ireland  in  these  longstones.  They  are  found  in  all  megalithic 
countries.  There  are  over  1,600  in  France,  of  which  a  full  half, 
including  all  the  large  ones,  are  in  Brittany.  I  have  seen  the 
largest  of  these,  which  is  at  Locmariaquer ;  it  is  now  broken, 
but  its  length  is  67  feet,  and  its  greatest  diameter  14  feet.  It  is, 
like  our  menhirs,  of  granite,  a  stone  foreign  to  the  neighbour- 
hood, and  it  weighs  about  842  tons.  It  is,  like  our  longstones, 
in  the  shape  of  a  rude  but  smooth-sided  obelisk. 

Everywhere  we  find  similar  relics  of  the  megalithic  age.  In 
the  oldest  civilization,  in  the  historical  works  of  the  Bible,  are 
traces  of  monoliths,  or  unhewn  pillars,  as  records  of  events, 


322       ANCIENT   NAAS  :   OUTPOSTS  AND   LONGSTONES. 

monumental  memorials,  and  landmarks.  There  is  the  Tanist 
stone^  or  kingly  memorial,  like  that  set  up  in  Shechem  at  the 
coronation  of  Abimelech  ;  the  Hoar,  or  boundary  stone,  like  the 
stone  of  Bohan,  son  of  Reuben  ;  then  we  read  of  the  stone  set 
up  as  evidence  of  a  treaty,  like  Laban  and  Jacob's  pillar  of 
witness  in  Galeed. 

Then  there  were  also  the  sepulchral  monuments,  such  as 
cromlechs,  cairns,  and  chambered  barrows. 

The  megalithic  art  attained  its  highest  excellence  in  Egypt, 
where  the  monoliths,  or  menhirs,  became  obelisks ;  the  cairns, 
pyramids ;  and  the  stone  circles,  as  seen  at  Stonehenge,  Camac, 
&c.y  became  colonnaded  avenues  and  temples. 

A  menhir  (from  maen,  a  stone,  and  liiTf  long),  or  longstone, 
or  monolith,  is  a  pillar  of  unhewn  stone  raised  on  end.  When 
a  number  of  them  are  arranged  in  lines,  we  haVe  what  is  called 
an  alignment;  when  grouped  so  as  to  form  an  enclosure,  we 
have  a  cromlech.  A  dolmen  is  foimed  by  two  or  more  monoliths 
placed  near  each  other  and  covered  by  a  cup  stone. 

On  the  introduction  of  Christianity,  many  menhirs  were 
used,  as  in  France,  to  support  crosses.  We  see  that  the  Newtown 
longstone  has  been  cut  into  a  rude  semblance  of  a  cross. 
Occasionally  menhirs  seemed  to  have  been  used  as  landmarks, 
though  that  was  apparently  only  a  secondary  object.  Sometimes 
they  overtop  a  tumulus,  like  the  Bauta,  or  battlestones,  of 
Scandinavia. 

As  for  dolmens.  Professor  Wilson's  researches  show  that 
they  are  to  be  found  all  over  Western  Europe  as  far  as  Saxony. 
They  reappear  in  the  Crimea  and  Circassia,  and  have  been 
traced  through  Central  Asia  to  India,  where  they  are  widely 
distributed.  They  are  to  be  found  in  Palestine,  Arabia,  Persia, 
Australia,  the  Penryhn  Islands,  Madagascar,  and  other  places. 

There  are  more  than  200  of  these  dolmens  in  Liineburg, 
Osnabriick,  and  Stade,  and  over  fifty  in  the  province  of  Drenthe,  in 
Holland.  In  France  there  are  3,410  dolmens,  and  many  in  Spain 
and  Portugal,  Morocco,  Algeria,  and  Tunis.  Their  primary  object 
was,  without  doubt,  sepulchral,  and  many  appear  to  have  been 
originally  surmounted  by  tumuli  of  earth,  which  has,  in  the 
course  of  ages,  crumbled  away,  leaving  the  stone  exposed.  But  to 
what  form  of  worship  are  we  to  attribute  the  longstones  ?  It  has 
been  suggested  that  they  were  erected  by  the  worshippers  of 
Baal ;  and  I  believe  that  is  their  true  origin.  The  Baal  of  the 
Phoenicians,  Syrians,  Tyrians,  &c.,  was  worshipped  as  the  male 
principle  of  life,  and  was  represented  by  obelisks  and  pillars ; 
while  Ashera,  who  was  worshipped  as  the  female  principle 
of  nature,  was  represented  by  groves  and  trees.     She  was  com- 


ANCIENT    NAAS  :   OUTPOSTS   AND   LONGSTONES.       323 

bined  with  the  purer  deity  Astarte  in  inach  the  same  manner  as 
Venus,  when  a  morning  star,  was  worshipped  as  a  pure  deity, 
and  as  an  evening  star  had  quite  different  attributes.  Astarte 
came  later  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  moon-goddess,  the  Queen  of 
Heaven,  as  Baal  had  formerly  been  worshipped  as  the  sun-god, 
the  central  principle  of  most  pagan  adoration,  the  deity  that 
engendered  all  the  fruitfnlness  of  the  earth. 

Now,  according  to  Irish  legendary  history,  the  first  invaders 
of  Ireland  came,  as  the  PhoDuicians  might  have  come,  from  the 
Levant.  Parthalon  and  his  followers  came  from  Greece.  The 
last  of  their  race,  after  800  years'  rule  in  Ireland,  are  said  to  have 
died  of  the  plague  at  Tamlecht  Parthalon,  which  is  Tallaght, 
near  Dublin.  Next  came,  we  are  told,  the  Nemedians,  from 
Scythia.  Then  the  Fomorians,  from  Northern  Africa.  These 
were  ousted  by  the  northern  invaders,  the  Firbolgs,  who,  in 
their  turn,  gave  place  to  the  Tuatha  de  Danaan.  Then  came  the 
Milesians  or  Scots. 

Whatever  we  may  choose  to  believe  of  those  ancient  legends, 
we  have  little  or  nothing  else  to  work  on,  and  we  cannot  afford 
to  ignore  them  contemptuously  when  we  find  them  so  often 
corroborated. 

However  much  the  ancient  historian  may  have  had  to  draw 
upon  his  imagination  to  fill  in  his  blanks  in  minor  matters,  his 
credibility  among  his  contemporaries  must  have  depended  on 
the  probability  of  his  naiTative  and  on  its  derivation  from  what  was 
at  the  time  accepted  tradition  handed  down  from  generation  to 
generation.  Authentic  history  does  not  go  back  further  than 
the  Iron  Age;  but  these  megalithic  structures  are  in  all  countries 
attributed  to  the  Stone  period,  ages  and  ages  before.  Truly,  in 
such  contemplations,  we  may  well  get  lost  in  what  Shakespeare 
calls  the  "  dark  backward  and  abysm  of  time.'*  To  us  these 
relics  of  a  forgotten  age  are  but  puzzles  for  the  antiquary, 
objects  to  which  we  barely  give  a  thought,  and  pass  on  on  our 
way  ;  but  who  can  fathom  the  power  of  a  devotion  which  placed 
them  where  they  are  ?  Who  can  tell  what  hold  these  venerable 
stones  had  upon  the  minds  and  affections  of  the  old-time 
barbarians  who  lived  in  the  gloomy  forests  and  swamps  of 
ancient  Ireland  ?  Who  knows  what  ghastly  rites,  what  horrid 
orgies,  what  reckless  heroism,  what  awful  sacrifices,  what 
religious,  if  misguided,  zeal  they  may  have  looked  down  upon '? 
^  One  of  their  chief  claims  to  great  antiquity  rests,  to  my  mind, 
on  the  fact,  that  though  for  fourteen  centuries  since  St.  Patrick's 
time,  whose  mission  ended  in  409  a.d.,  there  have  been  some 
kinds  of  historical  records  or  traditions,  no  explanation  of  the 
origin  of  these  longstones  has  been  given  us,  and  therefore 
we  may  assume  that  even  then  it  was  clouded  in  oblivion. 

CC 


(     324     ) 


Miscellanea. 


St.  Mo-chua  of  Celbridge.— On  page  206,  vol.  ii,  of  the 
Journal,  the  Bev.  C.  Graham  suggests  that  a  St.  Mo-chua  of  Clon- 
dalkin,  County  Dublin,  was  the  saint  to  whom  the  original  church 
of  Kildrought  was  dedicated  (and  Father  Shearman,  in  his  "  Loca 
Patriciana,"  expresses  the  same  opinion) ;  this  idea  is,  I  think, 
proved  from  the  following  two  sources: — 

First. — There  is  the  stone  trough,  dated  1783,  bearing  this 
saint's  name,  at  the  pump  in  the  street  beside  Celbridge  MiU.  It 
possibly  stands  over  the  very  **  Tober  Mo-chua,**  or  St.  Mo-chua's 
Well,  which  was  used  by  the  saint  for  baptizing  his  converts,  and 
which  the  growth  of  the  town  has  encroached  upon. 

Second. — There  is  an  entry  in  a  County  Kildare  Chancery 
Inquisition,  which  was  taken  at  Kilcock  on  the  22nd  of  October, 
1604,  which,  when  translated,  states  that : — "  There  is  one  mes- 
suage (or  farmstead)  with  a  close,  and  two  cottages  with  their  closes, 
and  eighteen  acres  of  land  in  the  townland  of  Kildrought  called 
St  Magho  his  land,  which  were  granted  in  mortmain  to  the  church 
of  Kildrought  without  licence  from  the  Crown,  and  for  that  reason 
they  are  now  in  the  king's  hands." 

In  the  seventh  century  two  famous  saints  named  Mo-chua  died : — 

First. — One  was  the  patron  saint  of  Timahoe,  in  the  Queen's 
County  (Tech  Mo-chua,  i.e.,  St.  Mo-chua*s  house  or  church),  whose 
festival  was  held  on  the  24th  of  December.  He  died  in  the 
year  657.  Lonan  was  his  father,  and  Tineacht  ny  Loichin  his 
mother. 

Second. — The  other  St.  Mo-chua  was  of  Clondalkin  (i.e.,  Dolean's 
meadow),  in  the  County  Dublin  ;  another  name  for  him  was  Cronan. 
His  festival  was  on  the  6th  of  August.  His  father's  name  was 
Lughaidh,  and  his  mother's  Cainer  of  Clondasallagh. 

To  this  latter  St.  Mo-chua  the  foundation  of  the  Kildrought 
church,  now  known  as  the  Tea-lane  Churchyard,  is  attributed.  He 
is  also  probably  the  patron  saint  of  the  County  Kildare  Timahoe, 
which  lies  twelve  English  miles  as  the  crow  flies  due  west  of  Cel- 
bridge. Father  O'Hanlon,  in  the  eighth  volume  of  his  •*  Lives  of 
the  Irish  Saints,"  under  the  6th  of  August,  gives  all  that  is  known 
of  St.  Mo-chua  of  Celbridge  and  Clondalkin. 

W.  FiTzG. 

Knockpatrick.-— Knockpatrick  (i.e.,  St.  Patrick's  hill)  is  the 
name  of  a  round-topped  hill,  560  feet  m  height,  which  stands  in  the 
County  Kildare,  two  miles  to  the  east  of  Castledermot.  On  the 
summit  is  a  burial-ground,  still  in  use,  in  which  all  trace  of  the 
ancient  church  building  has  disappeared.  Among  the  graves  is  a 
large  sunken  granite  rock,  on  which  are  the  impressions  of  two  feet 
(near  which  a  plain  cross  has  been  carved),  and  a  little  further  off  a 


MISCELLANEA.  325 

small  round  boUow.  According  to  the  local  tradition,  these  impres- 
sions were  caused  by  the  feet  and  the  butt  of  the  staff  of  St.  Patrick 
when  he  stood  and  preached  here  to  the  natives  on  his  way  from 
Meath  to  the  district  of  Hy-Kinselagh  ;  it  is  said  that  no  feet  have 
fitted  these  marks,  though  many  people,  big  and  small,  have  tried 
them. 

On  the  south  side  of,  and  close  to,  the  churchyard  is  a  well 
dedicated  to  St.  Patrick,  and  close  to  it  again  is  a  rath ;  neither  of 
these  interesting  objects  is  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Sur\'ey  maps 
of  the  6  in.  scale. 

Many  years  ago  a  Pattern  was  held  at  this  well  on  the  saint's 
festival ;  but  the  then  tenant  of  the  place,  a  man  named  Haddaway, 
objecting  to  the  concourse  of  people  on  his  land,  desecrated  the  well 
by  choking  it  up  with  boulders  and  clay  ;  in  consequence  misfortune 
overtook  him,  and  the  neighbours  still  relate  how  a  tail  grew  out 
of  him,  a  deformity  which  worried  him  to  the  day  of  his  death. 

There  is  a  field  in  Knockpatrick  which  goes  by  the  name  of 
<'  Glownshod,"  the  scene,  it  is  said,  of  a  battle  ages  ago. 

W.  FiTzG. 

Cloncurry  is  the  name  of  two  parishes  in  the  County  Kildare : 
one  is  situated  between  Kilcock  and  Innfield,  in  the  barony  of 
Ikeathy  and  Oughterany;  and  the  other  lies  between  Bathangan 
and  LuUymore,  in  the  barony  of  East  Oflfaly.  The  name  means 
**  Conary's  meadow."  The  ancient  name  of  the  former  was  **  Cluain- 
Conaire-Toiman,"  or  Maoinean,  a  saint  whose  festival  was  held  on 
the  16th  of  September.  This  place  is  mentioned  in  **  The  Annals  of 
the  Four  Masters*'  under  the  years  586,  887,  869,  and  1171 ;  and 
from  it  Lord  Cloncurry  takes  his  title.  The  second  Cloncurry  was 
dedicated  to  St.  Maelduv,  whose  Pattern  was  held  on  the  18th  of 
December ;  the  Four  Masters  mention  it  in  the  year  778. 

Cilltown.— Can  **  St.  Boyana  of  Gylton,"  County  Kildare,  be 
identified  ?  The  saint  so  appears  in  Fiant  No.  8,146,  of  Elizabeth. 
In  the  fourteenth  century  Gilltown  is  mentioned  in  Sweetman's 
Calendar  of  Irish  Documents  as  **  the  Grange  and  chapel  of 
Inchbristelan  (or  Inchbrislon),  alias  Gilton,  County  of  Kildare,  in 
the  Deanery  of  Balymor." 

Kilshanchoe  is  a  churchyard  in  the  parish  of  Dunfierth  and 
barony  of  Carbury.  In  a  County  Kildare  Exchequer  Inquisition  of 
1547,  it  is  spelt  "  Kylshangho,  alias  Ballygylkur.''  The  country 
people  at  the  place  call  it  '*  Kilshanroe  (i.e.,  the  old  red  church?), 
laying  the  stress  on  the  last  syllable.     Which  is  the  correct  name  ? 


On  the  following  page  are  figured  two  antiquarian  objects  which 
were  dug  up  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Kilkea  Castle,  where  they  are 
now  preserved.  One  is  an  ancient  pagan  burial  urn,  and  the  other 
a  bronze  akUlet  or  three-legged  pot. 

The  Burial  Urn  was  unearthed  in  January,  1861,  on  that  por- 
tion of  MuUachreelan  Hill,  locally  known  as  **  Bullock's  Hill."     At 


t- 


MISCELLANEA.  327 

that  time  a  gravel-pit  was  being  worked  od  it  by  a  man  named  Tom 
Bryan,  employed  under  a  mason  of  the  name  of  Michael  O'Shaugh- 
nessy,  of  Garryholden,  near  Moone.  While  Bryan  was  shovelling 
out  some  sand,  a  portion  of  the  gravel-pit  slid  down  in  front  of  him, 
exposing  to  view  the  side  of  a  burial  urn.  Being  fearful  of  disturbing 
a  crock  he  thought  belonged  to  the  "  good-people,"  or  fairies,  Bryan 
went  off  to  consult  with  O'Shaughnessy.  Together  they  returned 
to  the  spot,  and  brought  the  urn  to  the  surface,  but  unfortunately 
broke  it  in  doing  so.  To  their  disappointment  they  found  it  con- 
tained no  treasure,  but,  resting  on  a  flag-stone,  it  covered  a  heap  of 
human,  burnt  bones.  These  bones,  when  first  removed,  sparkled  at 
their  ends  like  diamonds ;  and  Bryan  was  convinced  that,  if  he  had 
only  known  the  proper  incantation  to  recite,  it  would  have  caused 
the  bones  to  again  become  the  precious  metal  he  expected  to  find 
under  the  urn.  The  urn  was  about  2  feet  under  the  surface  of  the 
ground,  and  there  was  nothing  overground  to  indicate  its  presence 
below.  It  stands  a  little  over  13  inches  in  height,  is  89  inches  in 
external  circumference,  and  12  inches  wide  across  the  top.  One 
rather  curious  circumstance  in  connection  with  the  locality  it  was 
found  in  was  related  to  me  in  1889  by  an  old  man  named  Patrick 
Travers,  of  Ballynamona,  near  Belan.  He  said  that  he  remembered, 
when  a  gossoon,  twice  dreaming  that  at  the  very  spot  where  the  urn 
was  afterwards  found  a  crock  of  gold  was  hid ;  this  he  related  to  a 
friend,  who  told  him  he  should  not  have  mentioned  it  until  he  had 
had  a  third  dream  to  the  like  effect ;  and,  as  he  did  not  dream  about 
it  a  third  time,  he  never  went  to  dig  the  place. 

The  Bronze  Skillet  was  discovered  in  a  strange  way  in 
February,  1868.  During  that  month  a  big  wind  blew  down  a  large 
elm  in  the  cow-pasture  at  Kilkea  Castle,  where  formerly  the  public 
road  to  Moone  ran.  A  poor  man  named  Mick  Byrne,  the  father  of 
a  large  family  then  living  in  Castledermot,  was  employed  to  dig  up 
the  elm  stump  by  the  roots.  One  day  shortly  after,  he  came  up  to 
the  castle  carrying  the  bronze  skillet,  which  he  said  he  had  found 
under  the  old  elm,  whose  roots  had  grown  completely  round  it.  He 
was  rewarded  with  a  guinea,  and  was  asked  what  it  had  contained. 
He  replied  that  a  stone  flag  covered  its  mouth,  but  there  was  nothing 
in  it  but  bones  and  rubbish.  However,  not  long  after,  he  went  up 
to  Dublin  for  a  few  days,  returned  to  Castledermot,  and  then 
emigrated  to  America  with  his  wife  and  children.  There  is  not  a 
man,  woman,  or  child  in  the  district  but  wish  that  they  were  the 
finders  of  the  bronze  pot.  Though  Mick  Bynie  never  told  a  soul  what 
really  was  in  the  skillet,  yet  it  is  certain  that  it  held  something 
worth  hiding.  The  pot  weighs  21  lb.,  and  stands  10  inches  in 
height ;  judging  by  the  shape  and  material,  it  is  between  two  and 
three  hundred  years  old.  As  in  those  days  there  were  no  banks, 
when  **  troubles  "  broke  out,  valuables  were  buried  for  safety;  and  in 
this  case  the  owner  was  probably  killed,  and  so  the  secret  died  with 
him. 

W.  FiTzG. 


r"RoNT 


B^CK 


:^  AC  K 


7X0MT 


Vo 


^^^KCM    i\»^7 


Archi EPISCOPAL  Cross  and  Ancient  Reliquary. 

Drawn  by  Colonel  D.  C.  Vigors. 


(     329    ) 


On  an  Archiepiscopal  Cross  and  an  Ancient  Beliquary,  by 
Colonel  P.  D.  Vigors. 

The  annexed  drawings  represent  the  silver  ornaments  formerly  in 
the  possession  of  the  late  Most  Rev.  M.  Comerford,  d.d.,  Coadjutor- 
Bishop  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin,  and  now  belonging  to  B.  B. 
Kennedy,  Esq.,  r.m.,  Carlow,  who  kindly  placed  them  at  my 
disposal  for  illustration.  It  is  to  be  much  regretted  that,  when 
Dr.  Comerford  gave  them  to  Mr.  Kennedy,  he  did  not  mention 
where  or  when  they  had  been  found,  or,  indeed,  anything  con- 
nected with  their  history. 

From  Dr.  Comerford's  connection  with  the  County  Kildare,  and 
with  the  Archaeological  Society  thereof,  I  thought  there  could  be 
no  more  fitting  place  for  their  description  and  illustration  than  in 
the  Journal  of  the  Society  of  which  he  was  Vice-President,  and  in 
which  he  had  taken  so  much  interest. 

THE    CROSS. 

Its  height  is  Sf  inches ;  width  across  the  arms,  1^  inches ;  weight, 
a  little  more  than  1}  ounces  avoirdupois.  It  is  of  silver,  in  two 
plates,  fastened  together  at  the  base,  and  formerly  by  four  small 
rivets  on  the  sides.  The  rivets  are  gone,  but  the  holes  remain.  A 
piece  of  twisted  wire  at  the  head  keeps  that  part  together.  No 
doubt,  this  was  a  pendant  cross.  The  late  Bev.  Denis  Murphy  was 
of  opinion  that  it  was  an  archiepiscopal  one,  and  belonged  to  one 
of  the  predecessors  of  the  present  Most  Bev.  Dr.  Walsh  [Boman 
Catholic  Archbishop  of  Dublin]. 

The  back  plate  of  the  cross  is  thicker  than  the  front  one.  The 
figures  of  our  Saviour  and  of  the  Virgin  Mary  (?)  are  fastened  to 
the  plates  by  small  rivets,  and  were  made  separate  from  the  cross 
itself.  Trefoil-shaped  holes,  and  two  oblong  ones  in  the  shaft, 
are  cut  through  the  plates. 

There  does  not  appear  to  have  been  any  enamel  or  precious 
stones  used  in  its  ornamentation ,  and  it  is  in  all  respects  very  plain. 

Both  figures  are  much  worn. 

Mr.  Michael  Buckley,  to  whom  I  sent  a  sketch  of  it,  says:  — 
'*  This  cross  has  the  characteristic  bulbous  or  tulip-shaped  ends  so 
much  affected  in  Spain  circa  1700.  The  widely  extended  arms  of 
the  Christ  show  it  is  not  of  Flemish,  French,  or  German  origin  of 
this  period.  Its  date  is  circa  1680.  It  contained,  no  doubt,  a 
*  parcella  '  of  the  wood  which  is  touched  or  rubbed  on  the  piece  of 
the  real  Holy  Cross  at  St.  Peter's,  Bome,  annuaUi/,  for  the  purpose 
of  enclosure  and  distribution  in  such  reliquary  crosses," 


330  NOTES. 


THE    RELIQUARY. 


This  ornament  is  8|  inches  in  length  by  about  1|  inches  in 
width.  Its  weight  is  about  If  ounces  silver.  Like  the  cross  first 
described,  it  is  also  made  in  two  plates,  secured  by  two  rivets,  one 
at  the  top,  and  one  at  the  bottom,  as  shown  in  the  drawing. 

The  shaded  parts,  no  doubt,  held  enamel  and  jewels  where  the 
small  circular  holes  are  shown.  The  three  black  holes  go  through 
the  double  plates,  and  may  have  held  an  ornament  showing  front 
and  back.  Remains  of  ''  chasing  ''  still  exist  in  the  silver  edgings. 
The  only  jewel  remaining  is  an  amethyst,  near  the  centre  of  the 
object. 

The  front  is  without  ornamentation  of  any  kind.  The  engraved 
lines  are  very  rudely  cut.  The  coffin  opens  at  the  head  by  a  hinge, 
and  closes  at  the  foot  by  a  stud.  Within  it  is  a  rudely  executed 
figure  in  silver  (?)  of  our  Saviour,  represented  much  as  on  the  cross, 
only  the  waist-cloth  is  more  distinct.  In  the  figure  on  the  cross 
the  remains  of  it  are  to  be  seen  at  the  proper  left  of  the  figure. 

Of  this  reliquary  Mr.  Buckley  writes  :— "  Looking  at  the  shape 
only,  especially  the  back,  it  appears  to  belong  to  the  same  school  of 
design  as  the  early  golden  '  buttoe,*  or  amulets,  both  of  Prankish, 
Slavonic,  and  Celtic  origin.  The  peculiar  setting  of  its  jewels 
(garnets  and  turquoises  most  probably),  minus  the  *  torsades  *  of 
the  Celtic  period,  show  the  trace  of  Iberian  influence.  It  was  made 
either  in  Spain  or  Portugal,  most  probably  in  the  latter  country,  in 
Lisbon,  circa  1675,  and  contained  some  dust  or  a  bit  of  stone  from 
the  Holy  Sepulchre. 

*'  The  coffin,  which  is  of  the  '  debased '  form  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  is  not  common,  especially  as  it  contains  the  figure  of  our 
Saviour.  It  belongs  to  the  sensational  class  of  Spanish  <  objets  de 
piete,'  such  as  the  jewelled  crucifixes,  with  the  wounds  of  the  body 
of  Christ  enamelled  in  red  '  paste,'  and  set  with  rubies  and  garnets 
like  drops  of  blood. 

**  This  religious  'jewel  *  belonged,  I  have  no  doubt,  to  a  Knight 
Companion  of  the  Order  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  or  of  *  Christ '  of 
Portugal." 

**  Sheelah-na-Glg." — This  term  is  applied  to  those  undraped 
female  figures  grotesquely  cut  in  stone,  which  are  generally  found 
built  into  the  walls  of  primitive  church  ruins,  and  sometimes  in  old 
castles.  Their  meaning  is  still  a  mystery,  though  they  are  asso- 
ciated with  the  belief  in  the  Evil  Eye.  There  is  one  in  the  old 
FitzEustace  castle  of  Blackball,  near  Calverstown  (though  not  in 
its  original  position).  It  is,  I  believe,  the  only  Sheelah-na-Gig  in  the 
County  Kildare. 

A  list  of  them  is  given  in  the  Jotinwl  of  the  Iloyal  Society  of 
Antifjiiaries,  Ire.,  for  the  year  1894. 

W.  FiTzG. 


ISSION  1898. 


VOLUME  II,  Uo.,M^y.\ 


P  •. ' 


V:^^ 


,<5> 


, -XT- 


JOURNAL 


OF  THE 


COUNTY  KILDARE  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY. 


CONTENTS. 


Pr  ooeedingi:—  pagb 

Annual  General  Meeting,  1898,  .               .  831 

Report  of  Council  for  T897,          .        •        .  333 

Excursion  Meeting,  1897 338 

Report  of  Sab-Committee  on  Printing  of 

Journal, SSS 

Hon.  Treasurer's  Account  for  1807,    .        .  340 

List  of  Honorary  Officers  and  ftf  embers,   .  341 

Rules, 347 

Pap«P«  :— 

An  Account  of  the  Arrest  of  Lord  Edward 
FitzGerald.     With  Illustrations,     .        .    340 

John  Lye,  of  Clonaugh,  Co.  Kildare.  Part 
II.    By  Rev.  £.  O'Learv,  p.p.,     .       .    3&4 

Castletown  and  its  Owners.  By  T>ord 
Walter  FitzGerald.  With  Illustra- 
tions  361 

Misoellantta:— 

The  Skeleton  Tombstone  in  the  Franciscan 
Abbey  at  CasUedbnnot,   .       .       .       .380 


QuerlM :—  PAGE 
Portraits  of  Lord  and  Lady  Edward  Fitz- 
Gerald  382 

Answer  to  Qaeriea  :— 
The  Race,  or  Road,  of  the  Black  Pig,  across 
theCurragh, 383 

Notes  :— 
Rosetown  Churchyard,  Barony  of  Kilkea 

and  Moone, 386 

Alexander  Taylor's  Map  of  Co.  Kildare,    .    386 

Jigginstown 386 

The  Bells  of  Ble&slngton,     .        .        .        . 

Notes   on    a  Hornbook  in   possession  of 

Richard  West   Manders,  of  Castlesize, 

Naas, 

The  Bulbys  of  the  Co.  Kildare, 
Poul-gyleen  in  the  Barrow,         ,        . 
Athgoe  Castle,  Co.  Dublin, 


387 


387 

388 


DUBLIN: 
E.    PONSONBY,    116    GRAFTON    STREET. 

1898. 


m  COUNCIL  OF  TBI  COUNTT  KIIMSE  ABCHilOLOIHCAl  mm. 

THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 

The  Rev.  Matthew  Devitt,  s.j. 

&ounci][ : 

Thomas  Cooke-Trench,  Esq.,  d.l. 
George  Mansfield,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Rev.  Edward  O'Leary,  p.p. 
Thomas  J.  de  Burgh,  Esq.,  d.l. 
Ambrose  More  OTerrall,  Esq.,  d.l. 
The  Earl  of  Drogheda. 

Hans  Hendrick-Avlmer,  Esq.,  Kerdiffstown,  Sallins. 

c^on.  Secretaries: 

Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  m.r.i.a.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey. 
Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  f.s.a.,  Ulster,  44  Wellington  Road,  Dublin. 

c^on.  @5tior: 
The  Rev.  Canon  Sherlock,  m.a.,  Sherlockstown,  Sallins, 


JOURNAL 


OF   THE 


jlwjafolojical  jSotietg  of  \\t  G^^k  of  FJiIbart 

AND 

jSttrrottnbing    Dtstrids. 


-+♦- 


"proceedings. 


Thb  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  on 
Monday,  the  24th  of  January,  1898,  in  the  Court  House,  Naas, 
kindly  lent  by  the  High  Sheriff  of  County  Kildare. 

The  Hon.  Secretary  read  a  letter  from  the  Earl  of  Mayo, 
President,  regretting  his  inability  to  attend  owing  to  illness, 
and  the  Chair  was  taken  by  the  Vice-President  of  the  Society, 
the  Bey.  Matthew  Devitt. 

The  following  Members  of  the  Council  were  present : — 
Mr.  George  Mansfield,  Canon  Sherlock,  Hon.  Editor;  Rev.  £. 
O'Leary,  Mr.  T.  J.  de  Burgh,  Mr.  H.  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Hon. 
Treasurer ;  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  f.s.a.,  and  Lord  Walter 
FitzGerald,  Hon,  Secretaries. 

In  addition,  the  following  Members  and  Visitors  were 
present : — 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  N.  J.  Synnott,  the  Dean  of  Kildare  and  Mrs.  Cowell, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmund  Sweetman,  Miss  D.  S.  Jameson,  the  Rt.  Rev. 
the  President  of  Maynooth  College,  the  Very  Rev.  Thomas  O'Dea,  d.d., 
the  Rev.  Patrick  O'Leary,  d.d.;  the  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench,v.p.R.8.A.,Ire.  ; 
Mr,  P.  A.  Maguire,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Aylmer,  Rev.  V.  Lentaigne,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  S.  J.  Browne,  Rev.  T.  Morrin,  Rev.  J.  Dunne,  Mr.  W.  Staples, 
Mr.  J.  R.  Sutcliffe,  Rev.  Wm.  Elliott,  Miss  Rynd,  the  Misses  O'Brien, 
Mrs.  Biddulph,  Rev.  T.  Ryan,  &c. 

The  Minutes  of  the  previous  Meeting  of  February,  1897, 
having  been  read  and  confirmed,  were  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  Hon,  Secretary,  then  read  the 
Report  of  Council  for  the  year  1897,  which  was  adopted. 

VOL.  n.,  PT.  VI.  D  D 


332  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  then  read  his  Beport  for  the  year 
1897,  which  was  also  adopted,  and  a  vote  of  thanks  passed  to 
him. 

The  following  Besolution,  proposed  hy  Mr.  N.  Synnott,  and 
seconded  hy  Mr.  A.  Aylmer,  was  unanimously  passed  : — 

**  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  are  hereby  tendered  to  Mr.  J.  R. 
Sutcliffe  for  kindly  auditing  the  accounts  of  the  Society  for  the  past- 
year  ;  and  the  Society  earnestly  hope  that  he  will  continue  his  services.*' 

The  Report  of  the  Sub-Committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  Thomas 
Gooke-Trench  and  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  appointed  last  year  to 
consider  the  best  course  to  adopt  with  a  view  to  reducing  the 
expenditure  of  the  Society  in  the  production  of  The  Journal, 
was  then  brought  forward,  and,  after  some  discussion,  its  recom- 
mendation to  appoint  Messrs.  Charles  Gibbs  &  Son  printers 
to  the  Society,  was  adopted  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Edmund 
Sweetman. 

The  following  Resolution  was  proposed  by  Mr.  T.  J.  de 
Burgh,  seconded  by  Mr.  George  Mansfield,  and  passed  : — 

*'  That  the  Hon.  Secretaries  be  requested  to  suggest  to  the  Members 
some  subjects  for  Papers  which  would  be  of  interest  to  the  Society." 

Monsignor  Gargan  proposed,  and  Sir  Arthur  Vicars  seconded 
the  following  Resolution  :— 

'*That  the  Earl  of  Drogheda  be  elected  a  member  of  the  Council  of 
the  Society" — 

which  was  unanimously  passed. 

The  Rev.  E.  O'Leary  and  Mr.  T.  J.  de  Burgh,  being  the 
Members  of  Council  retiring  by  rotation,  were  re-elected. 

The  election  of  the  following  Members  at  the  Excursion 
Meeting,  September,  1897,  was  confirmed : — Rev.  John  Cnllen, 
Mr.  Garrett  C.  Tyrrell,  Mr.  Charles  J.  Engledow,  m.p.  ;  Mrs. 
Engledow,  Mr.  W.  N.  Strangeway,  Mr.  Thos.  J.  Westropp,  c.E. ; 
Mr.  Charles  E.  A.  Roper,  b.l.  ;  Mr.  Francis  Cruise,  m.d.  ;  Mr. 
T.  B.  MacDonald,  m.d.  ;  Mr.  A.  S.  Manning,  Mrs.  Mark  Taylor, 
and  Mrs.  Hopkins. 

The  following  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society : — Mr. 
Robert  O'Kelly,  m.d.  ;  Very  Rev.  W.  J.  Byrne,  Rev.  John  C. 
Ryan,  Mr.  John  Kilkelly,  ll.d.  ;  Hon.  Algernon  Bourke,  Hon. 
Mrs.  Swinton,  and  Mr.  John  Robinson,  m.d. 

It  was  decided  to  hold  the  Excursion  Meeting  for  the  ensuing 
session  of  the  Society  at  Old  KilcuUen  and  district,  in  Sep- 
tember. 


COUNTY   KILDARE   ARCH/KOLOCIICAL  SOCIETY.         333 

The  following  Kesolution  was  proposed  by  the  Rev.  M. 
Devitt,  and  carried  ananimonsly : — 

"That  the  thanks  of  the  Kildare  Archaeological  Society  be  hereby 
tendered  to  Mr.  D.  Mahony  for  kindly  having  entertained  the  members 
and  their  friends  to  tea  at  Grange  Con  on  the  occasion  of  the  Excursion 
Meeting,  1897  ;  also  to  the  following  for  their  help  in  making  the 
arrangements  for  the  Meeting  such  a  success  : — Colonel  Bonham,  Rev.  T. 
Twamley,  Rev.  S.  Radcliffe,  Mrs.  F.  M.  Carroll,  and  also  to  the  Com- 
mittde  of  the  Grange  Con  Club,  for  having  kindly  permitted  the  Society  to 
use  the  club  premises  for  luncheon.^* 

The  following  Papers  were  read  : — 

1.  "John  Lye's  Descendants,  and  their  Successors  at  Glonaagh, 
County  Kildare,"  Part  II.     By  Rev.  E.  O'Leary. 

2.  "  Castleroe."  By  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  M.B.I.A.,  Hon. 
Secretary. 

Owing  to  the  regretted  absence  of  the  President,  the  reading 
of  the  Paper  standing;  in  his  name  was  postponed. 

Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  exhibited  a  collection  of  old  Irish 
rush-light  holders,  in  wrought-iron,  which  was  supplemented  by 
a  curious  specimen  from  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ifrench's  collection. 

Lord  Walter  FitzQerald  exhibited  some  monumental  rub- 
bings from  Kilkea  Churchyard. 

Votes  of  thanks  having  been  passed  to  those  who  had  read 
Papers  and  lent  Exhibits,  to  the  High  Sheriff  of  Kildare  for 
the  use  of  the  Court  House,  and  to  the  Chairman  for  presiding, 
the  proceedings  terminated. 

Note. — The  Hon.  Editor  wishes  to  apprise  the  Members 
that  Miss  Margaret  Stokes  has  been  good  enough  to  present  the 
block  of  her  drawing  of  Donacomper  Church  (represented  in 
Vol.  II,  No.  5,  of  The  Journal)  to  the  Society,  and  he  ventures 
to  take  this  opportunity  of  tendering  the  thanks  of  the  Society 
to  the  donor. 

Report  of  Council  for  1897. 

The  Council  of  the  ArchsBological  Society  beg  to  report  that 
the  Society  has  only  lost  one  of  its  members  by  death  since  our 
last  General  Meeting,  viz.,  Mr.  T.  J.  Hannon,^  of  Athy,  a 
zealous  supporter  of  the  Society. 

The  Roll  of  Membership  now  amounts  to  154,  of  which 
number  fourteen  are  Life  Members. 

The  first  Meeting  of  the  past  year  was  held  on  the  24th 


'  Mr.  Hannon  read  a  Paper  on  St.  John's  Friary,  Athy,  in  September, 
1892. 


334  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

February,  in  the  Conrt  House,  Naas,  kindly  lent  by  the  High 
Sheriff,  Surgeon-Major  Keogh,  at  which  Papers  were  read,  and 
much  important  business  in  connection  with  the  working  of  the 
Society  was  transacted. 

In  deference  to  the  wishes  of  the  Hon.  Treasurer,  who 
desired  to  see  the  expenses  in  connection  with  the  publication 
of  Ths  Journal  reduced,  and  more  in  accordance  with  the  in- 
come of  the  Society,  a  Sub-Committee^  consisting  of  Mr.  T. 
Cooke-Trench  and  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  was  appointed,  to  report 
as  to  the  best  means  by  which  a  reduction  in  the  expenses  of 
the  production  of  The  Journal  could  be  arrived  at,  and  to  take 
all  necessary  steps  to  that  end. 

This  Sub-Committee  has  gone  into  the  question  very  fully, 
and  the  principal  result  of  its  deliberations  has  been  the  change 
of  printers. 

The  Excursion  Meeting  was  fixed  this  past  year  for  Grange 
Con,  Moone,  and  district,  it  being  thought  desirable  to  explore 
new  ground  as  much  as  possible  each  year.  Our  last  Excursion 
meeting  was  in  every  way  worthy  of  the  Jubilee  year,  for  our 
Members  mustered  in  strength,  and  the  attendance  was  the 
largest  since  the  memorable  one  in  1893 ;  the  only  cause  for 
regret  being  the  absence  of  our  leader  the  President. 

Mr.  D.  Mahony  kindly  invited  the  Members  of  the  Society 
and  their  friends  to  tea  at  Grange  Con. 

As  usual,  a  full  account  of  this  Meeting,  and  the  Papers 
read  thereat,  will  appear  in  The  Journal. 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  will  present  his  Report,  and  he  states  in 
conjunction  with  Mr.  Sutcliffe,  our  Hon.  Auditor,  that  the 
finances  of  the  Society  have  shown  improvement  since  our 
Meeting  last  February. 

When  Canon  Sherlock,  in  response  to  the  earnest  request  of 
the  Society,  kindly  undertook  to  resume  the  office  of  Hon. 
Editor,  the  Members  promised  to  support  him  by  literary  efforts 
on  their  part,  and  in  connection  therewith  the  Council  take  this 
opportunity  to  urge  Members  to  assist  the  Editor  by  contri- 
buting Papers  at  the  Meetings  or  for  publication  in  The  Journal. 
The  mass  of  records  in  connection  with  the  history  of  the 
county  is  practically  inexhaustible,  and  there  are  many  subjects 
and  objects  of  interest  as  yet  untouched  and  awaiting  to  be 
dealt  with. 

In  reference  thereto  many  branches  might  be  enumerated. 
Genealogy  and  Heraldry  have  so  far  formed  but  a  small  portion 
of  our  Journal,  and  we  must  not  forget  that  in  the  history  of 
the  older  families  of  the  county  is  really  embodied  the  history  of 
the  county  itself. 


COUNTY   KILDARE   ARCH.4!:0L0GICAL  SOCIETY.  335 

Papers  such  as  that  contributed  by  our  Member,  Mr.  J. 
Bibton  GarstiD,  f.s.a.,  on  the  Hi^h  Sheriffs  of  Kildare,  are  of  the 
utmost  importance  in  an  historical  point  of  view. 

Then  there  is  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald's  forthcoming  list  of 
the  Bangers  of  the  Curragh.  In  short,  we  would  beg  of  all  our 
Members  to  second  our  efforts  and  endeavour  to  contribute  Papers 
to  Thb  Journal.  Possibly  they  may  possess  family  manuscript 
diaries,  and  the  like,  the  publication  of  which  would  give  a  great 
insight  into  the  social  condition  of  the  county  in  the  past. 
And  we  might  also  mention— for  this  is  par  excellence  a  hunting 
county — that  the  Kildare  Hunt  is  waiting  for  an  historian  ;  for  is 
it  not  one  of  the  oldest,  if  not  the  oldest  Hunt  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  records  of  which  extend  back  well  into  the  middle  of 
the  last  century  ? 

It  has  struck  the  Council  to  suggest  that  those  of  us  who 
have  Baths  and  Tumuli  on  their  property  should  make  arrange- 
ments, with  the  assistance  of  the  Society,  to  carry  put  careful 
excavations,  with  a  view  to  learning  more  of  their  nature  and 
contents. 

The  assistance  of  those  of  us  who  have  a  knowledge  of  such 
earth-mounds  will  be  surely  forthcoming  to  aid  any  who  may  be 
willing  to  engage  in  such  an  exploration ;  and  in  proper  cases 
financial  assistance,  to  a  limited  extent,  will  be  forthcoming  from 
the  coffers  of  the  Society  when  required. 

Two  Members  of  the  Council,  the  Bev.  Edward  O'Leary  and 
Mr.  Thomas  J.  De  Burgh^  retire  by  rotation,  and  being  eligible, 
offer  themselves  for  re-election. 

As  the  Earl  of  Drogheda  has  taken  an  active  interest  in  the 
Society  since  he  has  come  to  live  amongst  us,  the  Council 
would  ask  you  to  elect  him  to  their  number,  feeling  sure  that 
they  will  profit  by  his  assistance  and  archaeological  learning 
gathered  in  extensive  travel. 


Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Council, 

M.  Devitt,    Vice-President. 

Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  )     Hon, 

W.  FiTzGeUALD,  jSecretanes. 

Dated  this  24th  day  of  January,  1898. 


336  PUOCEEDIKGS  OF  THE 


Excursion  Meeting,  1897. 

The  Seventh  Aonual  Excursion  Meeting  took  place  on 
Thursday,  the  16th  September,  1897,  at  Grange  Con,  Moone, 
and  district. 

The  greater  number  of  the  members  and  their  friends 
journejed  to  the  meeting  by  the  morning  train,  reaching 
Colbinstown  Station  at  10  o'clock — though  a  considerable  con- 
tingent found  their  way  to  the  rendezvous  by  road.  By  way  of 
further  adding  to  the  convenience  of  the  members,  the  Society 
had  arninged  to  have  the  vehicles  chartered  for  the  conveyance 
of  members  numbered  and  labelled,  thereby  avoiding  much 
confusion  in  finding  carriages  at  the  various  stoppages. 

A  short  drive  brought  the  company  to  Killeen  Gormac  Burial 
Ground,  lying  close  to  the  road,  where  a  brief  Paper  was  read  by 
Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  dealing  with  the  Ogham  stones,  which 
form  the  chief  feature  of  interest  in  the  locality. 

A  drive  of  nearly  five  miles  brought  the  company  to  Timolin, 
where  the  sun  shone  out,  and  the  weather,  which  had  hitherto 
looked  doubtful,  took  a  change  for  the  better. 

On  the  way,  the  picturesque  village  of  Ballytore,  the  early 
home  of  Edmund  Burke,  might  be  noticed  in  the  valley  beneath 
the  road. 

At  Timolin,  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  read  a  Paper  by  Mr. 
A.  Hartshorne,  f.b.a.,  on  the  curious  Becumbent  Effigy, 
dating  from  about  the  year  1180,  and  one  of  the  earliest  of  its 
kind  in  Ireland. 

This  Paper,  by  one  of  the  first  authorities  on  Becumbent 
Effigies,  read  beside  the  monument  itself,  afforded  great  instruc- 
tion and  interest  to  those  assembled. 

Lord  Walter  FitzGerald  then  read  a  Paper  dealing  with 
the  history  of  the  whole  immediate  district,  embracing  the 
Church,  Nunnery,  and  Castle,  all  except  the  former  being  now 
non-existent,  and  of  the  church  only  those  portions  of  the  walls 
remaining  which  are  embodied  in  the  present  comparatively 
modern  structure.  After  an  inspection  of  the  church  plate  (which 
bore  an  inscription  recording  that  it  had  been  recovered  from  the 
rebels  in  17.98),  a  move  was  made  for  Moone  Abbey,  a  mile  and 
a  half  distant,  where  the  Society  was  received  by  Mrs.  Carroll,  in 
the  absence  of  Mr.  F.  M.  Carroll. 

Here  much  of  interest  was  found  grouped  in  a  limited  area, 
including  the  fine  Celtic  Cross,  recently  restored  by  the  Society; 
the  ruins  of  an  old  abbey,  with  several  curious  monuments  ;  the 
fine  Tower  of  the  old  Castle  in  a  good  state  of  preservation  ;  and 


/ 


COUNTY   KILDAKE   ARCILliO LOGICAL  SOCIETY.  337 

the  present  dwelling-bouse,  which  forms  a  good  specimen  of  an 
early  Georgian  house  with  extending  wings.  Mrs.  Carroll  read 
a  Paper  on  the  Gross  and  the  Abbey,  and  many  members  were 
enabled  for  the  first  time  to  see  a  specimen  of  the  practical  work 
of  the  Society  in  the  excellent  restoration  of  one  of  the  finest 
Celtic  Crosses  left  in  Ireland. 

After  a  visit  to  the  Tower  of  Moone  Castle,  many  ascending 
to  the  top  to  obtain  a  fine  panoramic  view  of  the  district,  the 
carriages  were  brought  into  requisition,  and  the  tour  resumed. 
Passing  Killelan,  where  time  did  not  permit  of  a  stop,  the  pic- 
turesque village  of  the  Grange,  formerly  called  Bumbo  Hall,  was 
reached  at  2  p.m.,  where  luncheon  was  awaiting  the  party  in  the 
Club  Uoom. 

By  this  time  th6  numbers  bad  increased  to  nearly  200,  and 
the  members  and  their  friends  proceeded  to  Grange  Con,  many 
preferring  to  walk  through  the  Deer  Park.  The  first  object  of 
interest  inspected  was  the  ruin  of  the  old  Castle  in  the  grounds, 
on  which  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  read  a  paper,  giving  a  short 
history  of  the  locality,  fuller  particulars  of  which  will  appear 
in  The  Journal. 

Mr.  Roche  here  took  an  excellent  photograph  of  all  those 
assembled. 

The  company  then  wended  their  way  through  the  grounds 
and  gardens,  inspecting  two  curious  old  sun-dials  therein,  and 
were  shown  over  the  interior  of  the  quaint  house  by  Sir  Arthur 
Vicars,  in  the  absence  of  Mr.  D.  Mahony. 

At  four  o'clock  tea  was  served  in  the  Lower  Gallery  by  the 
invitation  of  Mr.  Mahony.  As  the  day  was  now  advanced,  and 
it  was  necessary  for  those  returning  by  train  from  Colbinstown 
to  start,  the  company  dispersed,  and  what  with  most  favourable 
weather,  and  the  many  objects  of  interest  visited,  it  was  generally 
agreed  that  one  of  the  most  successful  excursion  meetings  of  the 
Society  had  been  brought  to  a  close. 

Owing  to  the  situation  of  the  places  visited,  a  considerable 
strain  was  put  on  the  resources  of  the  Society  to  provide  accom- 
modation for  those  attending  the  Meeting ;  but  the  arrangements 
that  had  been  made  by  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  and  Lord 
Walter  FitzGerald,  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  who  had  charge  of  the 
Meeting,  worked  most  satisfactorily. 

Amongst  the  Members  and  Visitors  present  were : — The 
Earl  and  Countess  of  Drogheda,  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald 
and  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster,  Hon.  Secretaries;  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Cooke-Trench,  Dr.  Robert  Lloyd  WooUcombe,  ll.d., 
H.B.LA. ;  Mrs.  and  Miss  WooUcombe,  Rev.  R.  Qainn,  Rev.  S.  R. 
and  Mrs.  McGee,  Rev.  James  Adams,  Mr.  George  Mansfield, 


338  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE 

Mr.  Wm.  B.  J.  Molloy,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmaud  Sweetman, 
SargeoD-Major  J.  R  Keogh,  High  Sheriff  of  Kildare,  and  Mrs. 
Keogh,  Mr.  W.  Grove  White,  c.s.;  MissDupre  Wilson,  Rev.  M. 
Devitt,  Vice-President;  Rev.  V.  Lentaigne,  Dr.  Francis  J. 
Cruise,  Dr.  John  A.  MacDonaid,  Mr.  J.  R.  Blake,  Bev.  James 
Nolan,  Miss  E.  H.  Johnson,  Mr.  J.  B.  Garstin,  f.s.a.  ;  Lord 
Henry  FitzGerald,  Lady  Mahel  FitzGerald,  Mrs.  Wall,  Bev.  B.  C. 
and  Mrs.  Davidson-Houston,  Mr.  H.  Hendrick-Aylmer,  Hon, 
Treasurer;  Mrs.  Mark  Taylor,  Mrs.  Hopkins,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Engledow,  Major  and  Mrs.  Bynd,  Mr.  J  Loch,  ai.,  R.i.a ;  Mr. 
Thomas  Greene,  The  Dean  of  Kildare,  Mr.  A.  S.  Manning, 
Lord  Frederick  FitzGerald,  Lord  George  FitzGerald,  Bev. 
J.  F.  M.  ffrench,  m.b.i.a.  ;  Mr.  Bobert  Cochrane,  F.8.A.,  Hon. 
Secretary  R  S.  A.,  Ire.  Mrs.  and  Miss  Carroll,  Sir  Alex- 
ander and  Lady  Taylor,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  W.  B.  Bice,  Bev.  J. 
Nolan,  Bev.  Thomas  Carberry,  Canon  Sherlock,  Hon.  Editor, 
and  the  Misses  Sherlock,  Mrs.  and  Miss  Greene,  Miss  Bobinson, 
Mr.  A.  Saunders,  Bev.  T.  Whitty,  Miss  A.  Walsh,  Mr.  G.  M. 
Boche,  Miss  Greene,  Miss  Murphy,  Miss  M.  Walsh,  Mrs.  George 
Heathcote,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Vipond  Barry,  Miss  Hallowes,  Mr. 
A.  G.  Wolseley,  the  Misses  Smith,  Miss  Owen,  Miss  Cornwall, 
Miss  Bynd,  Miss  Mansfield,  Miss  Bradshaw,  Bev.  T.  Twamley, 
Mr.  Twamley,  Bev.  S.  Badcliffe,  the  Misses  Stacey,  Mrs.  and 
Miss  Hogel,  &c. 


Beport  of  Committee  appointed  to  consider  the  best  way  to 
bring  the  cost  of  printing  The  Journal  within  the  means  of 
the  Society,  with  power  to  act. 

Your  Committee  started  with  an  earnest  desire  to  continue 
the  printing  of  The  Journal  in  the  same  capable  hands  that 
have  hitherto  produced  it  with  so  much  satisfaction  to  the 
Members  and  credit  to  themselves.  It  quickly  became  evident, 
however,  that  this  could  only  be  done  either  by  redncing 
The  Journal  to  one  issue  in  the  year,  or  by  greatly  curtailing 
the  size  of  the  numbers.  Your  Committee,  therefore,  sought 
tenders  from  various  printing  firms  both  in  England  and  Ireland, 
all  based  on  the  last  number  of  The  Journal  and  on  identical 
specifications  ;  and  by  a  careful  comparison  of  these  they  arrived 
at  the  conclusion  that  the  interests  of  the  Society  will  be  best 
served  by  entrusting  their  work  to  Messrs.  C.  W.  Gibbs  &  Son,  of 
Wicklow  St.,  Dublin.  From  personal  experience  they  feel  satisfied 
that  this  firm  will  be  able   satisfactorily  to  perform  the  work 


COUNTY   KILDARE   ARCH.KOLOGICAL  SCJCIETY.  339 

required  of  them.  MeBsrs.  Gibbs  preferred  to  have  nothing  to 
do  with  supplying  blocks  for  illustrations,  but  this  gave  rise 
to  no  difficulty.  On  the  contrary,  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald,  who 
has  hitherto  kindly  managed  the  illustrating  department  of 
The  Journal,  also  preferred  this  course.  They  have  therefore 
placed  the  printing  of  the  Jannaiy  number  of  Thb  Journal  in 
the  hands  of  Messrs.  Gibbs,  and  trust  that  their  action  will  meet 
with  the  approval  of  the  Society. 

Thos.  Cooke-Trench. 
Arthur  Vicars,  Ulster, 
W,  FitzGebald. 

2l3t  Jamuiry,  1898. 


340 


PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE 


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COUNTY   KILDARE   ARCILEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.         34 1 

LIST    OF    HONORARY    OFFICERS    AND    MEMBERS. 

(COBRECTED   TO   Uth    JANUARY,   1808.) 


^rcsibtnl : 
THE  EARL  OF  MAYO. 

$kt-^rt6ibtnt : 
THE  REV.  MATTHEW  DEVITT,  S.J. 

Aonncil : 
(in  ordeb  of  election.) 

THOMAS  COOKE-TRENCH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
GEORGE  MANSFIELD,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
THE  REV.  EDWARD  O'LEARY,  P.P. 
THOMAS  J.  DE  BURGH,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
AMBROSE  MORE-0'FERRALL,  ESQ.,  D.L. 
THE  EARL  OF  DROGHEDA. 

Jon.  Sreasttru : 
HANS  HENDRICK-AYLMER,  ESQ.,  Kekdiffstown,  Sallinh. 


Joir.  Sccrdarus : 

LORD  WALTER  FITZGERALD,  M.RLA.,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey. 
SIR  ARTHUR  VICARS,  F.S.A.,  Uhter,  44  Wellington  Road,  Dublin. 


Jon.  (Ebitor : 
THE  REV.  CANON  SHERLOCK,  M.A.,  Shbrlockstown,  Sallins. 


342  PROCEEDINGS  OK  THE 


[Olttcers  are  iiidicaUxl  by  lieavy  tyiic ;  Life  Mcmficni  liy  an  ai»t«ribk(*).  J 

Adams,  Rev.  James,  Kill  Rectory,  Straffan. 

Archbold,  Miss,  Davidstown,  Castledermot 

Aylmer,  Miss,  Donadea  Castle,  Ck>.  Kildare. 

Aylmer,  Algernon,  Rathmore,  Naas. 

AYLMER,  H.  HENDRICK-,  Hon.  Treiuurer,  Kerdiffstown,  Saliins. 

*Barton,  Hon.  Mrs.,  Straffan  House,  Straffan. 
*Barton,  Major  H.  L.,  d.u,  Straffan  lloase,  Straffan. 

Beard,  T.,  m.d.,  Glebe  Crescent,  Stirling. 

Bird,  Rev.  John  T.,  Curragh  Camp. 

Blake,  J.  R,  22  Morehampton-road,  Dublin. 

Bonham,  Colonel  J.,  Ballintaggart,  Colbinstown,  Co.  Kildare. 

Bourke,  The  Hon.  Algernon,  White's  Club,  London,  S.W. 

Brooke,  J.  T.,  Dungannon,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Brown,  Stephen  J.,  Naas. 

Burke,  Very  Rev.  E.,  p.p.,  Bagnalstown,  Co.  Carlow. 
*Burtchaell,  G.  D.,  m.a.,  7  St.  Stephen*s-green,  Dublin. 

Byrne,  Very  Rev.  M.  J.,  o.p.,  College  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aquin,  Newbridge, 
Co.  Kildare. 

Cane,  Major  Claude,  St.  Wolstan's,  Celbridge. 

Carberry,  Rev.  Thomas,  p.p..  The  Presbytery,  Ballitore. 

Carroll,  Frederick,  Moone  Abbey,  Moone. 

Carroll,  Rev.  James,  c.c,  Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 

Clarke,  Mrs.,  Athgoe  Park,  Hazlehatch,  Co.  Dublin. 
"^Clements,  Colonel.  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Clements,  Mrs.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 
^Clements,  Henry  J.  B.,  d.l.,  Killadoon,  Celbridge. 

Goady,  D.  P.,  m.d.,  Naas. 

Cochrane,  Robert,  f.s.a.,  m.b.i.a.,  Hon.  Secretary  r.8.a.x.,  17  Highfield-road. 
Rathgar. 

Cole,  Rev.  J.  F.,  The  Rectory,  Portarlington. 

CoUey,  G.  P.  A.,  Mount  Temple,  Clontarf,  Co.  Dublin. 

Conmee,  Rev.  J.  F.,  s.j.,  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Upper  Gardiner-street,  Dublin. 

Cooper,  Austin  Darner,  Drumnigh  House,  Portmarnock,  Co.  Dublin. 

Coote,  Stanley,  The  Orchard  House,  Wargrave,  Berks. 

Cowell,  Very  Rev.  G.  Y.,  Dean  of  Kildare,  The  Deanery,  Kildare. 

Cruise,  Francis,  m.d.,  Baltinglass,  Co.  Wicklow. 

Cullen,  Rev.  John,  Adm.,  Carlow. 


I 


COUNTY   KILDARE  ARCH/KOLOCUCAL  SOCIETY.         343 

Daly,  C,  26  Westmoreland-street,  Dublin. 

Dames,  R.  S.  Long\*orth,  21  Herbert-street,  Dublin. 

Dane,  J.  Whiteside,  Abbeyfield,  Naas. 

Darby,  M.,  m.d.,  Monasterevan. 

Davidson-Houston,  Rev.  B.  C,  St.  John's  Vicarage,  Sydney-parade,  Dublin. 

Day,  Robert,  F.8.A.,  m.r.i.a.,  3  Sydney-place,  Cork. 

Dease,  Colonel  Sir  Gerald,  Celbridge  Abbey,  Celbridge. 

DE  BURGH,  THOMAS  J.,  d.l.,  Oldtown,  Naas. 

DEVITT,  Rev.    MATTHEW,  s.j.,    Vice-President,  Rector  of  Clongowes  Wood 

College,  Sallins. 
Doyle,  Rev.  J.  J.,  p.p.,  Derrycappagh,  Mountmelliok,  Queen's  County. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Laurence,  c.c,  Moone. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Mark,  c.c,  Woodstock  Cottage,  Athy. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Thomas,  c.c,  Caragh,  Naas. 
DROQHEDA,  THE  EARL  OF,  Moore  Abbey,  Monasterevin. 
Drogheda,  The  Countess  of,  Moore  Abbey,  Monasterevin. 
Duggan,  Rev.  William,  c.c,  Athy. 
Dunne,  Rev.  John,  c.c,  Clane. 
Dunne,  Laurence,  j.p.,  DoUardstown  House,  Athy. 

Elliott,  Rev.  William,  The  Manse,  Naas. 
Engledow,  Mrs.,  Burton  Hall,  Carlow. 
Engledow,  C.  J.,  m.p.,  Burton  Hall,  Carlow. 

Falkiner,  F.  J.,  m.d..  Spring*  Gardens,  Naas. 

ffrench.  Rev.  J.  F.  M.,  m.b.i.a.  ,  Ballyredmond  House,  Clonegal,  Co.  Carlow. 
•FitzGerald,  Lady  Eva,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey,  Co.  Kildare. 

FitzGerald,  Lady  Mabel,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey,  Co.  Kildare. 
*FitzGerald,  Lady  Nesta,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey,  Co.  Kildare. 
•FitzGerald,  Lord  Frederick,  Carton,  Maynooth,  Co.  Kildare. 
♦FitzGerald,  Lord  George,  Kilkea  Castle,  Maganey,  Co.  Kildare. 

FitzGerald.  Lord  Henry,  36  Ashley  Gardens,  Victoria-street,  London,  S.W. 
♦FITZQERALD,  LORD  WALTER,  m.r.i.a.,  Hon.  Secretary^  Kilkea  Cnstle,  Maganey, 
Co.  Kildare. 

Fogarty,  Rev.  M.,  Professor,  The  College,  Maynooth. 

Foley,  Most  Rev.  Patrick,  d.d.,  Bishop  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin,  Braganza, 
Carlow. 

Ganly,  Rev.  C.  W.,  The  Rectory,  Castledermot,  Co.  Kildare. 

Gargan,  Right  Rev.  Monsignor  Denis,  d.t>..  President  of  St.  Patrick's  College, 

Maynooth. 
Garstin,    J.    Ribton,    d.l.,    f.s.a.,   m.r.i.a.,    Braganstown,  Castlebellingham, 

Co.  Louth. 
Glover,  Edward,  19  Prince  Patrick-terrace,  North  Circular-road,  Dublin. 
Graham,  Rev.  C.  I.,  Kildrought  Parsonage,  Celbridge. 
Greene,  Thomas,  ll.d.,  Millbrook,  Maganey. 

Pade,  Arthur.  c.e.,  Carlow, 


344  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE 

Higginson,  Lady,  Ck>nnellinore,  Newbridge. 

Hoguet,  Madame  Henry  L.,  48  West  Twenty-eighth-street,  New  York. 

Hopkins,  Mrs.,  Blackball  Castle,  KilcuUen,  Co.  Kildare. 

Jameson,  Miss  Sophia,  Glenmona,  Moone. 

Jesson,  Rev.  J.  L.,  Tbe  Rectory,  Kilkea,  Co.  Kildare. 

Johnson,  Miss,  Lancaster  House,  Ballinasloe. 

Joyce,  Patrick  Weston,  Lyre  na  Grena,  Leinster-road,  Rathmines,  Dublin. 

Kennedy,  Rev.  H.,  St.  David's  Rectory,  Naas. 
Keogh,  Surgeon-Major  T.  R.,  Castleroe,  Maganey.  Co.  Kildare. 
Kilkelly,  John,  ll.d.,  46  Upper  Mount-street,  Dublin. 
Kirkpatrick,  William,  Donacomper,  Celbridge. 

La  Touche,  Mrs.  John,  Harristown,  Brannoxtown. 
Lentaigne,  Rev.  Victor,  b..t.,  Clongowes  Wood  College,  Sallins. 
Loch,  J.,  c.LR.LC,  The  Firs,  Naas. 

Long,  Miss  A.  F.,  Woodfield,  Kilcavan,  Geashill,  King's  Coanty. 
Longlield,  Robert,  19  Harcourt-street,  Dublin. 

MacDonald,  J.  R,  m.d.,  Baltinglass,  Co.  Wicklow. 
M'Gee,  Rev.  S.  R.,  The  Rectory,  Dunlavin. 
M'Sweeny,  J.  G.,  18  Claremount-road,  Sandymount,  Dublin. 
Maguire,  P.  A.,  2  Oldtown-terrace,  Naas. 
Mahony,  David,  d.l..  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Mahony,  George  Gun.  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Manning,  C.  S.,  Bank  House,  Baltinglass,  Co.  Wicklow. 
MANSFIELD,  GEORGE,  d.l..  Morristown  Lattin,  Naas. 
Mayo,  Dowager  Countess  of,  20  Eaton-square,  London,  S.W. 
MAYO,  The  EARL  OF,  Preddent,  Palmerstown,  Straffan. 
MoUoy,  William  R.,  m.r.i.a.,  17  Brookfield- terrace,  Donnybrook,  Dublin. 
Mooney,  William,  j.p.,  The  Castle,  Leixlip. 
*Moran,  His  Eminence  Cardinal,  Sydney,  N.  S.  Wales,  Australia. 
Morrin,  Rev.  Thomas.  p.i».,  Naas. 

Murphy,  The  Right  Rev.  Monsignor  Michael,  p.p.,  St  Brigid's,  Kildare. 
Murphy,  W.  A.,  Osberstown  House,  Naas. 

Nolan,  Rev.  James,  c.c,  Kilmeade,  Athy. 
Norman,  George,  12  Brock-street,  Bath,  England. 

O'Brien,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Peter,  Bart.,  Lord  Chief  Justice,  Castletown,  Celbridge. 
O'Byrne,  Rev.  Patrick,  c.c,  SS.  Michael  and  John's,  Exchange-street,  Dublin. 
O'Dea,  Very  Rev.  Thomas,  d.d..  The  College,  Maynooth. 
*OTERRALL,  AMBROSE  MORE-,  d.l.,  Ballyna,  Moyvally. 
O'Hanlon,  Very  Rev.  John  Canon,  p.p.,  3  Leahy's-ter.,  Sandymount,  Dublin. 
O'Kelly,  Robert,  m.d.,  Landenstown,  Sallins, 


COUNTY   KILDARE  ARCH/KOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.         345 

O'Kelly,  T.  E.  T.,  m.d.,  Maynooth. 
♦O'LEARY,  Rev.  E.,  p.p.,  Ballyna,  Moyvally. 
O'Leary,  Rev.  Patrick,  The  College,  Maynooth. 
Owen,  Arthur,  Shanvaghey,  Ballacolla,  Queen's  Co. 

Palmer,  Charles  CoUey,  d.l.,  Bahan,  Edenderry. 
Ponsonby,  Hon.  Gerald,  Palmerstown,  Straffan. 
Ponsonby,  Lady  Maria,  Palmerstown,  Straflfan. 
Pratt,  Mrs.,  Glenheste,  Manor-Kilbride,  Co.  Dublin. 

Quinn,  Rev.  Bichard,  b.a.,  c.c,  Kilmeade  House,  Athy. 

Bobinson,  John,  m.d.,  j.p.,  Johnstown-bridge,  Co.  Kildare. 

Boper,  C.  E.  A.,  b.l.,  55  Leeson-park,  Dublin. 

Byan,  Very  Bev.  John  C,  o.p.,  College  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aquin,  Newbridge. 

Bynd,  Major  B.  F.,  Blackball,  Sallins. 

Saunders,  Colonel  B.,  d.l.,  Saunders'  Grove,  Stratford-on-Slaney,  Co.  Wicklow. 

SHERLOCK,  Rev.  Canon,  Uon.  Editor,  Sherlockstown,  Sallins. 

Sknse,  Bev.  Bichard  D.,  Ballykean  Bectory,  Portarlington. 

Somers,  Mrs.,  The  Bectory,  Dunboyne,  Co.  Meath. 

Somerville-Large,  Bev.  W.,  Carnalway  Bectory,  Kilcullen. 

Staples,  William,  Naas. 

Strangeway,  W.  N.,  Breffni  Villa,  Eglinton-road,  Donnybrook,  Dublin. 

Supple,  K.,  D.I.R.I.C.,  Dunlavin,  Co.  Wicklow. 

Sutclifife,  J.  B.,  Hibernian  Bank,  Naas. 

Sweetman,  E.,  Longtown,  Sallins. 

Sweetman,  Mrs.,  Longtown,  Sallins. 

Swinton,  The  Hon.  Mrs.,  82  Cadogan-place,  London,  W. 

Synnott,  Nicholas,  14  Herbert-crescent,  Hans-place,  London,  S.W. 

Taylor,  Mrs.,  Golden  Fort,  Baltinglass,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Taylor,  Mark,  Golden  Fort,  Baltinglass,  Go.  Wicklow. 
Thomhill,  F.  Evelyn,  Bathangan  House,  Bathangan. 
TRENCH,  THOMAS  COOKE-,  d.l.,  Millicent,  Sallins. 
Trench,  Mrs.  Cooke-,  Millicent,  Sallins. 
Tynan,  The  Bight  Bev.  Monsignor  Thomas,  p.p.,  Newbridge. 
Tyrrell,  Garrett  C,  Ballinderry  House,  Carbury,  Co.  Kildare. 

VICARS,  SIR  ARTHUR,  f.8.a.,  Ulster  King-of-Arms,  Hon.  Secretary, 

44  Wellington -road,  Dublin. 
Vigors,  Colonel  P.  D.,  Holloden,  Bagnalstown,  Co.  Carlow. 

Wall,  Colonel  J.,  Knockareagh,  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Wall,  Mrs.,  Knockareagh,  Grange  Con,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Walsh,  Bev.  Martin,  p.p.,  Castledennot,  Co.  Kildare. 
Warmington,  Alfred  A.,  Munster  c^nd  Leinster  Bank,  Naas, 


346  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 

Weldon,  General,  Forenaughts,  Kaas. 
Weldon,  Captain  A.  A.,  Kilmorony,  Athy. 
Weldon,  Lady,  Kilmorony,  Athy. 
Westropp,  T.  J.,  c.e.,  77  Lower  Leeson-street,  Dublin. 
Wheeler,  W.  I.,  m.i>.,  f.r.c.s.1.,  32  Merrion-square,  N.,  Dublin. 
White,  W.  Grove,  13  Upper  Ormond-quay,  Dublin. 
Willis,  G.  de  L.,  4  Kildare-street,  Dublin. 
Wilson,  Colonel  W.  F.,  The  Vicarage,  Clane. 
Wilson,  Mrs.  B.  M.,  Coolcarrigan,  Kilcock. 
Wilson,  Miss  R.  Dupr^,  Coolcarrigan,  Kilcock. 
Wolfe,  George,  Bishopsland,  Ballymore-Enstace,  Naas. 
Woollcombe,  Bobert  L.,  ll.d.,  m.b.i.a.,  14  Waterloo-road,  Dublin. 
♦Wright,  E.  Percival,  m.a.,  m.d..  Secretary  r.i.a.,  5  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

fom  Ptmb«: 
Miss  Margaret  Stokes,  Carrig  Breac,  Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 


/ 


COUNTY   KILDARE   ARCH/KOLOGICAL  SOCIETY.         347 

RULES. 

I.  That  this  Society  be  called  "  The  County  Eildare  Archaeological  Society." 

II.  That  the  purpose  of  the  Society  be  the  promotion  of  the  study  and 
knowledge  of  the  antiquities  and  objects  of  interest  in  the  county  and  sur- 
rounding districts. 

III.  That  the  Society  consist  of  a  President,  Vice-President,  Council, 
Hon.  Treasurer,  two  Hon.  Secretaries,  and  Members.  Ladies  are  eligible  for 
Membership. 

lY.  That  the  names  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  desiring  to  become  Members 
of  the  Society  shall  be  submitted,  together  with  the  names  of  their  proposers 
and  seconders,  to  the  Council,  and,  if  approved  by  them,  shall  then  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  next  Meeting  of  the  Society  for  Election. 

V.  That  the  affairs  of  the  Society  be  managed  by  the  President,  Vice- 
President,  Hon.  Treasurer,  and  Eon.  Secretaries,  together  with  a  Council  of 
six  Members.  That  for  ordinary  business  two  shall  form  a  quorum ;  but  any 
matter  upon  which  a  difference  of  opinion  arises  shall  be  reserved  for  another 
meeting,  in  which  three  shall  form  a  quorum. 

YI.  That  two  Members  of  the  Council  shall  retire  by  rotation  each  year, 
but  shall  be  eligible  for  re-election. 

YII.  That  Members  pay  an  Annual  Subscription  of  Ten  Shillings  (due 
on  the  1st  of  January),  and  that  the  payment  of  £5  shall  constitute  a  Life 
Member. 

Vni.  That  Meetings  of  the  Society  be  held  not  less  than  twice  in  each 
year,  one  Meeting  being  an  excursion  to  some  place  of  archaeological  interest 
in  the  district. 

IX.  That  at  the  first  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  each  year  the  Hon.  Trea- 
surer shall  furnish  a  balance-sheet. 

X.  That  a  Journal  of  the  Society  be  published  annually,  containing  the 
Proceedings  and  a  column  for  local  Notes  and  Queries,  which  shall  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  Council  for  their  approval. 

XL  That  the  Meetings  of  the  year  be  fixed  by  the  Council,  due  notice  of 
the  dates  of  the  Meetings  being  given  to  Members. 

XII.  That  Members  be  at  liberty  to  introduce  visitors  at  the  Meetings  of 
the  Society. 

XIII.  That  no  Member  shall  receive  The  Journal  whose  Subscription  for 
the  previous  year  has  not  been  paid. 

E  ^ 


Lord  Edward  FitzGerald 

(b.  15th  Oct.,  1763;  (1.  4th  June.  179H). 

From  ft  "Water-colour,  4j  in.  by  3J  in.,  by  Horace  Hone,  in  the  Duke  of  Leinater's 
posijcssion  at  Carton. 


litml  Edwanl's  Hi^atiire, 


AN  ACCOUNT  OF  THE 
ARREST  OF  LORD  EDWARD  FITZGERALD. 

[Contributed  by  LORD  FREDERICK  FITZGERALD.] 

THIS  extract  is  takeD  from  the  original  narrative  written  by 
Mr.  Nicholas  Murphy,  at  whose  house  (now  No.  151  Thomas 
Street)  Lord  Edward  FitzGerald  was  arrested.  The  narrative  is 
dated  29th  November,  1881,  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  the 
Dake  of  Leinster,  at  Carton. 

Murphy  was  confined  in  Newgate  as  a  state  prisoner,  without 
being  brought  to  trial,  for  fifty-five  weeks.  During  this  time  his 
house  was  occupied  as  a  barrack,  and  all  his  goods  were  looted 
or  destroyed. 

F.  FitzGerald. 

"Arrest  of  the  Late  Lord  Edward  FitzGerald. 

"On  the  night  of  Friday,  the  18th  of  May,  1798,  Lord  Edward 
FitzGerald  came  to  my  house.  No.  153  Thomas  Street,  in  com- 
pany with  a  lady,^  about  the  hour  of  ten  or  eleven  o'clock  at 
night.  I  did  expect  him  the  previous  evening,  and  the  reason 
I  state  this  is,  that  a  friend  of  his  came  to  me,  and  requested 
that  I  would  receive  him,  as  he  wished  to  move  from  where  he 
was  at  present.  I  was  getting  the  house  cleaned  down  and 
scoured,  and  I  brought  his  friend  in,  and  he  saw  the  persons 
employed  as  I  told  him  ;  he  mentioned  that  it  was  not  intended 
to  remove  him  immediately,  but  said,  '  I  think  a  week  or  ten 


'  A  Mrs.  Moore,  in  whose  husband's  house,  No.  119  Thomas  Street, 
I/>rd  Edward  had  been  previously  concealed. 


3 so  AN   ACCOUNT  OF  THE 

days  would  answer.'  I  assented,  and  indeed  with  reluctance. 
However,  I  made  no  mention  of  that.  In  a  few  days  preyions 
to  Lord  Edward's  coming  the  Government  had  offered  One 
Thousand  Pounds  Howard  for  his  apprehension.  I  certainly  felt 
very  uneasy  at  this  circumstance,  and  I  wished  very  much  to  see 
Lord  Edward's  friend,  and  where  to  see  him  I  did  not  know. 
As  a  man  of  honour  I  wished  to  keep  my  word,  and  I  could  not 
think  of  refusing  him  admittance  when  he  came.  Unfortunately 
for  him  and  myself,  I  did  so.  I  expected  him  on  Thursday,  but 
he  did  not  come  till  Friday,  18th  May,  '98.  I  perceived  he  looked 
very  bad  from  what  he  appeared  when  I  saw  him  before.  The 
lady  that  came  with  him  did  not  stay  long,  and  I  made  a  tender 
of  my  services  to  go  home  with  her  as  she  lived  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. There  was  a  person  we  met  on  our  way  that  I  believe 
was  waiting  for  her.  I  had  some  knowledge  of  him  myself,  so 
I  retuined  to  the  house  with  a  troubled  mind. 

"  Lord  Edward  told  me  he  was  very  bad  with  a  cold,  and  it  was 
easy  to  perceive  it.  I  had  procured  for  him  some  whey,  and  put 
some  sherry  wine  in  it.  At  this  time  he  appeared  quite  tranquil, 
and  went  up  to  the  room  intended  for  him ;  the  back  room  in  the 
attic  story.  In  the  morning  he  came  down  to  breakfast,  and 
appeared  better  than  the  night  before.  The  friend  that  spoke 
to  me  concerning  him  came,  I  believe,  about  eleven  o'clock ; 
then  it  came  out  for  the  first  time  an  account  of  the  rencontre 
that  took  place  the  night  before  between  Ldi^d  Edward's  party 
and  Major  Sirr's.^  It  *s  perfectly  clear  in  my  numble  judgment 
that  Major  Sirr  had  known  of  his  removal  and  the  direction  that 
he  intended  to  take;  for  his  party  and  Lord  Edward's  party 
came  in  contact  in  a  place  called  Island  Street,  the  lower  end  oif 
Watling  Street ;  they  there  met,  and  a  skirmish  took  place,  and 
in  the  confusion  Lord  Edward  got  off.  However,  one  of  the 
party  ^  was  taken,  but  could  not,  I  believe,  be  identified.  I 
found  my  situation  now  very  painful,  but  nothing  to  what  it  was 
afterwards. 

"  In  the  course  of  the  day  (Saturday,  19th)  a  guard  of  soldiers, 
and  I  believe  Major  Swan,  Major  Sirr,  a  Mr.  Medlicot,  and 
another,  were  making  a  search  at  a  Mr.  Moore,  Yellow  Lion,  in 
Thomas  Street.  A  friend  came  and  mentioned  the  circumstance 
to  me.  I  immediately  mentioned  it  to  Lord  E.,  and  had  him 
conveyed  out  of  the  house  in  a  valley  of  one  of  the  warehouses. 
While  I  was  doing  this,  Mr.  N.*  came  and  inquired  of  the 
girl  if  I  was  at  home.     I  believe  she  said  not.    *  Bid  him  be 


*  The  Town  Major.         ^  William  M*Cabe.  '  I.e.,  Samuel  Neilson. 


ARREST  OK   LORD   EDWARD   FITZGERALD.  35 1 

cautious/  I  think,  was  what  she  told  me  he  said.  I  considered 
that  conduct  very  ill-timed  ;  however,  I  am  led  to  believe  it  was 
well-intended.  On  Saturday  morning,  the  day  of  the  arrest,  there 
came  a  single  rap  of  the  door.  I  opened  it  myself,  and  a  woman 
with  a  bundle  appeared,  and  inquired  if  that  was  Mr.  M.^ 
I  said  it  was ;  she  informed  me  she  came  from  Mrs.  M.,^ 
and  was  desired  to  leave  that  bundle  there.  I  knew  not  what  it 
contained,  but  to  my  surprise,  when  I  opened  it,  I  found  it  to  be  a 
uniform  of  a  very  beautiful  green  colour,  gimpt  or  braided  down 
the  front,  with  crimson  or  rose-colour  cuffs,  and  a  cape.  There 
were  two  dresses — one  a  long-skirted  coat,  vest  and  pantaloons  ; 
the  other  a  short  jacket  that  came  round  quite  close,  and  braided 
in  front;  there  was  also  a  pair  of  overalls  that  buttoned  from 
the  hip  to  the  ankle,  with,  I  think,  black  Spanish  leather  inside  ; 
I  suppose  they  were  intended  for  riding.  The  bundle  contained 
a  cap  of  a  very  fanciful  description,  extremely  attractive,  formed 
exactly  like  a  sugar-loaf,  or,  as  Mr.  Moore  says,  conically  ;  that 
part  that  went  round  the  forehead  green,  the  upper  part  crimson, 
with  a  large  silk  tassel,  and  would  incline  one  side  or  the  other 
occasionally  when  on  the  head.  After  placing  Lord  £.  in  the 
valley  of  the  warehouse,  I  came  down  in  a  little  time,  and  stood 
at  the  gate ;  the  soldiers  still  at  Mr.  M.*  I  perceived  four  persons 
walking  in  the  middle  of  the  street,  some  of  them  in  uniform  ;  I 
believe  Yeomen.  I  believe  Major  Swan,  Captain  Medlicot,* 
4&C.,  was  of  the  party.  Toward  four  o'clock  Lord  E.  came  down 
to  dinner.  Everything  was  supposed  to  be  still  now  at  this  time. 
S.  N.'  came  to  see  us ;  dinner  nearly  ready ;  I  asked  S.  N.  to 
stay  and  dine,  which  he  accepted.  Nothing  particular  occurred 
except  speaking  on  a  variety  of  subjects,  when  Mr.  N.,  as  if 
something  struck  him,  immediately  leaving  us  together.  There 
was  very  little  wine  taken ;  Lord  E.  was  very  abstemious ;  in  a 
short  time  I  went  out.  Now  the  tragedy  commenced.  I  wished 
to  leave  Lord  E.  to  himself.  I  was  absent,  I  suppose,  about  an 
hour ;  I  came  to  the  room  where  we  dined,  being  the  back  draw- 
ing-room. He  was  not  there.  I  went  to  the  sleeping-room. 
He  was  in  bed.  It  was  at  this  time  about  seven  o  clock.  I  asked 
him  to  come  down  to  tea.  I  was  not  in  the  room  three  minutes 
when  in  came  Major  Swan  and  a  person  following  him  with  a 
soldier's  jacket,  and  a  sword  in  his  hand ;  he  wore  a  round  cap. 
When  I  saw  Major  Swan,  I  was  thunderstruck.  I  put  myself 
before  him,  and  asked  his  business.    He  looked  over  me  and  saw 


•  Murphy.  '^  Moore.  *  Moore's. 

^  Of  the  City  of  Dublin  Militia.  '*  Samuel  Neilson. 


35^2  AN   ACCOUNT  OF  THE 

Lord  £.  in  the  bed.  He  pushed  by  me  qaickly,  and  Lord  £., 
seeing  him,  sprang  up  instantly,  and  drew  a  dagger  which  he 
carried  about  him,  and  wounded  Major  Swan  slightly,  I  believe. 
Major  Swan  had  a  pistol  which  he  fired  without  effect ;  he  imme- 
diately turned  to  me  and  gave  me  a  severe  thrust  of  the  pistol 
under  the  left  eye,  at  the  same  time  desiring  the  person  that 
came  in  with  him  to  take  me  into  custody.  I  was  immediately 
taken  away  to  the  yard ;  there  I  saw  Major  Sin*  and  about  six 
soldiers  of  the  Dumbarton  Fencibles.  Major  Swan  thought  proper 
to  run  as  fast  as  he  could  to  the  street,  and  I  think  he  never 
looked  behind  him  till  he  got  out  of  danger,  and  he  was  then 
parading  the  flags,  exhibiting  his  linen,  which  was  stained  with 
blood.  Mr.  Ryan  supplied  Major  Swan's  place,  and  came  in 
contact  with  Lord  E.,  and  was  wounded  seriously.  Major  Sirr 
at  that  time  came  upstairs,  and,  keeping  a  respectful  distance, 
fired  a  pistol  shot  at  Lord  £.  in  a  very  deliberate  manner,  and 
wounded  him  in  the  upper  part  of  the  shoulder.  Beinforcements 
coming  in,  Lord  £.  surrendered  after  a  veiyhard  struggle.  Lord 
Edward  was  imprisoned  in  Newgate. 


**  Two  surgeons^  attended  daily  on  Lord  E.  FitzGerald.  It 
was  supposed,  the  evening  of  the  day  before  he  died,  he  was 
delirious,  as  we  could  hear  him  with  a  very  strong  voice  cry  out. 
'  Come  on  !  come  on  !  damn  you  !  come  on  ! '  He  spoke  so  loud 
that  the  people  in  the  street  gathered  to  listen  to  him.  He 
died  the  next  day  early  in  the  morning,  on  the  8rd  of  June. 
The  surgeon  attended  and  opened  the  body.  Then  he  was  seen 
for  the  first  time  by  the  prisoners.  He  had  about  his  neck  a  gold 
chain  suspending  a  locket  with  hair  in  it.  Thus  died  one  of  the 
bravest  of  men,  from  a  conviction,  I  believe,  that  he  wished  to 
ameliorate  the  condition  of  his  country.  I  shall  endeavour  to 
describe  his  person.  I  believe  he  was  about  5  feet  7  inches  in 
height,  and  a  very  interesting  countenance  ;  beautiful  arched 
eyebrows,  fine  grey  eyes,  a  beautiful  nose  and  high  forehead, 
thick  dark-coloured  hair,  brown,  or  inclining  to  black.  I  think 
he  was  very  like  the  late  Lady  Louisa  Connolly  about  the  nose 
and  eyes.  Any  person  he  addressed  must  admire  his  manner,  it 
was  so  candid,  so  good-natured,  and  so  impregnated  with  good 
feeling ;  as  playful  and  humble  as  a  child,  as  mild  and  timid  as 


1  The  attendants  on  Lord  Edward  were  a  Mr.  Garnett,  a  Mr.  Kinsley, 
and  Surgeon  Leake. 


AkREST  OF   LORD   EDWARD   FITZGERALD.  353 

a  lady,  and  when  necessary  as  brave  as  a  lion.  He  was  altogether 
a  very  nice  and  elegant  formed  man.     Peace  to  his  manes,'* 

Note  by  Lord  Walter  FitzGerald. 

The  two  iuforiuers  implicated  in  the  betrayal  of  Lord  Edward  were 
Fi-ancis  Higgins  (proprietor  of  The  Freeman's  Journal,  at  that  time  a 
paper  in  the  interest  of  the  Government),  and  Francis  Magan,  m.a., 
Barrister-at-Law.  On  the  20th  of  June,  '98,  Francis  Higgins  was  paid 
the  Government  reward  of  £1,000  for  Lord  Edward's  capture.* 

Lord  Edward's  remains  were  placed  in  a  vault  under  the  East  End  of 
St.  Werburgh's  Church  in  Dublin ;  and,  owing  to  the  then  damp  state  of 
these  vaults,  it  became  necessary  to  renew  the  coffin  three  times,  viz. : — 
In  February,  1844,  by  the  orders  of  Lord  Edward's  daughter,  Lady 
Campbell  ;  again,  in  1874,  by  the  4th  Duke  of  Leinster ;  and  lastly,  in 
May,  1896,  by  the  Trustees  of  the  Leinster  Estates. 


*  Vide  FitzPatrick's  **  Secret  Service  under  Pitt.' 


lady  EdwHrtl  Fit^Gerald's  Higuaturc. 


(     354    ) 


JOHN    LYE,     OF    CLONAUGH,    CO.    KILDARE. 

By  rev.  E.  O'LEARY,  P.P.,  Balyna,  Moyvally,  Co.  Kildaro. 
Part  II.^ 

[From  t;he  death  of  John  Leigh  in  1612,  to  Anno  Domini  1691,  when  the 
property  was  forfeited  to  the  Crown.] 

JOHN  LEIGH,  the  Interpreter,  died  on  the  7th  May,  1612, 
haying  lived  an  eventful  life.  He  was  a  clever,  astute, 
unscrupulous  diplomatist,  and  he  was  successful.  If  he  never 
read  Horace,  he  certainly  followed  his  maxims  in  all  his 
schemes  of  aggrandizement :  ''  Becte  si  possis,  si  non,  quo- 
cunque  modo,  rem  " — words  which  have  been  translated  by  Pope 
as  follows : — 

**  Get  wealth  and  power,  if  possible,  with  grace. 
If  not,  by  any  means  get  wealth  and  place." 

In  his  will  the  Interpreter  directed  that  he  should  be  buried 
in  the  Lady  Chapel  of  the  Cathedral,  Eildare.  At  present  his 
tomb  stands  outside  the  restored  building  in  the  external  angle 
between  the  chancel  and  the  north  transept,  i.e.,  to  the  left  of 
the  chancel  as  you  look  towards  it  from  the  nave.  The  site  of 
the  tomb,  and  the  inscription  thereon,  present  some  knotty 
problems  for  our  consideration,  and  though  we  may  not  solve 
them  to  our  satisfaction,  they  are  too  interesting  to  pass  over 
unnoticed.  It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  late  restorations  at 
the  cathedral  do  not  include  the  Lady  Chapel,  neither  is 
it  recorded  that  any  foundations  of  such  a  chapel  were  found  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  tomb.  Probably,  therefore,  the  Lady 
Chapel  at  Kildare  occupied  the  place  which  it  usually  did  in  the 
old  cathedrals,  viz.,  behind  the  high  altar,  at  the  extremity  of 
the  chancel,  and  under  the  eastern  window.  If  so,  were  Leigh's 
remains  and  tomb  ever  placed  inside;  and  if  they  were,  why 
were  they  subsequently  removed?  These  are  questions  for 
which  we  have  no  satisfactory  answer,  and  the  inscription  on  the 
tomb  presents  another  problem.  The  epitaph  contains  no 
eulogy,  but  only  a  prayer  for  the  repose  of  the  souls  of  himself 
and  his  wife,  and  the  date  of  his  death.     This  date  runs  in 

'  For  first  Paper  see  vol.  ii,  jjage  133,  of  this  Journal. 


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JOHN    LYE,  OK  CLONAUGH,   CO.    KILDARE.  355 

a  line  up  the  centre  of  the  tomb  from  foot  to  head,  with  the 
name  Nicholas  Hely  before,  and  John  Ly  after,  the  date : 
"  Nicol.  Hell,  datum  die.  May  vii,  1612.  Johannis  Ly." 
Why  these  names  are  there  is  not  very  apparent,  unless  they 
were  the  persons  intrusted  to  place  the  correct  date  of  death  on 
the  tomb  after  the  event,  and  to  testify  to  the  same  by  their 
names.  John  Ly  was  his  son  and  heir,  Nicholas  Hely  was, 
perhaps,  a  clergyman.  All  the  rest  of  the  inscription  runs 
round  the  edge  of  the  tomb.  "  Orate  pro,"  &c. — "  Pray  for  the 
souls  of  John  Lye  of  Rathbride,  Esquire,  and  Amy  FitzGerald, 
his  wife.  We  commend  our  souls  into  the  hands  of  our  Lord  and 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ." 

But  now  comes  the  amusing  part  of  our  inquiry.  His  wife 
was  not  dead  at  all  at  this  time,  but  very  much  alive  indeed. 
It  is  stated  that  Lye  had  this  tomb  prepared  with  its  inscription 
before  his  death,  and  that  a  sum  of  money  was  left  yearly  from 
house  property  in  the  town  of  Eildare  to  keep  the  tomb  in 
repair.^  Why  did  he  put  his  living  wife's  name  on  the  tomb, 
and  ask  a  prayer  for  the  repose  of  her  soul  ?  This  is  the 
problem,  and  the  only  solution  I  can  offer  is,  that  the  wily  old 
diplomatist  did  it  with  the  view  of  preventing  her  marrying 
again.  And  if  so,  what  a  comedy  does  not  John  Leigh's  tomb 
hand  down  to  posterity.  She  must  have  persuaded  the  dying 
man  that  the  thought  of  the  second  marriage  would  be  an 
abomination ;  that  when  he  was  dead  she  would  be  dead  to  this 
world,  and  when  he  was  laid  in  the  tomb,  her  heart  would  be 
laid  there  beside  him. 

Imagination  pictures  her  whispering  to  her  dying  spouse 
such  sentiments  of  heartfelt  devotion  as  were  afterwards  clothed 
in  verse  by  the  poet  Moore — "  That  her  heart  in  his  grave  was 
lying,"  "  Nor  long  will  his  love  stay  behind  him."  We  can 
imagine  the  old  man  thanking  her  for  her  love,  and  then 
making  the  artful  suggestion  that  if  her  heart  was  to  lie  in  his 
tomb,  it  would  be  no  harm  to  put  her  name  on  the  stone  above 
it.  He  evidently  believed  that  the  way  to  pin  her  to  her  word 
was  to  put  her  name  on  the  grave-stone  along  with  his  own, 
and  that  common  decency  would  keep  her  from  a  second 
marriage,  when  a  tomb  had  been  already  erected  to  her  memory, 
with  a  prayer  for  the  repose  of  her  soul. 

But  '*  the  best-laid  schemes  o'  mice  and  men  gang  aft 
a-gley;"  and  so,  for  once,  John  Leigh's  calculations  went  utterly 
wrong,  for — "  tell  it  not  in  Gath  " — she  married  again,  sure 


'  Mr.  Brophy'8  Paper  on  the  Interpreter. 


356  JOHN   LYE,  OF  CLONAUGlI,  CO.  KILDARE. 

euough,  though  she  was  the  mother  of  iiiue  children,  iucluding 
six  unmarried  daughters,  most  of  them  in  their  teens.  Her 
second  husband  was  Philip  Pilsworth,  Gent.,  of  Bert,  Co. 
Eildare,  eldest  son  of  William,  Bishop  of  Kildare. 

The  comedy  is  complete  when  we  imagine  the  bridegroom 
bringing  his  ancient  bride  to  the  Cathedral  of  Eildare  after  their 
marriage,  to  pay  a  visit  to  that  tomb  which  was  erected  to  her 
and  the  Interpreter's  memory.  John  Leigh  made  her  one  of 
the  executors  of  his  will ;  he  gave  her  an  ample  annuity ;  he 
gave  her  a  remainder  in  his  property ;  and  for  a  home  he  gave 
her  a  choice  of  any  of  the  residences  on  his  different  estates ; 
and  she  repaid  him  for  all  his  trust  and  all  his  love  by  unlaw- 
fully making  away  with  some  of  the  family  property  the  very 
year  he  died,  and  by  inveigling  his  son  and  heir,  who  was  still 
a  minor,  to  be  an  accomplice  with  her  in  this  malfeasance. 
How  soon  she  went  to  work  to  make  a  pile  for  the  second 
marriage.  We  may  draw  our  own  conclusions  whether  it  was 
for  love  or  money  that  Philip  Pilsworth  married  the  widow. 
I  think  it  likely  that  she  changed  her  religion  as  readily  as  she 
changed  her  name,  and,  therefore,  very  unlikely  that  her 
remains  were  ever  brought  back  from  Bert  to  rest  with  her  first 
husband  in  Eildare. 

As  has  been  said,  the  Interpreter  died  May  7th,  1612,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  John  Leigh.  He  was  a  minor  at  his 
father's  death,  and  we  have  seen  how  his  mother  used  him  as  au 
accomplice  to  lay  violent  hands  on  the  family  property,  antece- 
dent to  her  second  marriage.  For  this  alienation  they  were 
both  called  to  account,  but  received  pardon  the  year  following — 
viz.,  December  14th,  1618.  His  wife's  name  was  Dowdall,  and 
the  issue  of  the  marriage  were  two  sons  and  one  daughter — 
Francis,  the  heir;  Bobert,  who  gained  property  afterwards  in 
Co.  Wexford,  as  shall  be  referred  to  further  on;  and  Mabel, 
who  married  James  Barnwall  in  1675, 

Like  their  grandfather,  the  Intei*preter,  these  young  men 
lived  in  troubled  times,  and  took  part  in  the  stormy  politics  of 
the  day.  The  career  of  one  brought  him  wealth  and  position  ; 
the  career  of  the  other  ended  in  ruin.  The  unlucky  man  was 
Francis,  the  elder,  who  espoused  the  cause  of  James  II;  the 
lucky  fellow  was  Robert,  the  younger,  who  followed  the  fortunes 
of  Charles  U.  And  we  will  direct  our  attention  to  the  younger 
first,  as  the  events  of  his  career  come  first  in  the  order  of  time. 
Both  he  and  his  father  were  ardent  supporters  of  Charles  I  and 
Charles  II,  and  they  had  to  fly  to  the  Continent  during  the 
protectorate  of  Cromwell,  like  so  many  other  followers  of  Charles. 
Mr.  Hoare,  to  whom  1  have  made  reference  in  my  former  Paper, 


JOHN   LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH,  CO.   KILDARE.  357 

quotes  n  document  written  by  this  young  man  after  he  hjid 
gone  to  live  in  the  Co.  Wexford,  which  gives  us  interesting 
information.  It  is  headed  ^' A  Chronographical  Account  of  the 
Southern  Part  of  the  Co.  Wexford,  written  anno  1684,  by  Robert 
Leigh  of  Rosegarknd,  Esq.,  in  that  Co."     It  runs  as  follows  : — 

**  Rose  Garlande,  together  withe  moste  parte  of  that  peece,  did 
anciently  belonge  to  David  Nevill,  commonly  called  Barron  of  Rose 
Garlande  (for  in  those  dayes,  ye  cheefe  loarde  of  this  place,  as  well  as 
others  of  the  same  kinde  in  Englande  and  Irelande,  were  summoned  to 
Parliamonte  by  ye  name  of  Barron).  Ye  said  Nevill  was  executed  in  ye 
reign  of  ye  Queen  Elizabeth e  for  treason,  and  those  landes  are  now  greate 
parte  of  the  inheritance  of  Robert  Leigh,  of  Rose  Garlande,  2nd  son  to 
John  Leigh,  of  Rathbride,  in  ye  Countye  of  Kildare,  Esq.,  who  for  his 
loyaltye  to  his  soveraigne,  Kinge  Charles  ye  2nd,  was  banished  into 
f oraigne  contries  by  the  usurped  powers,  and  there  died  leavinge  ye  saide 
Robert  (Being  the  only  child  he  had  abroad  with  him)  very  younge,  and  a 
participant  (as  well  as  many  more)  of  his  Prince's  calamities,  till  upon 
his  Majesty's  happy  Restoracon  he  returned  into  England,  and  in  some 
years  after  into  this  Kingdome  againe  with  markes  of  his  Majostye's 
favour  and  sence  of  his  services." 

From  this  we  see  that  John  Leigh  and  his  second  son  Robert 
were  banished  during  the  protectorate  of  Cromwell,  and  that 
John  died  in  exile  abroad.^  The  following  is  an  extract  to  the 
point  from  Burke's  "  Landed  Gentry  "  : — 

**  Robert,  2nd  son  of  John  Leigh,  who  was  abroad  with  Charles  II 
during  Cromwell's  time,  and  after  the  Restoration,  as  a  reward  for  his 
faithful  and  loyal  services,  got  a  grant  of  the  Manor  of  Rosgarland, 
Co.  Wexford,  by  general  letters  patent  dated  18th  May  1688,  &  Sept. 
9th  1669 ;  and  by  other  letters  patent,  the  Manor  of  Colpe,  alias  New- 
bawn,  Longraige,  Garry  Richard,  3,344  acres,  and  other  lands  in  the 
Counties  of  Wexford  and  Kildare." 

Mr.  Hoare  gives  a  quotation  from  the  above  patent  as 
follows : — 

*'The  King,  being  very  sensible  of  the  many  services  performed  to 
him  at  all  times  by  Robert  Leigh,  Esq.,  bothe  in  foreign  countries  in  the 
time  of  his  exile,  and  at  home  since  his  restoration,  in  recompense  whereof 
bestowed  on  him,"  &c. 

Thus  he  obtained  the  Co.  Wexford  property,  which  is  in  the 
hands  of  his  descendants  to  the  present  day. 

Immediately  he  had  settled  there  he  looked  about  him  for  a 
wife,  and  from  Burke's  ''Landed  Gentry"  we  learn  that  in 
October,  1673,  he  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Caesar  Col- 


'  The  orthography  of  the  above  "  Chronographical  "  is  evidence  that 
the  land  of  their  exile  was  France. 


358  JOHN   LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH,  CO.   KILDARE. 

clough,  second  Baronet,  of  Tintem  Abbey,  Co.  Wexford,  and 
sister  and  heir  of  Sir  Caesar  Colclough,  third  and  last  Baronet. 
There  was  no  issue  of  this  marriage,  and  by  his  will,  dated  4th 
of  May,  1694,  and  proved  the  11th  of  Jane,  1695,  he  bequeathed 
his  estates  to  his  nephew  Robert,  who  was  then  living  in 
Rathangan,  and  was  the  son  of  his  unfortunate  elder  brother, 
Francis  Leigh,  of  Bathbride. 

On  the  occasion  of  his  marriage  he  assumed  the  additional 
name  and  arms  of  Colclough,  and  he  died  on  the  27th  day  of 
May,  1695.  He  was  buried  at  St.  Brigid's  Cathedral,  Eildare, 
and  the  following  is  the  inscription  on  his  tomb  : — 

HERE  LYES  THE   BODY  OF  ROBERT  LEIGH  CX)LCLOVGH   ESQE  SECOND  HON 

OF  lOHN   LEIGH  OF  RATHBRIDE   IN  THE   COVNTY   OF   KILDARE   ESQE 

HE   WAH  MARIED  TO   MARGARETT   DAVGHTER  AND   HEIRES  OF 

SR   CAESAR  OOLCLOVGH   OF  TINTERN   BARONETT  IN  THE 

COUNTY  OF  WAXFORD   HE   DEPARTED  THIS  LIFE 

THE  27   DAY   OF  MAY,    1695. 

Thus  disappeared  from  this  mortal  scene  the  second  grand- 
son of  the  Interpreter,  and  we  now  return  to  his  elder  brother. 
As  has  been  said,  their  father,  John  Leigh,  son  and  heir  of  the 
Interpreter,  died  in  France  during  the  Protectorate  of  Cromwell. 
He  died  intestate ;  and  years  afterwards,  on  the  5th  May,  1680, 
administration  was  granted  to  his  eldest  son  Francis.  Francis 
had  been  living  all  along  at  Bathbride,  and  had  married  as  early 
as  1662.  His  wife  was  Judith,  daughter  of  Henry  Spenser,  and 
the  issue  of  the  marriage  were  four  sons  and  one  daughter. 
Bobert  died  unmarried  in  1724;  John,  of  Dublin,  died  in  1700; 
Arthur,  of  Friarstown,  died  unmarried  in  1706;  Francis  became 
heir  to  his  uncle  Bobert,  of  Co  Wexford,  as  has  been  said ; 
Judith  died  unmarried  in  1700.  During  Cromwell's  time  Francis 
Leigh  seems  to  have  escaped  embroiling  himself  in  the  troubles 
of  the  period,  and  even  to  have  held  an  important  office  under 
the  Crown,  being  appointed  Escheator-General  of  Leinster  by 
letters  patent,  dated  22nd  July,  1663.  He  was  also,  during 
some  of  these  years,  M.P.  for  Kildare.  Thus  his  life  sped  on 
till  the  Williamite  wars  broke  out,  when,  taking  up  the  cause  of 
James  II,  he  was  attainted  of  high  treason  in  1691,  and  all  his 
lands  were  forfeited  to  the  Crown.  By  an  inquisition,  held  at 
Naas  on  the  2nd  of  May,  1692,  it  was  found  that  Francis  Leigh 
was  attainted  of  high  treason  on  the  20th  of  April,  1691,  at 
which  time  he  was  in  possession  of  the  town  and  lands  of 
Bathbride— 744  acres  in  the  barony  of  Oflfaly,  of  Morristown- 
biller,  Little  Morristown,  and  Ballycrotan,  alias  Croatenstowne  ; 
265  acres  in  the  barony  of  Connell ;   of  Tacknaven,  313  acres  ; 


JOHN    LYE,  OF  CLONAUGH,  CO.    KILDARE.  359 

Ballybrack,  281  acres;  Kilcaskin,  140  acres;  Kilpatrick,  98 
acres ;  Eilmorebrannagh,  847  acres ;  the  Castle  of  Glonaugh, 
107  acres ;  besides  other  parcels,  all  of  which  were  forfeited  to 
the  Crown. 

Clonaugh  was  bought  from  the  tmstees  of  the  forfeited 
estates  by  Sir  Henry  Echlin,  Judge,  and  second  Baron  of  the 
Court  of  Exchequer.  Sir  Erasmus  Bun*owes  is  quoted  as 
saying  in  the  Ulster  Journal  of  Archaology  that  Francis  Leigh, 
first  burgess,  was  attainted,  and  the  estates  in  the  Co.  Eildare 
were  purchased  by  Colonel  Charles  Yiguoles,  a  distinguished 
refugee,  of  Portarlington.  However  this  may  be  as  to  other 
holdings  in  Eildare,  we  find  Clonaugh  in  possession  of  Judge 
Echlin  in  1721,  and  bequeathed  to  his  son  by  will,  bearing 
date  the  29th  of  January  of  that  year.  Clonaugh  remained  in 
possession  of  the  Echlins  till  modern  times,  and  I  purpose  to 
finish  its  history  in  a  future  Paper. 

A  family  of  Lees,  who  were  said  to  be  descendants  of  the 
Intei-preter,  lived  at  Thomastown,  half-way  between  Clonaugh 
and  Johnstown  Bridge.  I  have  heard  it  stated  that  it  was  a 
member  of  this  family  who  brought  from  Clonaugh  to  Johns- 
town Bridge  the  cross  and  sculptured  stones  to  which  reference 
has  been  made  in  my  former  Paper.  This  family  emigrated  to 
America  about  the  time  of  the  famine. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  say  that  if  any  member  of  the 
Kildare  Archseological  Society  should  be  gifted  with  a  taste  for 
writing  romance  in  either  prose  or  verse,  there  is  ample  ground- 
work for  the  same  in  the  history  of  the  troubled  times  we  are 
considering.  There  is  fierce  and  abundant  tragedy  pourtrayed 
in  the  ruin  of  so  many  of  the  old  and  respected  families  of 
L*eland ;  and  for  comedy  there  is  the  tombstone  of  the  Inter- 
preter, with  his  patent  invention  for  consigning  his  afflicted 
widow  to  a  life  of  celibacy — an  invention  which  turned  out  to 
be  a  wretched  and  laughable  failure. 


(     36>     ) 


V 


CASTLETOWN  AND  ITS  OWNERS. 
By  lord  WALTER  FITZGERALD. 


AS  most  of  our  readers  knov,  the  demesne  of  Castletown  lies 
at  the  northern  end  of  the  town  of  Gelbridge  ;  in  former 
times  it  was  known  as  ''  Castleton  of  Eildrought." 

Ages  ago,  by  whom  is  unknown,  a  castle  was  built,  probably 
near  where  the  present  house  stands  ;  in  time,  the  houses  of  the 
retainers  and  tenants  accumulated  near  it  for  the  sake  of  the 
protection  it  afforded  in  those  wild  times ;  hence  the  "  castle 
town  "  arose,  and  was  so  called  in  distinction  to  the  unprotected 
*'  street  towns,"  or  stradballies,  as  they  were  called  in  Irish.  In 
order  to  further  distinguish  it  from  other  "  castle  towns,"  the 
name  of  the  religious  establishment  near  it  was  attached,  hence 
''  Castletown  of  Kildrought ; "  in  the  same  way  as  at  the  present 
time  there  are  a  Castletown  Geoghegan,  Castletown  Moylagh, 
Castletown  Arra,  and  many  others.^ 

When  the  necessity  for  the  thick- walled,  fortified  "  piles  "  or 
castles  no  longer  existed,  a  more  spacious,  healthier,  and  better 
lighted  mansion  took  the  place  of  the  damp,  dark,  and  uncom- 
fortable dwellings  of  former  centuries ;  and  thus,  about  173  years 
ago,  Castletown  House  was  built  by  the  Right  Hon.  William 
ConoUy,  p.c,  and  Speaker  of  the  Irish  House  of  Commons, 
which  retained  in  name  alone  its  connection  with  the  past. 

The  earliest  mention  of  this  place,  so  far  as  I  have  been  able 
to  discover,  occurs  in  a  work  published  in  1828,  entitled  **  Botu- 
lorum  Patentium  et  Clausorum  Cancellariae  Hiberniae  Calen- 
darium,''  by  which  it  appears  that  the  Earls  of  Kildare  were 
in  possession  here  in  the  fourteenth  century.  The  following 
extract  is  a  translation  from  the  contracted  Latin  : — 

**  The  Sftnie   Marquis  [i.e  ,  Robert   de  Vere,   Earl  of    Bedford  and 
Marquis  of  Dublin],  at  the  request  of  Maurice  fitzThouias  [FitssGerald, 


'  There  are  fifty  to  wnlands  in  Ireland  chilled  solely  "Castletown," 


362  CASTLETOWN    AND   ITS  OWNERS. 

4th  Earl  of  KildareJ,  and  for  service,  allows  Richard  Arbloster,  vicar  of 
Laraghbrune,  and  John  Ront,  parson  of  the  church  of  Cromith,  that  they 
may  enfeeoff  the  said  Maurice  and  his  heirs,  of  the  manors  of  Kyl- 
droght,  Lieucan^  and  Kylmacridoc,  which  they  held  of  the  said  Marquis 
in  capite,"  &c. 

Dated,  Dunboyne,  6th  May,  1386. 

From  this  period,  to  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century,  very 
little  mention  is  made  of  Castletown  in  the  State  Papers.  How- 
ever, it  still  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  Earls  of  Eildare^ 
until  it  was  forfeited  to  the  Grown  hy  the  rebellion  of  the  Silken 
Thomas  (the  10th  Earl  of  Eildare),  along  with  his  other  estates, 
in  1585. 

By  an  (unpublished  Exchequer)  Inquisition,^  taken  at  Naas 
in  the  year  1585,  we  are  informed  that  a  Sir  John  FitzOerald, 
formerly  of  Castletown  of  Eildrought,  died  seised  in  fee  of  the 
Manor  of  Kildrought,  which  on  his  death  descended  to  his  son 
and  heir  Gerald,  lately  dead ;  and  that  then  Gerald's  brother 
and  heir,  Edward,  inherited  it ;  but  now  the  manor  had  reverted 
to  the  Crown  on  account  of  Edward's  joining  in  the  rebellion  of 
the  Silken  Thomas,  for  which  he  was  outlawed. 

In  a  letter'  dated  the  12th  of  March,  1585,  this  same  Edward 
is  thus  mentioned  among  other  items  of  news  :  — 

**  Edward  FitzGerald,  son  and  heire  to  Sir  John  FitzGerald,  and 
brother  by  the  mother  to  that  arrant  traitor  John  Bumell  of  Ballygriffen 

I  in  the  Co.  Dublin],  is  in  prison,  indicted  for  high  treason."    [For  which 
le  was  put  to  death.] 


*  Vide  Exchequer  Inquisition  of  the  Co.  Kildare,  No.  3,  of  Henry 
VIII,  in  the  Record  Office. 

This  Sir  John  FitzGerald,  Knt.,  died  about  the  commencement  of  the 
sixteenth  century ;  he  is  styled  of  the  Geraldines  of  Cloncurry,  County 
Kildare  (in  Morrin's  Calendar  of  Rolls),  and  was  married  to  Joan, 
daughter  of  John  Talbot  of  Dardestown,  in  the  County  Meath.  She 
afterwards  married  Robert  Bumell  of  Balgriffin,  Co.  Dublin,  whose  son 
(by  her)  John  was  implicated  in  the  Silken  Thomas  Rebellion. 

This  Sir  John  must  not  be  confused  with  another  Sir  John  Fitz- 
Gerald, also  living  about  the  same  time  ;  the  latter  was  unmarried,  was  a 
Knight  of  St.  John,  an  uncle  of  the  Silken  Thomas,  and  was  hanged  at 
Tyburn  on  the  3rd  of  February,  1537. 

Lodge  makes  out  the  former  Sir  John  to  have  been  an  illegitimate 
son  of  Thomas,  the  7th  Earl  of  Kildare,  by  Dorothy  O'More,  and  to 
have  been  the  ancestor  of  several  of  the  County  Kildare  families  of  Fitz- 
Gerald outlawed  in  1641. 

*  Vide  p.  228,  vol.  iii,  of  the  **  State  Papers  of  Henry  VIII," 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS.  363 

About  this  period  there  was  residing  at  Castletown  a  William 
Alen,  brother  to  Sir  John  Alen,  Chancellor  of  Ireland,  who 
had  acquired  the  recently  dissolved  Abbey  of  St.  Wolstans, 
which  lay  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  LifFey,  and  which  he 
re-named  ''  Alen's  Court ;  "  another  of  his  brothers  was  Thomas 
Alen,  Clerk  of  the  Hanaper,  of  Eilheale  (or  Kilteel,  as  it  is  now 
called)  in  this  county,  who  by  his  wife,  Mary  Rawson,  was 
ancestor  of  the  Alens  of  Bishop's  Court.  These  brothers  were 
the  first  of  their  name  in  Ireland^  and  were  descended  from  the 
Alens^  of  Coteshall,  in  Norfolk.  There  is  on  record  a  letter 
from  five  of  the  Alen  family  (all  of  whom  were  bitter  enemies  of 
the  Geraldines),  which  was  addressed  to  their  ''  right  worshipful 
brother,  Mr.  Thomas  Alen,  Warden  of  the  College  of  Youghyll" 
(afterwards  of  Kilteel),  which  was  *^  written  in  all  haste  at 
Youghyll  in  Irland,  the  17th  of  May,  1534,  by  your  brethren  " 
(and  signed  by),  Bichard  Alen,  John  Alen  (Master  of  the  Rolls), 
Robert  Alen,  Jasper  Alen,  and  Mellsher  Alen. 

John  Alen,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  who  was  murdered  on  the 
28th  July,  153 i,  by  two  yeomen  of  Dublin — John  Teeling  and 
Nicholas  Wafer — who  were  followers  of  the  Silken  Thomas,  was 
a  cousin  of  the  above-named  brothers,  and  a  brother  of  Thomas 
Alen,  of  Rayleigh,  in  Essex.' 

William  Alen  of  ''  Castleton  of  Kildroght"  married  Margaret 
•  .  .  and  from  him  were  descended  the  Alens  of  Palmers- 
town,  in  the  Co.  Dublin.  The  date  of  his  death  is  uncertain, 
but  it  was  probably  in  1559.  His  will  is  preserved  in  the 
Record  Office  in  Dublin  ;  it  is  here  given  line  for  line  and  word 
for  word  (except  that  the  contractions  are  lengthened)  as  a 
specimen  of  the  class  of  wills  in  vogue  in  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth  century : — 

In  the  Name  of  the  father,  the  son,  and  the  holy  goste,  I  Wyll" 
Alen  of  Caatelton  of  Kyldroght  in  the  countie  of  Kyldare,  hoole  of 
mynde  and  in  perfecte  memory  the  xvi  day  of  October  in  the  yere 
of  christes  incamacyon  after  our  computacyon  a  thousande  fyve  hun- 
dreth  fiftie  and  eight,  doo  make  my  wylle  and  testament  as  foloweth — 
ffyrst.     I  commende  my  sowle  to  almighty  god  the  creator  of  me,  and 


'  These  Alens  had  no  connection  with  the  Aliens,  created  Viscount 
Allen  in  1717  ;  the  latter  were  a  Dublin  family,  and  lived  in  a  mansion 
built  by  them  at  Mullinahack,  called  Allen's  Court,  too.  The  fourth 
Viscount  lived  at  Punchestown,  Co.  Kildarc. 

*  Vide  ''Kilkenny  Archujological  Journal,"  vol.  v  (1858). 


364  CASTLETOWN    AND  ITS  OWNERS. 

my  body  to  be  buryede  in  the  churche  of  Donaghcompor  where 
it  shall  plese  my  broder  S'  John  Alen,  and  to  the  reparacyon  of 
the  sayd  churche  I  give  ten  shillings  stirlinge  after  Irland  rate, 
and  to  my  paryshe  churche  of  Kyldroght  other  ten  shillings. 
And  I  ordeyne  and  constitute  of  this  my  laste  wyll  and  testament  my 
broder  S'  John  Alen  Knyght,  late  lord  chancellor  of  Irland, 
and  my  broder  Thomas  Alen  clerke  of  thannaper  my  ex- 
ecutors, and  wyll  that  after  my  decesse  my  goodes  and  cattails 
be  by  them  dy vyd  into  three  parts  wherof  won  parte  I  wyll 
that  Margret  my  wyffe  shall  have  as  due  to  her  for  her 
portyon.    Annother  parte  to  my  chyldeme  John  Alen,  Thomas 
Alen,  Mathewe  Alen,  Symone  Alen,  and  Crystofer  Alen,  and 
my  doghters  Kateryne  and  Anne  Alen,  And  the  thyrd  parte 
after  my  buryall  aud  funeral)  doon,  debtes,  and  legacyes  payed,  to 
be  dyvyd  by  my  sayde  bretherne  in  two  partes  wherof 
won  parte  I  do  give  to  my  sayd  wyffe  and  thother  parte  to 
my  sayd  chyldeme  to  be  equally  distribute  amongst  them 
by  my  sayd  executors.     And  I  wyll  if  any  of  my  sayd 
chyldeme  decesse  befor  manage  that  his  or  her  por- 
cyon.  and  legacy  of  my  goods  not  spent  before  uiK>n 
hym  or  her  so  dyenge  or-as  moche  as  shall  remayne 
then  unspent,  be  by  my  sayd  executors,  or  the  longest 
lyvd  of  them,  or  the  executors  or  assigns  of  the    .     .     . 
lyvd  of  them,  equally  distributed  amongs  the     .     .     . 
And  lyko  order  I  wyll  to  be    .     .     . 
so  shall  dye  before  mariage     .     .     . 
thage  of  xviii  or  the  wom   .     .     . 

[Page  2.] 

I  wylle  that  my  sayd  wyfe  as  longe  as  she  kepe  hersylf 
soole  and  unmaryed  upon  securytye  at  my  executors  dyscratyon  sh- 
all have  as  well  the  custodye  of  my  sayd  chyldeme  as  thoccupy- 
nge  of  theyr  portyone  of  my  goodes  and  ciittalls.     And  if  she  kei>e  nott 
herself  soole,  or  as  sone  as  she  mary  I  wyll  my  sayd  bredeme 
my  executors  and  the  longer  lyvd  of  them  or  ther  tissignes  shall  ha- 
ve the  kepyng  both  of  my  sayd  chyldem  and  ther  portyons  of  my 
goodes  and  cattails.     I  gyve  my  wyfe  all  my  napery,'  pewter,'  and 
candelstickes.     I  bequeth  and  gyve  to  M'.  Meyler  Hosey,*  steward 
to  my  lord  of  Kyldare  my  beste  gowne.     To  my  broder  Tho- 
mas my  seconde  gowne.     The  reste  of  my  apjiarell  I  gyve  to  iny 
Sonne  John.     I  bequeth  to  my  broder  Thomas  chyldern  x   .    .    .    lams 
to  be  dyvyd  amonges  them  at  ther  fathers  dyscretyone.     I  bequeth 


*I.e.,  liousehold  linen.  *I.e.,  pewter  plates,  dishes,  «S:c. 

^  The  following  entry  occurs  in  the  Annals  of  Lough  C^  : — 

**A.D.  1582.    The  Earl  of  Cill-dara's  Steward,  MeilerHus^,  died  in  the 
beginning  of  this  year."     (Meyler  Hussey  was  of  Mulhussy,  Co.  Meath.) 


i 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS.  365 

allso  to  my  broder  S»  John  Alen  Knyght  my    .     .     .     and  my 

payre  of  Andyemes*  with  a  chafynge  dysh*    .     .     .     and  to  my 

neeso  his  doghter  Anne  Alen  an  incalfe  cowe.     Item.     I  wyll  that  Anne 

Artor,  that  noryshyth^  my  sonn  crystofer  Alen     ...     an  incalfe 

cowe,  the  ecreese  of  the  same  to  be  reservyd  from  tyme  to  tyme 

as  she  calveth  to  my  sayd  sonn  crystofer.     Item.     I  bequeth  manys 

Smythe  of  Lucan,  that  norysheth  my  sonn  Symone  Alen  an  incalfe 

cowe  and  a  heyfer,  the  increase  of  them  reserved  to  my  sayd  sonn 

Symone  as  before  of  thother.     Item.     I  bequeth  to  davy  browne  that 

norysheth  my  sonn  mathewe  Alen  an  incalfe  cowe,  the  increase 

therof  lykewyse  reserved  to  my  sayd  sonn  mathewe.     Item.     I  gyve 

to  belle*  newell  a  sowe.    Also  I  gyve  the  vicare  of  Kyldroght  thre 

shyllyngs  that  he  owthe  me.     And  to  oldo  Joharolde  a  peake  of  wh- 

ete  that  he  owthe  me.    And  a  fryese  cote  f urder  I  bequeth 

to  my  base  sonn  Jacke  Alen.  Present  at  the  de- 

claratyon  of  this  my  laste  wyll  and  testament  S'  Symone 

han-y  vicar  of  Kyldroght,  Wyllyam  Omulmoy,  Geffry 

Walshe  and  others. 

.     .     .     the  inventorie  of  his  goodes  foloweth.    ffyrste.  in  redy  mo- 

.     .     .     ohn  Shelton  owth  iiii  li  styrlynge.     Item.  Olyver 

.     .     .     sheen  of  S*  Mary  Abbaye  vi  li  ii'  viii* 

.     .     .     of  Kylmacredoke  xlv'  x**  ob'  styrlynge 

[Page  3.] 

The  chiefe  rent  of  Kyldroght  the  same  terme  xvi*  styrlynge 
fFor  the  chiefe  rent  of  the  Moretcm  the  same  terme  viii' 
X*  styrlynge.     Master  Meyler  Hosey  oweth  xxx  fy ve  li 
styrlynge.     Upon  piers  Wesly  Ixvi*  viii*  styrlynge.     Rychard 
Cowlocke  of  Dublin  iiii  li  v*  styrlynge.     Item.     Wynter  of  Dublin 
caatell  oweth  for  x  peckes  of  dreye  malte  Ix'  sterlinge 
Wyllyam  ffyan  of  lexlyp  oweth  iiii  peckes  whete.     Thomas 
Relyke  late  myller  of  Kyldroght  mylle  in  arere  for  the  sayd 
my  lie  in  wheete  xxxvi  peckes,  he  allso  in  woote  malte^  and 
cruslagh'  xl  peckes.     The  corne  in  the  hagarde  by  estymacyon 
Ix  cople  whych  wyth  the  haye  pryced  at  clxxx  li  styrlynge. 
wynter  corne  in  grounde  by  estymacyon  Ixx  acres  valued 
at  xl  li  styrlynge.     flfowre  score  and  ix  kyne  bulles  oxen  heyf- 
ers  and  calves  pryced  won  with  annothcr  at  xvi'  styr.  Ixv  li  per  hasten  (?) 
xxiii  garrans*  with  an  hakney  pryced  at  IviZi  str.  tfoure  score 
and  V  swyne  valued  at  xx  li  str.  tfyften  score  and  x  shepe  valu- 
ed at  xxx  li  str.     Item,     an  broken  hacbut  of  crocke^  xiii'  iiii* 


'  I.e  ,  dogs  and  other  fire-irons.  *  I.e.,  a  warming-pan. 

'I.e.,  that  fosters.  *  Isabel. 

*I.e.,  obolus,  a  halfpenny.  *  I.e.,  oaten  malt. 

'Probably  the  Irish  name  for  grain  in  some  form  of  the  malting 
process. 

"  Cart-horses. 

^  A  hacbut  was  an  arquebus,  the  fire-arm  of  the  period  ;  what  "of 
crocko  '*  means  is  puzzling. 


366  CASTLETOWN    AND   ITS  OWNERS. 

Brasse  potts,  pannes,  barnesse  tryppets'  and  kytchen  stuffs  valued 
at  xxii  li  str.     A  Panne  in  gage*  for  xl*  str.     Axtyllery  and  in- 
struments to  the  plowe  and  husbandry  estemed  at  vii  li  vi*  str. 
Cartes  &  carte  whels  with  ther  necessaryes  worth  cvi'  styrlynge 
A  carpet  and  six  quishens^  worth  Ixvi'  viii*  cubbordes 
and  tables  worth  x  li  iii'  iiii*  ffowrmes  and  chayrs  xxiii' 
iiii*.     The  Beddys  and  beddynge  cvi'  viii*  styrlynge.     A  sylver 
cupe  and  fyve  small  sylver  spones  valued  at  iiii  li  str.  hys  apparell 
was  bequethed  to  his  sonne  and  frends.     hys  naperye,  pewter, 
candelstycks  bequethed  to  his  wyffe.     Deltes  owynge  by 
hym.     ffyrst  for  the  rent  of  the  manor  of  Kyldroght  & 
Castellton  for  the  laste  michelmas  terme  xviii  li  xv'  iiii* 
tfor  the  rent  of  Tyrells'  freholde  in  Kyldr.     .     .     . 

Twelve  shyles  viii*  ffor  the  rent 

-olde  the  same  fine  x'  iiii*  It* 

rent  of  S'  John  Alen's  hou 

xiii'  iiii*  styrlynge. 


[Page  4  is  a  continuation  of  the  above,  and  mostly  illegible  owing  to  stains 

on  the  paper.] 

The  above  will  appears  to  be  a  very  old  copy  of  the  orif^nal, 
as  the  signatures  are  not  on  it.  The  writing  is  good,  bat 
faint,  and  some  of  the  letters — such  as  the  **  s's,"  "h*s/'  *'r'8," 
"  c's,'*  &c.,  are  of  an  obsolete  form.  The  paper  is  of  a  bad 
quality,  written  on  both  sides,  much  stained,  and  has  the  right 
hand  bottom  corner  of  each  page  torn  off;  hence  the  dotted 
portion  in  the  copy  given  above.  My  thanks  are  due  to  Mr. 
M.  J.  M'Enery,  of  the  Record  Office,  for  his  assistance  to  me  in 
deciphering  the  writing. 

In  the  year  1554,  Queen  Mary  restored  to  Gerald,  the  11th 
Earl  of  Kildare,  his  titles  and  estates  which  had  been  forfeited 
twenty  years  previously  by  the  rebellion  of  his  half-brother  the 
Silken  Thomas.  Writing  from  Maynooth,  on  the  7th  of  May, 
1557,  to  the  Lord  Deputy,  the  11th  Earl  requested  a  confirma- 
tion by  Parliament  of  '*  an  Assurance,^'  which  he  had  passed  to 
his  servant  Gerald  Sutton,  and  his  assigns  for  ever,  of  the  Manor 
of  Castleton  Kildrought,   Braljsshan,  Ballecrotan,  Moristown- 


*  Barnesse  =  brandreth,  a  sort  of  gridiron.  Tryppets  =  tripods.  This 
instrument  was  therefore  probably  some  kitchen  utensil  consisting  of  an 
iron  grating  supported  on  iron  legs  over  the  tire. 

''I.e.,  in  |)awn. 

»I.e.,  cushions.  My  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  James  Mills  of  the 
Jlecord  Oflice  for  the  above  explanations. 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS.  367 

Bjllei%  and  certain  other  lands  also  iu  the  Co.  Eildare/  A 
little  farther  on  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Earl  was  not  justified 
in  what  he  did. 

In  1587  a  letter  was  written  by  Qaeen  Elizabeth  to  the 
Lord  Depnty,  directing  the  restoration  of  the  Manor  of  Eil- 
drought  to  Thomas  FitzGerald  of  Lackagh  ^  (son  of  Sir  Maurice 
FitzGerald,  Knt.,  deceased  in  1575),  who  claimed*' as  lawful 
heir  thereunto,  had  not  the  Earl  of  Kildare,  Gerald  FitzGerald, 
then  Deputy  of  Ireland,  who  died  iu  the  Tower  of  London  (on 
the  12th  December,  1534),  wrongfully  disseised  his  grand- 
father (i.e.,  Thomas  FitzGerald  of  Lackagh,  who  died  on  the 
14th  August,  15S8),  and  Lord  Thomas  FitzGerald,  son  of  the 
Earl,  having  been  attainted  of  treason,  their  possessions  came  to 
the  Crown,  and  so  remained  until  restitution  of  the  Earldom 
was  made  (in  1554)  to  the  father  (Gerald,  the  11th  Earl)  of  the 
present  Earl  (Henry,  the  12th  Earl),  who  sold  the  Manor  to 
Garrett  Sutton.  The  latter  dying  (in  1574)  left  it  to  David 
Sutton^  his  son,  which  David,  in  the  time  of  Lord  Grey  (Lord 
Deputy  of  Ireland),  was  attainted  of  treason  (having  in  1580 
joined  in  Ballinglass's  rebellion),  whereby  the  premises  again 
came  into  the  possession  of  Her  Majesty.  Dated  14th  August, 
1586."^ 

In  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  a  portion  of  the 
lauds  and  tenements  of  the  Manor  of  Kildrought  were  known 
as  "  Sir  Maurice  fitzThomas  his  ffarme,"^  after  that  member 
of  the  Lackagh  family. 

The  Sutton  family,  mentioned  in  the  above  extract,  was  one  of 
the  chief  families  in  the  county  at  this  time ;  one  branch  was 
seated  at  Richardstown,  and  the  other  at  Tipper ;  from  the  latter 
the  Castletown  Suttons  w*ere  sprung.  As  the  arms  of  these 
families  are  the  same,  they  had  a  common  ancestor ;  and  judging 
by  a  will  of  a  Tipper  Sutton,  in  which  the  property  is  left  in 
remainder  to  the  Suttons  of  "  Ballykeroke ''  in  the  County 
Wexford,  they  originally  belonged  to  the  latter  county. 

The  annexed  pedigree  shows  the  principal  members  of  the 
Suttons  of  Castletown,  and  their  relationship  with  those  of 
Tipper. 


1  »*Morriii'd  Calendar,"  p.  50(>,  vol.  i. 

'  Vide  pp.  245  to  264,  vol.  i,  of  The  Journal  for  an  account  of  this 
family. 

*  Vide  p.  154,  vol.  ii,  of  **Morrin'8  Calendar.'* 

*  lb.,  p.  627,  vol.  ii,  and  in  Sir  Walter  Dougan's  will,  dated  14th 
December,  1626. 


i 


\M)   ITS  OWNERS. 


369 


iirjt  fntitt:  01  n  f^  - : 
ii  i[k:  ir.  ail 

Ie  15^  ft  k:-'  r  - 
Lord  Depot;,  diisr:  1 
ironjfc  to  Iiia.^ :  •-„ 
Fitzfieniii.  L:  la^- 
beir  thcram^..  L 
UifiE  iJewnrcirt. 
the  12tL  iW.   . 
iiiber  u..  laa  : 
14thABgB::;v 
W.  lira:  If _ ;._ 

lilt  IrWL.  E        j^ 

uTig  iBMt  L :: 
present  L.  jn- 

Snttoi,  i:.  I..  n_ 
IleptR-  '.'is^ 

joittn.   r    ^ 

of  ur  :jJ" 


manor  of  Kildrought,  Kilmacre- 

I'-mill,  as  well  as  the  castle,  and 

nd   tenements,  as  well   temporal 

him,  his  heirs,  and  assigns  for 

I  ward  FitzGerald  and  Thomas 
,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1587, 
to  Thomas  Alen,  of  Alenscourt, 
Lyons,  and  Edward  Dongan,  of 
so  of  John  Dongan,  of  Dublin, 
0  his  sons,  Walter,  William,  and 

John  Dongan  made  his  will,  and 
ist,  1592,  his  son  and  heir  Walter 
years  and  nine  months. 

ownership  of  Castletown  to  the 

1  possession  was  John  Dongan,  of 
Foster.    By  her  be  had  four  sons, 

.  r ;  the  second,  William,  Recorder 

1.  of  Kiltaghan,  near  Bathangan  ; 

'  iritVenrath,  Co.  Kildare. 
>sseckstown,  succeeded  his  father 

lionet  on  the  •23rd  October,  1623, 
In  his  will  he  styles  himself  of 

tliorein    expresses   a   wish   to   be 
f  Kildrought.     By  his  wife  Jane, 
of  Kilbride,  in  the  Co.  Meath,  he 
111  the  eldest  son  was  Sir  John. 
'  owne,  married  Mary,  daughter  of 

\  plains  that  this  Edward  FitzGerald 

raid,  K",  of  Lackagh,  who  died  in 

manor  in  consideration  that  those 

rut  right  of  Thomas  FitzGerald,  his 

ity  Kildare  Chancery  Inquisition,  the 

"   cHstle,  one  courtyard  {aula\  a  mill 

iai;es  (or  farm  buildings),  230  acres, 

ill   Castletown  of    Kildroght ;  two 

'..t<nk;    00  mri'H  calk-d    Aybner'n 

H    tf  Kildarc'K  fsu'iii  ill    Kilvlmi^lit^  ?i 

(wliitiU  irt  Ji  townlnixil    iioL  iiMrt    in 

r*%rk  in  Cult  on   (Iriiutsnt),  jhuI  Lhi! 

'iLiinr  ut    Castictiivi'i!    of    Kiklrtii^ht 


368  CASTLETOWN    AND   ITS  OWNERS. 

For  the  next  few  years  the  history  of  Castletown  is  given  in 
an  Exchequer  Inquisition^^  taken  in  Naas  in  1594  :  it  is  to  the 
following  effect : — 

That  Queen  Elizabeth  was,  in  right  of  her  crown, 
seised  of  the  Manor  of  Kildrought,  alias  Castleton-Kil- 
drought,  Eilmacredock,  and  one  water-mill  in  Kildrought, 
all  in  the  County  Kildare. 

That  by  letters  patent,  dated  the  23rd  August,  1582, 
she  granted  to  Edward  Byrne,  of  Cloughran-Swords,  in 
the  County  Dublin,  the  aforesaid  town  of  Castle  ton, 
near  Kildrought,  to  hold  to  him  and  his  assigns  for  a 
term  of  thirty-one  years. 

That  by  other  letters  patent,  dated  the  5th  July, 
1583,  she  granted  the  said  town  of  Castleton  to  Sir 
Henry  Warren  and  his  assigns  for  a  term  of  forty  years, 
to  commence  at  the  end  of  Edward  Byrne's  lease.' 

(This  Sir  Henry  Warren,  Knt.,  was  the  son  of  Humfrey 
Warynge,  or  Warren ;  he  married  Alice,  daughter  of 
Adam  Loftus,  the  Lord  Chancellor.) 

That  by  other  letters  patent,  dated  16th  July,  1583, 
she  gi*anted  to  John  Cusack,  of  Elistown-Bead,  gent,  the 
water-mill,  water-course,  and  other  portions  within  the 
Manor  of  Kildrought,  for  a  terra  of  thirty  years. 

That  by  other  letters  patent  dated  25th  July,  1585, 
she  granted  to  Galfrey  Fenton  all  the  messuages,  lands, 
and  tenements  in  the  town  of  the  aforesaid  Kilmacre- 
dock,  for  a  term  of  twenty-one  years. 

That  afterwards,  by  letters  patent,  dated  at  Dublin  the 
28th  of  June,  1587,  the  Queen  gi-anted  to  Edward  Fitz- 


*  Co.  Kildare  Exchecjuer  Inquisition,  No.  35  of  Elizabeth. 

^  Fiant  No.  4181  of  Elizabeth  states  that  a  lease  in  1582  was  granted  to 
Henry  Warren,  of  Ballybritten,  gent.,  of  the  Castle  (the  precinct  con- 
taining three  acres,  and  including  a  hall  built  after  the  Irish  or  country 
manner,  covered  with  straw)  and  lands  of  Castleton  of  Kildroght,  Sir 
Moriah  fitz  Thomas's  farm,  parcel  of  the  Manor  of  Kildroght,  iM>s8es- 
sions  of  David  Sutt<m  attainted.  To  hold  for  forty  years,  at  a  rent  of 
£17  6s.  8d.,  maintaining  one  English  horseman.  In  consideration  of  him 
and  his  father  Humphry.  Henry  Wan^en's  lease  to  commence  on  the 
expiration  of  Eady  Burne'a  lease,  which  was  for  thirty  years,  and  com- 
menced in  1582  ;  that  he  should  not  alien  any  portion,  except  to  English- 
men, and  that  he  shall  not  charge  coyne  or  liveiy,  or  other  unlawful 
impositions. 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS.  369 

Gerald^  the  aforesaid  manor  of  Kildronght,  Kilmacre- 
dock,  and  the  said  water-mill,  as  well  as  the  castle,  and 
all  messaages,  lands,  and  tenements,  as  well  temporal 
as  spiritual,  to  hold  to  him,  his  heirs,  and  assigns  for 
ever. 

That  the  said  Edward  FitzGerald  and  Thomas 
FitzGerald  of  Lackagh,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1587, 
enfeeoffed  the  premisses  to  Thomas  Alen,  of  Alenscourt, 
gent.,  John  Davies,  of  Lyons,  and  Edward  Dongan,  of 
Paynestown,  for  the  nse  of  John  Dongan,  of  Dublin, 
gent.,  with  remainder  to  his  sons,  Walter,  William,  and 
Edward,  and  their  heirs. 

And  that  the  said  John  Dongan  made  his  will,  and 
died  on  the  8th  of  August,  1592,  his  son  and  heir  Walter 
being  then  aged  twelve  years  and  nine  months. 

We  have  now  traced  the  ownership  of  Castletown  to  the 
Dongan  family  in  the  year  1687." 

The  first  of  this  family  in  possession  was  John  Dongan,  of 
Dublin,  who  married  Margaret  Foster.  By  her  he  had  four  sons, 
of  whom  the  eldest  was  Walter ;  the  second,  William,  Recorder 
of  Dublin;  the  third,  Edward,  of  Eiltaghan,  near  Rathangan ; 
and  the  last  was  Thomas,  of  Griffenrath,  Co.  Kildare. 

Sir  Walter  Dongan,  of  Posseckstown,  succeeded  his  father 
in  1592  ;  he  was  created  a  baronet  on  the  23rd  October,  1628, 
and  died  in  January,  1627.  In  his  will  he  styles  himself  of 
Castletown-Kildrought,  and  therein  expresses  a  wish  to  be 
buried  in  his  parish  church  of  Kildrought.  By  his  wife  Jane, 
daughter  of  Robert  Rochefort,  of  Kilbride,  in  the  Co.  Meath,  he 
had  a  numerous  family,  of  whom  the  eldest  son  was  Sir  John. 

Sir  John  Dongan,  of  Castletowne,  married  Mary,  daughter  of 


'  Fiant  No.  5208  of  Elizabeth  explains  that  this  Edward  FitzGerald 
was  the  son  of  Sir  Maurice  FitzGerald,  K",  of  Lackagh,  who  died  in 
1575,  and  that  he  was  granted  the  manor  in  consideration  that  those 
premises  were  shown  to  be  the  ancient  right  of  Thomas  FitzGerald,  his 
eldest  brother. 

"  At  this  time,  according  to  a  County  Kilda]*e  Chancery  Inquisition,  the 
Manor  of  Castletown  consisted  of  one  castle,  one  courtyard  (atUa),  a  mill 
with  its  pond  and  mill-race,  ten  messuages  (or  farm  buildings),  230  acres, 
and  a  fish-weir  on  the  Annii-liftey  in  Castletown  of  Kildroght ;  two 
messuages  and  160  acres  in  Kilmacredock  ;  60  acres  called  Aylmer's 
farm,  and  200  acres  called  the  Earl  of  Kildare's  farm  in  Kildroght,  a 
I>arcell  of  land  in  Coole-McThomas  (which  is  a  townland  not  now  in 
existence,  as  it  is  included  in  the  mrk  in  Carton  demesne),  and  the 
Moortown,  all  of  which  form  the  Manor  of  Castletown  of  Kildroght 
aforesaid. 


370  CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS. 

Sir  William  Talbot,  Bart.,  of  Carton,^  which  he  had  on  lease 
from  the  14th  Earl  of  Eildare,  then  living  in  Maynooth  Castle. 
Sir  John's  will  was  proved  in  1663.  His  eldest  son,  Sir  Walter, 
was  one  of  the  Confederate  Catholics  of  Kilkenny,  but,  dying 
withoat  issue,  his  brother  Sir  William  became  the  4th  baronet. 
On  the  14th  of  February,  1661,  Sir  William  Dongan  was  created 
Viscount  Dongan  of  Clane,  and  on  the  2nd  January,  1685, 
Earl  of  Limerick.^  The  Dongans  were  Jacobites,  and  at  the 
Battle  of  the  Boyne,  in  1690,  the  Earl  of  Limerick  fought,  as 
well  as  his  only  son,  Walter,  who  was  killed  in  the  battle. 
After  the  treaty  of  Limerick,  signed  in  October,  1691,  the  Earl 
and  his  wife,  Euphemia  (a  French  lady),  left  Ireland  and  retired 
to  France,  thereby  forfeiting  his  great  estates.  His  death  took 
place  in  1698,  when  his  brother.  Colonel  Thomas  Dongan, 
succeeded  to  the  Earldom,  which  became  extinct  on  his  death, 
on  the  14th  of  December,  1715. 

The  successors  of  the  Dongan  family,  about  the  end  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  were  the  Couollys. 

The  first  of  the  name  in  the  place  was  the  Right  Honourable 
William  Conolly,  who  purchased  the  property,  and  built  the 


'  Gerald,  the  14th  Earl  of  Kildare,  about  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  granted  a  lease  of  Carton  to  Sir  William  T»llx)t,  son  of  Robert, 
thii-d  son  of  Sir  Thomas  Tall)ot  of  Malahide,  Bart.,  by  whom  a  house 
was  built  at  Carton,  which  is  the  nucleus  of  the  present  mansion.  The 
Funeral  Entry  (copied  from  vol.  vi,  p.  29)  given  below  deals  with  this 
Sir  William  :— 

**S'.  William  Talbott  of  Cartoune,  in  the  County  of  Kildare, 
Baronet,  deceased  the  xvi.  of  March,  W3S  ;  he  had  to  wife,  Alsoii, 
daughter  of  John  Netterviell  of  Casteltoune,  in  the  County  of 
Meath,  Escjuire,  by  whom  he  left  issue,  Sir  Robert  Talbott, 
Baronet,  and  hath  to  wife,  Grace,  daughter  of  y*  right  Ho**'  8' 
George  Calvert,  K*  Lord  Calvert,  Baron  of  Baltimore  ;  John 
Talbott,  Garret  Talbott,  who  had  to  wife,  Margaret,  daugliter  of 
Henry  Gaidon  of  Dublin,  Gent. ;  James  Talbott,  Thomas  Talbott, 
Peter  Talbott,  Gilbert  Talbott,  Richard  Talbott  (afterwards  created 
Duke  of  Tyrconnell)  ;  Mary,  maried  to  Sir  John  Dongan,  Baronet ; 
Briget,  maried  to  John  Gaidon  of  Irishtowne,  in  the  County  of 
Kildare,  Esquire  ;  Margaret,  married  to  Henry  Talbot  of  Templeoge, 
in  the  County  of  Dublin,  Esquire  ;  Frances,  Elizabeth,  Jane, 
Katherine,  and  Eleanor." 
He  was  buried  in  the  Church  of  Maynooth,  in  the  Parish  of  Laragh- 
brene,  the  1st  of  April,  1633. 

^  It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that,  at  the  time  the  Kildare  ArchaH)logica] 
Society  visited  Castletown  in  September,  1896,  they  passed  a  house 
between  **  the  new  Bridge "  and  Castletown  demesne  in  which  was 
residing  an  Earl  of  Limerick,  though  in  no  way  connected  with  the 
Dongans — former  Earls  of  Limerick. 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS   OWNERS.  37 1 

present  house  in  1725.^  He  was  Speaker  of  the  Irish  House  of 
Commons  from  the  year  1715  to  1729,  when  he  resigned  his 
post  through  illness,  and  died  on  the  29th  of  October  in  that 
year.  He  had  been  sworn  in  ten  times  as  Lord  Justice  of 
Ireland. 

His  wife  was  Catherine,  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  Albert 
Conyngham,  a  Williamite  general  of  Ordnance  in  Ireland, 
ancestor  of  the  present  Marquess  Conyngham  of  Slane  Castle, 
in  the  Co.  Meath.  At  his  funeral,  it  is  said,  the  custom  of 
wearing  white  linen  scarves  was  first  adopted,  in  order  to 
encourage  the  Irish  Linen  Manufacture.^ 

His  wife,  who  survived  him  for  twenty-three  years,  erected 
a  magnificent  monument  over  his  vault  in  the  old  churchyard  of 
Kildrought,  which  is  situated  at  the  southern  end  of  the  town 
of  Celbridge,  and  is  locally  known  as  *'  the  Tea-lane  church- 
yard." 

This  monument  is  of  great  size,  and  consists  of  a  handsome 
pediment  supported  on  four  pillars.  Under  it,  on  the  base,  recline 
two  life-size  figures  in  the  costume  of  the  period ;  they  represent 
William  Conolly  and  Catherine  Conyngham  ;  the  sculpturing  is 
almost  entirely  in  white  marble.  In  the  front  of  the  pediment 
is  a  coat  of  aims — the  Conolly  impaled  with  the  Conyngham, 
viz. : — 

Argent,  on  a  saltire  engrailed  sable,  five  escallops  of 
the  field ;  for  Conolly. 

Argent,  a  shake-fork,  between  three  mullets,  sable; 
for  Conyngham. 

On  the  slab  in  the  back  of  the  monument  is  a  long  inscrip- 
tion in  Latin,  of  which  the  following  is  a  translation^ : — 

•'  H.  S.  William  Connolly,  who  attained  as  a  reward  of  his  merits 
the  highest  honours,  was  for  about  twenty  years  a  Commissioner  of  the 
Revenue  iu  the  reigns  of  Queen  Anne  and  George  I,  and  was  a  Privy 
Councillor  in  the  reign  of  George  II.  He  was  twice  unanimously  elected 
Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons  iu  the  Parliament  of  this  Realm,  and 
ten  times  held  the  office  of  Lord  Justice  of  Ireland,  being  the  first  to  whom 
both  the  sovereign  and  the  people  entrusted  at  the  same  time  the  pro- 
tection of  their  privileges  with  the  happiest  result.  As  a  subject  he  was 
loyal ;  as  a  citizen,  patriotic. 

**In  perilous  times  he  not  once  or  twice  proved  that  he  served  his 


'  This  date  is  to  be  seen  on  the  leaden  heads  of  the  gutter  water 
pipes  on  the  S.-W.  side  of  the  house. 

*  "  Archdall's  Lodge's  Peerage,"  vol.  vii,  p.  184. 

*  Vide  **Col.  Vigors's  Report  on  the  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  Ire.," 
vol.  i,  p.  415. 


Thf  Upper  abd  Lowku  Poktioxs  of  thk  ('oxoi.r.v  Mo5rMF.Ni 
IN'  TUF.  Tka-lake  Chukchvakd,  Ckkbkiuge. 

From  a  Photoprr«i)h  ])y  W.  FitzG. 


CASTLETOWN   AND  ITS  OWNERS.  373 

country  without  forgetting  his  duty  to  his  king,  and  served  his  king 
without  forgetting  what  was  due  to  his  country.  Finn,  resohite,  just, 
wise,  formed  by  nature  for  the  life  of  a  statesman,  his  administraticm  of 
affairs  was  crowned  with  success  to  the  great  advantage  of  the  Common- 
wealth. He  made  a  modest  though  splendid  use  of  the  great  riches  he 
had  honestly  aci|uired,  distin^ished  as  he  was  alike  for  the  courtesy, 
integrity,  and  munificence  of  his  disposition.  Kind-hearted  towards  all 
men,  he  was  loyal  to  his  friends,  whom  he  bound  to  himself  in  great 
numbers,  and  retained  their  friendship  when  once  he  had  gained  it. 
Wishing  to  do  good  even  after  his  death,  he  gave  directions  by  his  will  that 
a  building  should  be  erected  on  the  adjacent  lands  for  the  maintenance 
and  education  of  the  children  of  the  poor,  and  he  endowetl  it  for  ever  with 
large  revenues. '  Having  lived  long  enough  to  satisfy  the  claims  of  nature 
and  his  fame,  he  died  on  the  29th  of  October,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1729,  in  the  sixty-seventh  year  of  his  age . 

'*  Catherine,  of  the  Conyngham  family,  has  erected  this  monument 
to  her  most  worthy  husband." 

Thomas  Carter  (as  is  recorded  on  the  marble)  was  the 
sculptor  of  this  fine  piece  of  work ;  at  the  present  time  this 
monument,  which  would  be  an  ornament  to  any  cathedral,  is 
hid  away  in  a  plain  windowless  building  close  to  the  ruins  of 
Kildrought  Church,  the  tower  portion  of  which  is  now  fitted  up 
as  a  vault,  belonging  to  the  Maunsell  family  of  Oakley  Park.  A 
small  portion  of  the  east  end  of  the  church  is  still  standing ;  it 
contains  the  east  window,  which  was  round-headed  and  of  three 
lights ;  a  small  portion  of  the  tracery  in  the  upper  portion  is 
still  in  situ. 

William  Couolly  having  no  children,  his  heir  was  his  nephew 
William  Conolly,  of  Stratton  Hall  in  Stafibrdshire,  who  married 
Lady  Anne  Wentworth,  daughter  of  Thomas,  3rd  Earl  of  Straf- 
ford ;  on  his  death  in  1754,  he  was  succeeded  at  Castletown 
by  his  son  the  Right  Honourable  Thomas  Conolly,  a  Privy 
Councillor  in  Ireland. 

Thomas  Conolly  was  Master  of  Foxhounds  in  the  County 
Kildare.  In  connection  with  Castletown  there  is  a  legend 
describing  how,  on  one  occasion,  after  a  hard  day's  hunting  over 
a  stiff  country.  Squire  Tom  Conolly  entertained  a  stranger  at 
dinner  who  had  won  his  admiration  by  the  way  he  had  ridden 


*  In  his  will  he  entrusts  his  wife,  his  nephew  William  Conolly,  the 
Right  Rev.  Arthur  (Price),  Lord  Bishop  of  Clonfert  and  Kimacduagh,  the 
Rt.  Honble.  Marmaduke  Coghil,  Thomas  Marlay,  Escj. ,  Attorney -General, 
and  the  Rev.  George  Marlay,  Vicar  of  Kildrought,  with  the  sum  of  £500 
sterling,  for  the  erection  of  a  building  in  or  near  the  town  of  Cel bridge, 
for  the  reception  of  forty  orphans  or  other  poor  children  ;  and  he  leaves  a 
yearly  sum  of  £250  (issuing  from  the  manor,  town,  and  lands  of  Rath- 
famham,  Co.  Dublin)  for  theii*  maintenance  and  education  in  the  Linen 
or  Hempen  Manufacture,  or  in  Husbandry. 


The  Right  Hon.  Thomas  Conolly, 
d.  27th  April,  1803. 

From  a  crBVon,  9  in.  by  7J,  by  Huirb  Hamilton,  in  the  Duke  of  liCiustcr'b 

l)()sses«iic)n  at  Carton, 


CASTLETOWN    AND   ITS   OWNERS.  375 

daring  the  run  ;  after  dinner,  when  the  punch  was  heing  circu- 
lated, Squire  Tom  had  occasion  to  stoop  down  to  pick  up  his 
table-napkin,  which  had  slipped  under  the  table;  he  then  per- 
ceived to  his  amazement  that  his  friend  the  stranger,  who  was  in 
a  chair  next  to  him,  had  one  of  his  shoes  ofif,  and  that  a  cloven 
hoof  was  visible ;  the  eviction  of  the  stranger  was  onlj  carried 
out  after  much  time  and  trouble,  when,  as  a  last  resource,  the 
FP.  of  Eildrought  was  sent  for  and  put  in  an  appearance, 
^is  tradition  is  introduced  into  a  series  of  ballads  by  **  a  broth 
of  a  boy"  (.  .  .  Russell),  called  "the  Kishogue  Papers;"^ 
the  one  in  question  is  called ''  The  Devil  and  Tom  Conolly," 
and  appeared  at  p.  677,  vol.  xxii,  for  the  year  1843,  of  The 
Dublin  University  Magazine. 

Thomas  ConoUy's  wife  was  Lady  Louisa  Lennox,  third 
daughter  of  Charles,  2nd  Duke  of  Richmond,  by  whom  he  had  no 
children.  By  a  curious  coincidence  Lady  Louisa  had  two  sisters 
married  to  men  living  close  by ;  the  elder.  Lady  Emilia  Maiy, 
was  living  at  Carton,  having  married  James,  Ist  Duke  of 
Leinster,  and  the  younger.  Lady  Sarah,  resided  at  Oakley  Park, 
at  the  opposite  end  of  the  town  of  Celbridge,  having  in  1781 
married  (her  second  husband)  Colonel  the  Hon.  George  Napier, 
eldest  son  by  his  second  wife  of  Francis,  5th  Baron  Napier,  of 
Merchistown,  near  Edinburgh. 

Thomas  Conolly  died  on  the  27th  of  April,  1808  ;  his  will  is 
dated  the  14th  of  June,  1802.  By  it  Castletov\'n  was  left  to  his 
wife  during  her  life ;  in  it,  too,  he  insists  that  his  heir  should 
assume  the  name  and  arms  of  Conolly  alone.  His  heir  was  his 
gi-andnephew,  Edward  Michael  Pakenham,  son  of  Admiral  the 
Hon.  Sir  Thomas  Pakenham,  who  had  married  Louisa  Staples, 
eldest  daughter  of  Thomas  Conolly's  sister,  Harriet,  wife  of  the 
Rt.  Hon.  John  Staples,  of  Lissan,  Co.  Tyrone,  a  Privy  Councillor. 

This  Edward  Michael  Conolly  was  the  grandfather  of  the 
present  owner  of  Castletown. 

One  very  sensible  and  sound  piece  of  advice  is  contained  in 
Thomas  ConoUy's  will : — **  I  hope  and  recommend,'*  he  writes, 
**  to  the  persons  who  will  be  entitled  to  my  estate,  that  they  will 
be  resident  in  Ireland,  and  will  always  prove  steady  friends  to 
Ireland,  as  their  ancestor,  Mr.  Speaker  Conolly,  the  original 
and  honest  maker  of  my  fortune,  was.*' 

A  few  years  ago  Castletown  could  boast  of  the  biggest 
cedar  in  Ireland,  and  the  largest  vino  (with  the  exception  of 


*  **  The  Kishogue  Papers  "  were  republished  in  book  form  in  1877,  by 
Gill^  of  Upper  Sackville  Street, 


376 


CASTLETOWN   AND   ITS  OWNERS. 


that  in  Hampton  Court)  in  the  United  Kingdom.  The  cedar 
was  blown  down  in  a  gale,  and  the  vine  was  maliciously  de- 
stroyed by  an  under-gardener  under  notice  of  dismissal. 

There  is  a  drive  leading  through  the  woods  from  Castletown 
to  Kilmacredock  which  is  still  called  ''Dongan's  Walk/'  after 
the  family  who  last  lived  there  over  two  hundred  years  ago. 

Kilmacredock  lies  outside  that  portion  of  Castletown  demesne 
known  as  "  the  Deer  Park  ;'*  it  long  ago  contained  a  burial-ground, 
but  all  traces  of  the  old  church  and  interments  have  entirely 
disappeared.  At  the  present  time  there  are  the  ruins  of  a 
modern  building  (much  resembling  a  small  dwelling-house) 
standing  on  the  site  of  the  old  church ;  below  it  is  an  arched, 
brick  vault,  used  by  the  Bellingham  family,  late  of  Bavensdale 
(near  Carton),  and  now  of  Howth  ;  no  monument  of  any  sort  is 
erected  here  to  their  memory.  Kilmacredock  gives  its  name  to 
the  parish. 


•'  The  Wonderful  Barn,"  built  by  the  Conolly  family  in  1743. 

From  the  windows  on  the  north-east  side  of  Castletown 
House,  at  the  end  of  an  opening  in  the  trecu^  is  seen  a  mile  off 
an  unsightly  building,  known  as  "the  Wonderful  Barn,*' which 
was  probably  at  one  time  the  Home  Farm,  as  it  was  built  by  the 
Conolly  family.  A  conical  tower,  similar  to  the  one  in  the  illus- 
tration, stands  at   each   comer  of  the  haggard-epclosure  wj^ll. 


castlf:to\vn  and  its  owners. 


377 


Over  the  doorway  of  the  largo  one  is  inserted  a  mural  tablet,  on 
which  is  incised  :— 

1743 

EXECUrD 

BY  :  lOHN  :  GLIN 

This  tower  is  seventy-three  feet  in  height,  and  ninety-four 
steps  winding  round  its  exterior  lead  to  the  battlemented  summit. 
The  townland  it  stands  on  is  now  called  ''  Barn  Hall,"  though 
formerly  it  and  Parsonstown  formed  a  part  of  the  Rinawade 
townland  which  extended  to  the  river  Liflfey.  According  to 
Joyce's  **  Irish  Names  of  Places,'*  Rinawade  means  "  the  point  of 
land  of  the  boat,"  proving  that  in  former  times  there  was  a  ferry 
here. 

In  another  vista  through  the  trees,  at  the  back  of  the  house, 
is  a  remarkable  building  known  as  *'  the  Obelisk,"  which  was 


'Thk  Obelisk,"  built  by  Mus.  CoNor.LY  ix  1740. 


378  CASTLETOWN    AND  ITS  OWNERS. 

built  in  the  year  1740  by  Mrs.  Conolly,  widow  of  William 
Conolly,  the  Speaker,  who  died  in  her  ninetieth  year  in  1752. 
*'  The  Obelisk  ''  stands  on  the  townland  of  Barrogestown,  and, 
as  the  crow  flies,  it  is  two  miles  from  Castletown  House.  It  is 
said  Mrs.  Conolly  built  it  to  give  employment  during  a  year  of 
great  scarcity.  In  the  month  of  March,  1740,  Mrs.  ConoUy's 
sister,  Mrs.  Jones,  wrote  to  another  sister,  a  Mrs.  Bound: — 
''  My  sister  is  building  an  obleix  to  answer  a  vistow  from  the 
bake  of  Casteltown  House ;  it  will  cost  her  three  or  four 
hundred  pounds  at  least,  but  I  believe  more.  I  really  wonder 
how  she  can  dow  so  much,  and  live  as  she  duse." 

The  height  of  the  obelisk,  to  the  top  of  the  central  spire,  is 
140  feet ;  the  date  1740  appears  on  the  keystones  of  the  lower 
arches  ;  a  flight  of  steps  enables  one  to  reach  the  level  above  the 
central  arch,  over  which,  and  from  other  parts,  all  the  cut-stone 
balustrading  has  disappeared.  If  for  no  other  purpose,  this 
unsightly  structure